The Perception of Naturalness Correlates with Low-Level Visual Features of Environmental Scenes
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{"title"=>"The perception of naturalness correlates with low-level visual Features of environmental scenes", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marc G.", "last_name"=>"Berman", "scopus_author_id"=>"14049741100"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael C.", "last_name"=>"Hout", "scopus_author_id"=>"56673964200"}, {"first_name"=>"Omid", "last_name"=>"Kardan", "scopus_author_id"=>"56458799100"}, {"first_name"=>"Mary Carol R.", "last_name"=>"Hunter", "scopus_author_id"=>"37005600000"}, {"first_name"=>"Grigori", "last_name"=>"Yourganov", "scopus_author_id"=>"9249256800"}, {"first_name"=>"John M.", "last_name"=>"Henderson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402926417"}, {"first_name"=>"Taylor", "last_name"=>"Hanayik", "scopus_author_id"=>"56066099600"}, {"first_name"=>"Hossein", "last_name"=>"Karimi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56049826000"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Jonides", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004414202"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84919626620", "sgr"=>"84919626620", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0114572", "pmid"=>"25531411", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"600996465"}, "id"=>"7ed53d6e-0cc7-3bbe-9611-757a479e2713", "abstract"=>"Previous research has shown that interacting with natural environments vs. more urban or built environments can have salubrious psychological effects, such as improvements in attention and memory. Even viewing pictures of nature vs. pictures of built environments can produce similar effects. A major question is: What is it about natural environments that produces these benefits? Problematically, there are many differing qualities between natural and urban environments, making it difficult to narrow down the dimensions of nature that may lead to these benefits. In this study, we set out to uncover visual features that related to individuals' perceptions of naturalness in images. We quantified naturalness in two ways: first, implicitly using a multidimensional scaling analysis and second, explicitly with direct naturalness ratings. Features that seemed most related to perceptions of naturalness were related to the density of contrast changes in the scene, the density of straight lines in the scene, the average color saturation in the scene and the average hue diversity in the scene. We then trained a machine-learning algorithm to predict whether a scene was perceived as being natural or not based on these low-level visual features and we could do so with 81% accuracy. As such we were able to reliably predict subjective perceptions of naturalness with objective low-level visual features. Our results can be used in future studies to determine if these features, which are related to naturalness, may also lead to the benefits attained from interacting with nature.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/perception-naturalness-correlates-lowlevel-visual-features-environmental-scenes", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Psychology"=>18, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>18}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Egypt"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1851860"], "description"=>"<p>Note. Adjusted R<sup>2</sup> = 0.40, F (8, 61) = 6.66.</p><p>*P<0.05, CI  =  Confidence interval for α = 0.05, SE = Standard error.</p><p>Regression of Dimension 1 on features from the First set experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Environmental Scenes", "contrast changes", "future studies", "color saturation", "hue diversity", "nature vs", "naturalness ratings", "perception", "Naturalness Correlates", "environments vs", "benefit"], "article_id"=>1276745, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marc G. Berman", "Michael C. Hout", "Omid Kardan", "MaryCarol R. Hunter", "Grigori Yourganov", "John M. Henderson", "Taylor Hanayik", "Hossein Karimi", "John Jonides"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_of_Dimension_1_on_features_from_the_First_set_experiment_/1276745", "title"=>"Regression of Dimension 1 on features from the First set experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-22 02:42:08"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1851817"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of two images in their Entropy a) Entropy = 7.63 b) Entropy = 7.10.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Environmental Scenes", "contrast changes", "future studies", "color saturation", "hue diversity", "nature vs", "naturalness ratings", "perception", "Naturalness Correlates", "environments vs", "benefit"], "article_id"=>1276710, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marc G. Berman", "Michael C. Hout", "Omid Kardan", "MaryCarol R. Hunter", "Grigori Yourganov", "John M. Henderson", "Taylor Hanayik", "Hossein Karimi", "John Jonides"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_two_images_in_their_Entropy_a_Entropy_8202_8202_7_63_b_Entropy_8202_8202_7_10_/1276710", "title"=>"Comparison of two images in their Entropy a) Entropy = 7.63 b) Entropy = 7.10.