Pharmaceutical availability across levels of care: evidence from facility surveys in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda
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{"title"=>"Pharmaceutical availability across levels of care: Evidence from facility surveys in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Samuel H.", "last_name"=>"Masters", "scopus_author_id"=>"55486872000"}, {"first_name"=>"Roy", "last_name"=>"Burstein", "scopus_author_id"=>"48660943500"}, {"first_name"=>"Brendan", "last_name"=>"Decenso", "scopus_author_id"=>"56578560400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kelsey", "last_name"=>"Moore", "scopus_author_id"=>"57093005100"}, {"first_name"=>"Annie", "last_name"=>"Haakenstad", "scopus_author_id"=>"56079498000"}, {"first_name"=>"Gloria", "last_name"=>"Ikilezi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55502500900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jane", "last_name"=>"Achan", "scopus_author_id"=>"23471656200"}, {"first_name"=>"Ivy", "last_name"=>"Osei", "scopus_author_id"=>"24399394200"}, {"first_name"=>"Bertha", "last_name"=>"Garshong", "scopus_author_id"=>"23767800400"}, {"first_name"=>"Caroline", "last_name"=>"Kisia", "scopus_author_id"=>"56578651500"}, {"first_name"=>"Pamela", "last_name"=>"Njuguna", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191607228"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph", "last_name"=>"Babigumira", "scopus_author_id"=>"8418182500"}, {"first_name"=>"Santosh", "last_name"=>"Kumar", "scopus_author_id"=>"55504323000"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Hanlon", "scopus_author_id"=>"55568520021"}, {"first_name"=>"Emmanuela", "last_name"=>"Gakidou", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507025547"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84956924634", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0114762", "pui"=>"608056314", "pmid"=>"25500832", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84956924634", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"49004265-8805-3a28-90e3-afa2b77b32f6", "abstract"=>"OBJECTIVE: In this study we use facility-level data from nationally representative surveys conducted in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda to understand pharmaceutical availability within the three countries.\\n\\nMETHODS: In 2012, we conducted a survey to capture information on pharmaceuticals and other facility indicators from over 200 facilities in each country. We analyze data on the availability of pharmaceuticals and quantify its association with various facility-level indicators. We analyze both availability of essential medicines, as defined by the various essential medicine lists (EMLs) of each respective country, and availability of all surveyed pharmaceuticals deemed important for treatment of various high-burden diseases, including those on the EMLs.\\n\\nRESULTS: We find that there is heterogeneity with respect to availability across the three countries with Ghana generally having better availability than Uganda and Kenya. To analyze the relationship between facility-level factors and pharmaceutical stock-out we use a binomial regression model. We find that the factors associated with stock-out vary by country, but across all countries both presence of a laboratory at the facility and presence of a vehicle at the facility are significantly associated with reduced stock-out.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight the poor availability of essential medicines across these three countries and suggest more needs to be done to strengthen the supply system so that stock remains uninterrupted.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/pharmaceutical-availability-across-levels-care-evidence-facility-surveys-ghana-kenya-uganda", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>17, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>7, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>17}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1839139"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes</i>: Coefficients are odds ratios. Robust standard errors are included in parentheses. Dependent variable ALL implies regression was run with all drugs included in the regression model. Dependent variable EML implies the regression was only run on public facilities and only on EML drugs. *,**, and *** denote significance at the 0.1,0.05, and 0.01 level respectively. Regressions also controlled for facility type and the month of survey but results are not shown.</p><p>Generalized linear model results of pharmaceutical stock-out in Uganda, Kenya and Ghana.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Uganda ObjectiveIn", "eml", "availability", "Pharmaceutical Availability", "facility indicators", "200 facilities", "supply system", "binomial regression model", "representative surveys", "pharmaceutical", "Facility Surveys", "medicine lists"], "article_id"=>1267638, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Samuel H. Masters", "Roy Burstein", "Brendan DeCenso", "Kelsey Moore", "Annie Haakenstad", "Gloria Ikilezi", "Jane Achan", "Ivy Osei", "Bertha Garshong", "Caroline Kisia", "Pamela Njuguna", "Joseph Babigumira", "Santosh Kumar", "Michael Hanlon", "Emmanuela Gakidou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114762.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generalized_linear_model_results_of_pharmaceutical_stock_out_in_Uganda_Kenya_and_Ghana_/1267638", "title"=>"Generalized linear model results of pharmaceutical stock-out in Uganda, Kenya and Ghana.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-11 02:42:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1839136"], "description"=>"<p>Facility level characteristics by country.