The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions
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{"title"=>"The hidden snake in the grass: Superior detection of snakes in challenging attentional conditions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sandra C.", "last_name"=>"Soares", "scopus_author_id"=>"24367147300"}, {"first_name"=>"Björn", "last_name"=>"Lindström", "scopus_author_id"=>"54891341800"}, {"first_name"=>"Francisco", "last_name"=>"Esteves", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004375639"}, {"first_name"=>"Arne", "last_name"=>"Öhman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006445486"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84916897104", "sgr"=>"84916897104", "pui"=>"600717194", "pmid"=>"25493937", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0114724"}, "id"=>"290d2c7e-24e2-357e-8e72-26ea6e859608", "abstract"=>"Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009), the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as \"evolutionary fear-relevant\". Across four experiments (N = 205) we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/hidden-snake-grass-superior-detection-snakes-challenging-attentional-conditions", "reader_count"=>63, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Psychology"=>28, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>28}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832614"], "description"=>"<p>Example of the circular stimuli display (set size 6) used in Exp. 1 and 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimuli", "Attentional Conditions Snakes", "Snake Detection Theory", "snake detection", "sdt"], "article_id"=>1266750, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra C. Soares", "Björn Lindström", "Francisco Esteves", "Arne Öhman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114724.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_the_circular_stimuli_display_set_size_6_used_in_Exp_1_and_3_/1266750", "title"=>"Example of the circular stimuli display (set size 6) used in Exp. 1 and 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832633"], "description"=>"<p>Note that stimuli are not drawn to scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimuli", "Attentional Conditions Snakes", "Snake Detection Theory", "snake detection", "sdt"], "article_id"=>1266764, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra C. Soares", "Björn Lindström", "Francisco Esteves", "Arne Öhman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114724.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_display_of_Experiment_4_depicting_a_high_perceptual_load_trial_with_a_snake_distractor_/1266764", "title"=>"Example display of Experiment 4, depicting a high perceptual load trial with a snake distractor.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832637"], "description"=>"<p>Longer RTs indicate larger interference scores.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimuli", "Attentional Conditions Snakes", "Snake Detection Theory", "snake detection", "sdt"], "article_id"=>1266769, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra C. Soares", "Björn Lindström", "Francisco Esteves", "Arne Öhman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114724.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_4_Mean_Reaction_Times_RTs_in_milliseconds_ms_to_discriminate_the_target_letter_X_or_N_in_the_different_type_of_distractor_conditions_snake_spider_mushroom_flower_and_no_distractor_as_a_function_of_the_perceptual_load_condition_low_high_and_the/1266769", "title"=>"Experiment 4: Mean Reaction Times (RTs) in milliseconds (ms) to discriminate the target letter (X or N) in the different type of distractor conditions (snake, spider, mushroom, flower, and no distractor), as a function of the perceptual load condition (low; high) and the sex of the participant (women; men).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832632"], "description"=>"<p>The upper panel refers to the homogeneous displays, whereas the lower panel illustrates the heterogeneous displays, both as a function of the set size (4; 6). Longer RTs indicate larger interference scores.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimuli", "Attentional Conditions Snakes", "Snake Detection Theory", "snake detection", "sdt"], "article_id"=>1266763, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra C. Soares", "Björn Lindström", "Francisco Esteves", "Arne Öhman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114724.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Reaction_Times_RTs_in_milliseconds_ms_to_locate_a_discrepant_target_bird_in_the_different_type_of_distractor_conditions_snake_spider_mushroom_and_no_distractor_in_Experiment_2_/1266763", "title"=>"Mean Reaction Times (RTs) in milliseconds (ms) to locate a discrepant target (bird) in the different type of distractor conditions (snake, spider, mushroom, and no distractor), in Experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832631"], "description"=>"<p>Upper left: Arrangement of the images in the display in the four foveal locations (A), twelve parafoveal locations (B), and twenty peripheral locations (C) (1.2°, 3.4°, and 5.7°, respectively) in Exp.2. Upper right: Example of a display with 3 items and a target picture (mushroom) in the periphery. Bottom left: Example of a display with 12 items and a target picture (snake) in the parafovea. Bottom right: Example of a display with 18 items and the target picture (spider) in the fovea.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimuli", "Attentional Conditions Snakes", "Snake Detection Theory", "snake detection", "sdt"], "article_id"=>1266762, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra C. Soares", "Björn Lindström", "Francisco Esteves", "Arne Öhman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114724.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_visual_display_in_Exp_2_was_presented_in_a_grid_with_the_pictures_arranged_on_an_imaginary_rectangle_that_was_divided_into_a_6_215_6_grid_i_e_36_cells_/1266762", "title"=>"The visual display in Exp. 2 was presented in a grid, with the pictures arranged on an imaginary rectangle that was divided into a 6×6 grid (i.e., 36 cells).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832620"], "description"=>"<p>Experiment 1: Mean accuracy proportions to locate a discrepant target stimulus that could be a Snake, a Spider, or a Mushroom, in displays exposed for 300 ms, 600 ms, and 1200 ms that included eight (a) or four items (b).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimuli", "Attentional Conditions Snakes", "Snake Detection Theory", "snake detection", "sdt"], "article_id"=>1266756, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra C. Soares", "Björn Lindström", "Francisco Esteves", "Arne Öhman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114724.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_1_Mean_accuracy_proportions_to_locate_a_discrepant_target_stimulus_that_could_be_a_Snake_a_Spider_or_a_Mushroom_in_displays_exposed_for_300_ms_600_ms_and_1200_ms_that_included_eight_a_or_four_items_b_/1266756", "title"=>"Experiment 1: Mean accuracy proportions to locate a discrepant target stimulus that could be a Snake, a Spider, or a Mushroom, in displays exposed for 300 ms, 600 ms, and 1200 ms that included eight (a) or four items (b).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832639"], "description"=>"<div><p>Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the <i>Snake Detection Theory</i> (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009), the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as “evolutionary fear-relevant”. Across four experiments (N = 205) we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimuli", "Attentional Conditions Snakes", "Snake Detection Theory", "snake detection", "sdt"], "article_id"=>1266770, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra C. Soares", "Björn Lindström", "Francisco Esteves", "Arne Öhman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114724", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Hidden_Snake_in_the_Grass_Superior_Detection_of_Snakes_in_Challenging_Attentional_Conditions_/1266770", "title"=>"The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:27"}

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{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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