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-22 02:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1851781"], "description"=>"<p>Correlation of Perceived Naturalness with weights on Dimension 1 for the first set and second sets of images.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Environmental Scenes", "contrast changes", "future studies", "color saturation", "hue diversity", "nature vs", "naturalness ratings", "perception", "Naturalness Correlates", "environments vs", "benefit"], "article_id"=>1276679, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marc G. Berman", "Michael C. Hout", "Omid Kardan", "MaryCarol R. Hunter", "Grigori Yourganov", "John M. Henderson", "Taylor Hanayik", "Hossein Karimi", "John Jonides"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_of_Perceived_Naturalness_with_weights_on_Dimension_1_for_the_first_set_and_second_sets_of_images_/1276679", "title"=>"Correlation of Perceived Naturalness with weights on Dimension 1 for the first set and second sets of images.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-22 02:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1852080", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1852081"], "description"=>"<div><p>Previous research has shown that interacting with natural environments vs. more urban or built environments can have salubrious psychological effects, such as improvements in attention and memory. Even viewing pictures of nature vs. pictures of built environments can produce similar effects. A major question is: What is it about natural environments that produces these benefits? Problematically, there are many differing qualities between natural and urban environments, making it difficult to narrow down the dimensions of nature that may lead to these benefits. In this study, we set out to uncover visual features that related to individuals' perceptions of naturalness in images. We quantified naturalness in two ways: first, implicitly using a multidimensional scaling analysis and second, explicitly with direct naturalness ratings. Features that seemed most related to perceptions of naturalness were related to the density of contrast changes in the scene, the density of straight lines in the scene, the average color saturation in the scene and the average hue diversity in the scene. We then trained a machine-learning algorithm to predict whether a scene was perceived as being natural or not based on these low-level visual features and we could do so with 81% accuracy. As such we were able to reliably predict subjective perceptions of naturalness with objective low-level visual features. Our results can be used in future studies to determine if these features, which are related to naturalness, may also lead to the benefits attained from interacting with nature.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Environmental Scenes", "contrast changes", "future studies", "color saturation", "hue diversity", "nature vs", "naturalness ratings", "perception", "Naturalness Correlates", "environments vs", "benefit"], "article_id"=>1276930, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marc G. Berman", "Michael C. Hout", "Omid Kardan", "MaryCarol R. Hunter", "Grigori Yourganov", "John M. Henderson", "Taylor Hanayik", "Hossein Karimi", "John Jonides"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Perception_of_Naturalness_Correlates_with_Low_Level_Visual_Features_of_Environmental_Scenes_/1276930", "title"=>"The Perception of Naturalness Correlates with Low-Level Visual Features of Environmental Scenes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-22 02:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1851861"], "description"=>"<p>Adjusted R<sup>2</sup> = 0.34, F (8, 61) = 5.86.</p><p>Note. *P<0.05, CI  =  Confidence interval for α = 0.05, SE = Standard error.</p><p>Regression of dimension 1 on features from the Second set experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Environmental Scenes", "contrast changes", "future studies", "color saturation", "hue diversity", "nature vs", "naturalness ratings", "perception", "Naturalness Correlates", "environments vs", "benefit"], "article_id"=>1276746, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marc G. Berman", "Michael C. Hout", "Omid Kardan", "MaryCarol R. Hunter", "Grigori Yourganov", "John M. Henderson", "Taylor Hanayik", "Hossein Karimi", "John Jonides"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_of_dimension_1_on_features_from_the_Second_set_experiment_/1276746", "title"=>"Regression of dimension 1 on features from the Second set experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-22 02:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1851689"], "description"=>"<p>Stress values are plotted as a function of the dimensionality in which the MDS data were scaled.