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Uganda ObjectiveIn", "eml", "availability", "Pharmaceutical Availability", "facility indicators", "200 facilities", "supply system", "binomial regression model", "representative surveys", "pharmaceutical", "Facility Surveys", "medicine lists"], "article_id"=>1267635, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Samuel H. Masters", "Roy Burstein", "Brendan DeCenso", "Kelsey Moore", "Annie Haakenstad", "Gloria Ikilezi", "Jane Achan", "Ivy Osei", "Bertha Garshong", "Caroline Kisia", "Pamela Njuguna", "Joseph Babigumira", "Santosh Kumar", "Michael Hanlon", "Emmanuela Gakidou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114762.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Facility_level_characteristics_by_country_/1267635", "title"=>"Facility level characteristics by country.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-11 02:42:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1839137"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes</i>: Percent is rate of stock-out. Count is the number of facilities that said they typically carry the drug. AS+AQ</p><p>stands for Artesunate + Amodiaquine.</p><p>Stock-out of essential medicines to treat malaria, pneumonia and meningitis by country.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Uganda ObjectiveIn", "eml", "availability", "Pharmaceutical Availability", "facility indicators", "200 facilities", "supply system", "binomial regression model", "representative surveys", "pharmaceutical", "Facility Surveys", "medicine lists"], "article_id"=>1267636, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Samuel H. Masters", "Roy Burstein", "Brendan DeCenso", "Kelsey Moore", "Annie Haakenstad", "Gloria Ikilezi", "Jane Achan", "Ivy Osei", "Bertha Garshong", "Caroline Kisia", "Pamela Njuguna", "Joseph Babigumira", "Santosh Kumar", "Michael Hanlon", "Emmanuela Gakidou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114762.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stock_out_of_essential_medicines_to_treat_malaria_pneumonia_and_meningitis_by_country_/1267636", "title"=>"Stock-out of essential medicines to treat malaria, pneumonia and meningitis by country.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-11 02:42:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1839142"], "description"=>"<div><p>Objective</p><p>In this study we use facility-level data from nationally representative surveys conducted in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda to understand pharmaceutical availability within the three countries.</p><p>Methods</p><p>In 2012, we conducted a survey to capture information on pharmaceuticals and other facility indicators from over 200 facilities in each country. We analyze data on the availability of pharmaceuticals and quantify its association with various facility-level indicators. We analyze both availability of essential medicines, as defined by the various essential medicine lists (EMLs) of each respective country, and availability of all surveyed pharmaceuticals deemed important for treatment of various high-burden diseases, including those on the EMLs.</p><p>Results</p><p>We find that there is heterogeneity with respect to availability across the three countries with Ghana generally having better availability than Uganda and Kenya. To analyze the relationship between facility-level factors and pharmaceutical stock-out we use a binomial regression model. We find that the factors associated with stock-out vary by country, but across all countries both presence of a laboratory at the facility and presence of a vehicle at the facility are significantly associated with reduced stock-out.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>The results of this study highlight the poor availability of essential medicines across these three countries and suggest more needs to be done to strengthen the supply system so that stock remains uninterrupted.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Uganda ObjectiveIn", "eml", "availability", "Pharmaceutical Availability", "facility indicators", "200 facilities", "supply system", "binomial regression model", "representative surveys", "pharmaceutical", "Facility Surveys", "medicine lists"], "article_id"=>1267641, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Samuel H. Masters", "Roy Burstein", "Brendan DeCenso", "Kelsey Moore", "Annie Haakenstad", "Gloria Ikilezi", "Jane Achan", "Ivy Osei", "Bertha Garshong", "Caroline Kisia", "Pamela Njuguna", "Joseph Babigumira", "Santosh Kumar", "Michael Hanlon", "Emmanuela Gakidou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114762", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pharmaceutical_Availability_across_Levels_of_Care_Evidence_from_Facility_Surveys_in_Ghana_Kenya_and_Uganda_/1267641", "title"=>"Pharmaceutical Availability across Levels of Care: Evidence from Facility Surveys in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-11 02:42:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1839135"], "description"=>"<p>Pharmaceutical availability by country.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Uganda ObjectiveIn", "eml", "availability", "Pharmaceutical Availability", "facility indicators", "200 facilities", "supply system", "binomial regression model", "representative surveys", "pharmaceutical", "Facility Surveys", "medicine lists"], "article_id"=>1267634, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Samuel H. Masters", "Roy Burstein", "Brendan DeCenso", "Kelsey Moore", "Annie Haakenstad", "Gloria Ikilezi", "Jane Achan", "Ivy Osei", "Bertha Garshong", "Caroline Kisia", "Pamela Njuguna", "Joseph Babigumira", "Santosh Kumar", "Michael Hanlon", "Emmanuela Gakidou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114762.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pharmaceutical_availability_by_country_/1267634", "title"=>"Pharmaceutical availability by country.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-11 02:42:11"}

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{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
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