Quantitative Genetic Analyses of Male Color Pattern and Female Mate Choice in a Pair of Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi, East Africa
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{"title"=>"Quantitative genetic analyses of male color pattern and female mate choice in a pair of cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi, East Africa", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Baoqing", "last_name"=>"Ding", "scopus_author_id"=>"55193357500"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel W.", "last_name"=>"Daugherty", "scopus_author_id"=>"56443854600"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Husemann", "scopus_author_id"=>"23492321000"}, {"first_name"=>"Ming", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56442847200"}, {"first_name"=>"Aimee E.", "last_name"=>"Howe", "scopus_author_id"=>"8865795200"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick D.", "last_name"=>"Danley", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603487383"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"600717149", "sgr"=>"84916899094", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0114798", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84916899094", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"9dae034a-8592-3263-9d39-3d98da3b3fc8", "abstract"=>"The traits involved in sexual selection, such as male secondary sexual characteristics and female mate choice, often co-evolve which can promote population differentiation. However, the genetic architecture of these phenotypes can influence their evolvability and thereby affect the divergence of species. The extraordinary diversity of East African cichlid fishes is often attributed to strong sexual selection and thus this system provides an excellent model to test predictions regarding the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits that contribute to reproductive isolation. In particular, theory predicts that rapid speciation is facilitated when male sexual traits and female mating preferences are controlled by a limited number of linked genes. However, few studies have examined the genetic basis of male secondary sexual traits and female mating preferences in cichlids and none have investigated the genetic architecture of both jointly. In this study, we artificially hybridized a pair of behaviorally isolated cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi and quantified both melanistic color pattern and female mate choice. We investigated the genetic architecture of both phenotypes using quantitative genetic analyses. Our results suggest that 1) many non-additively acting genetic factors influence melanistic color patterns, 2) female mate choice may be controlled by a minimum of 1–2 non-additive genetic factors, and 3) F2 female mate choice is not influenced by male courting effort. Furthermore, a joint analysis of color pattern and female mate choice indicates that the genes underlying these two traits are unlikely to be physically linked. These results suggest that reproductive isolation may evolve rapidly owing to the few genetic factors underlying female mate choice. Hence, female mate choice likely played an important role in the unparalleled speciation of East African cichlid fish.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/quantitative-genetic-analyses-male-color-pattern-female-mate-choice-pair-cichlid-fishes-lake-malawi", "reader_count"=>16, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833474"], "description"=>"<p>The estimated effective number of factors (standard deviation) influencing scale and fin melanophore counts for a range of allelic effects (C<sub>a</sub> = 0 assumes the equivalence of allelic effects; C<sub>a</sub> =  assumes a normal distribution of allelic effects; C<sub>a</sub> = 1 assumes the allelic effects have a negative exponential distribution; C<sub>a</sub> = 4 assumes that allelic effects have a leptokurtic distribution).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267518, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_estimated_effective_number_of_factors_standard_deviation_influencing_scale_and_fin_melanophore_counts_for_a_range_of_allelic_effects_C_a_8202_8202_0_assumes_the_equivalence_of_allelic_effects_C_a_8202_8202_assumes_a_normal_distribution_of_allelic_eff/1267518", "title"=>"The estimated effective number of factors (standard deviation) influencing scale and fin melanophore counts for a range of allelic effects (C<sub>a</sub> = 0 assumes the equivalence of allelic effects; C<sub>a</sub> =  assumes a normal distribution of allelic effects; C<sub>a</sub> = 1 assumes the allelic effects have a negative exponential distribution; C<sub>a</sub> = 4 assumes that allelic effects have a leptokurtic distribution).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833471"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of F<sub>2</sub> scale (a) and fin (b) phenotypes between individuals that exclusively mated with <i>M. zebra</i> or <i>M. benetos</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267515, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_F_2_scale_a_and_fin_b_phenotypes_between_individuals_that_exclusively_mated_with_M_zebra_or_M_benetos_/1267515", "title"=>"Comparison of F<sub>2</sub> scale (a) and fin (b) phenotypes between individuals that exclusively mated with <i>M. zebra</i> or <i>M. benetos</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833484"], "description"=>"<div><p>The traits involved in sexual selection, such as male secondary sexual characteristics and female mate choice, often co-evolve which can promote population differentiation. However, the genetic architecture of these phenotypes can influence their evolvability and thereby affect the divergence of species. The extraordinary diversity of East African cichlid fishes is often attributed to strong sexual selection and thus this system provides an excellent model to test predictions regarding the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits that contribute to reproductive