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Environmental Scenes", "contrast changes", "future studies", "color saturation", "hue diversity", "nature vs", "naturalness ratings", "perception", "Naturalness Correlates", "environments vs", "benefit"], "article_id"=>1276599, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marc G. Berman", "Michael C. Hout", "Omid Kardan", "MaryCarol R. Hunter", "Grigori Yourganov", "John M. Henderson", "Taylor Hanayik", "Hossein Karimi", "John Jonides"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scree_plots_for_the_First_set_left_and_the_Second_set_right_of_images_/1276599", "title"=>"Scree plots for the <i>First set</i> (left) and the <i>Second set</i> (right) of images.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-22 02:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1851722"], "description"=>"<p>The pictures are placed in the image based on their weights on dimension 1 and 2. A subset of the 70 images is plotted here because there are too many images to make this plot readable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Environmental Scenes", "contrast changes", "future studies", "color saturation", "hue diversity", "nature vs", "naturalness ratings", "perception", "Naturalness Correlates", "environments vs", "benefit"], "article_id"=>1276632, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marc G. Berman", "Michael C. Hout", "Omid Kardan", "MaryCarol R. Hunter", "Grigori Yourganov", "John M. Henderson", "Taylor Hanayik", "Hossein Karimi", "John Jonides"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plotted_results_of_MDS_dimensions_1_X_axis_and_2_Y_axis_for_the_first_set_with_pictures_superimposed_/1276632", "title"=>"Plotted results of MDS dimensions 1 (X-axis) and 2 (Y-axis) for the <i>first</i> set, with pictures superimposed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-22 02:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1851799"], "description"=>"<p>a) A sample image (b) Image's saturation map (c) Image's hue map (d) Image's brightness map.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Environmental Scenes", "contrast changes", "future studies", "color saturation", "hue diversity", "nature vs", "naturalness ratings", "perception", "Naturalness Correlates", "environments vs", "benefit"], "article_id"=>1276694, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marc G. Berman", "Michael C. Hout", "Omid Kardan", "MaryCarol R. Hunter", "Grigori Yourganov", "John M. Henderson", "Taylor Hanayik", "Hossein Karimi", "John Jonides"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>59, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Perception_of_Naturalness_Correlates_with_Low_Level_Visual_Features_of_Environmental_Scenes_Figure_5_/1276694", "title"=>"The Perception of Naturalness Correlates with Low-Level Visual Features of Environmental Scenes - Figure 5", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-22 02:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1851837"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Sample image, (b) the detected straight edges of the sample image(c) the edge density map of the sample image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Environmental Scenes", "contrast changes", "future studies", "color saturation", "hue diversity", "nature vs", "naturalness ratings", "perception", "Naturalness Correlates", "environments vs", "benefit"], "article_id"=>1276723, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marc G. Berman", "Michael C. Hout", "Omid Kardan", "MaryCarol R. Hunter", "Grigori Yourganov", "John M. Henderson", "Taylor Hanayik", "Hossein Karimi", "John Jonides"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Perception_of_Naturalness_Correlates_with_Low_Level_Visual_Features_of_Environmental_Scenes_Figure_8_/1276723", "title"=>"The Perception of Naturalness Correlates with Low-Level Visual Features of Environmental Scenes - Figure 8", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-22 02:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1851810"], "description"=>"<p>a) SDHue  = 0.11, SDSat = 0.22, SDbright = 0.21 b) SDHue = 0.19, SDSat = 0.26, SDbright = 0.26.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Environmental Scenes", "contrast changes", "future studies", "color saturation", "hue diversity", "nature vs", "naturalness ratings", "perception", "Naturalness Correlates", "environments vs", "benefit"], "article_id"=>1276703, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marc G. Berman", "Michael C. Hout", "Omid Kardan", "MaryCarol R. Hunter", "Grigori Yourganov", "John M. Henderson", "Taylor Hanayik", "Hossein Karimi", "John Jonides"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114572.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_two_images_in_their_color_diversity_properties_/1276703", "title"=>"Comparison of two images in their color diversity properties.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-22 02:42:08"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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