isolation. In particular, theory predicts that rapid speciation is facilitated when male sexual traits and female mating preferences are controlled by a limited number of linked genes. However, few studies have examined the genetic basis of male secondary sexual traits and female mating preferences in cichlids and none have investigated the genetic architecture of both jointly. In this study, we artificially hybridized a pair of behaviorally isolated cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi and quantified both melanistic color pattern and female mate choice. We investigated the genetic architecture of both phenotypes using quantitative genetic analyses. Our results suggest that 1) many non-additively acting genetic factors influence melanistic color patterns, 2) female mate choice may be controlled by a minimum of 1–2 non-additive genetic factors, and 3) F<sub>2</sub> female mate choice is not influenced by male courting effort. Furthermore, a joint analysis of color pattern and female mate choice indicates that the genes underlying these two traits are unlikely to be physically linked. These results suggest that reproductive isolation may evolve rapidly owing to the few genetic factors underlying female mate choice. Hence, female mate choice likely played an important role in the unparalleled speciation of East African cichlid fish.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267527, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantitative_Genetic_Analyses_of_Male_Color_Pattern_and_Female_Mate_Choice_in_a_Pair_of_Cichlid_Fishes_of_Lake_Malawi_East_Africa_/1267527", "title"=>"Quantitative Genetic Analyses of Male Color Pattern and Female Mate Choice in a Pair of Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi, East Africa", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833464"], "description"=>"<p>BZ represents backcross with <i>M. zebra</i>, while BB represents backcross with <i>M. benetos</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267508, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_boxplot_of_melanophore_counts_in_scale_of_the_parentals_and_F_1_F_2_hybrids_and_backcrosses_/1267508", "title"=>"The boxplot of melanophore counts in scale of the parentals, and F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub> hybrids and backcrosses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833461"], "description"=>"<p><i>Maylandia benetos</i> is at the top panel, <i>Maylandia zebra</i> is at the middle panel, and scale and fin tissue samples are at the lower panel. The red box indicates the area where the scale samples for melanophore counts were taken, the green box indicates where the melanophores in fins were counted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267505, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Male_individuals_of_both_species_with_indication_where_scale_and_fin_samples_were_taken_/1267505", "title"=>"Male individuals of both species with indication where scale and fin samples were taken.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833473"], "description"=>"<p>Given are empirical counts, expected values assuming an additive genetic model, and expected values assuming an additive-dominance model. χ<sup>2</sup> tests were used to compare the genetic models to the observed data. A likelihood-ratio test was used to test if the additive-dominance model better explained the data than the additive model (Λ).</p><p>The square root transformed means (standard errors) of melanophore counts (within a 0.25 mm<sup>2</sup> area for pelvic fins (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798#pone-0114798-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267517, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>43, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_square_root_transformed_means_standard_errors_of_melanophore_counts_within_a_0_25_mm_2_area_for_pelvic_fins_Fig_1_/1267517", "title"=>"The square root transformed means (standard errors) of melanophore counts (within a 0.25 mm<sup>2</sup> area for pelvic fins (Fig. 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833472"], "description"=>"<p>Given are empirical counts, expected values assuming an additive genetic model, and expected values assuming an additive-dominance model. χ<sup>2</sup> tests were used to compare the genetic models to the observed data. A likelihood-ratio test was used to test if the additive-dominance model better explained the data than the additive model (Λ).</p><p>The square root transformed means (standard errors) of melanophore counts (within a 0.25 mm<sup>2</sup> area for scales (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798#pone-0114798-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267516, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_square_root_transformed_means_standard_errors_of_melanophore_counts_within_a_0_25_mm_2_area_for_scales_Fig_1_/1267516", "title"=>"The square root transformed means (standard errors) of melanophore counts (within a 0.25 mm<sup>2</sup> area for scales (Fig. 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833469"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (x axis) and variance (y axis) of the female mate choice index in the parentals, and F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> hybrids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267513, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_x_axis_and_variance_y_axis_of_the_female_mate_choice_index_in_the_parentals_and_F_1_and_F_2_hybrids_/1267513", "title"=>"Mean (x axis) and variance (y axis) of the female mate choice index in the parentals, and F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> hybrids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833468"], "description"=>"<p>Comparisons of the residuals derived from the regression of male lateral displays (a), quivers (b), and circles (c) against the amount of time that female stayed in each side of the tank between the successfully mated males and rejected males; further comparison of the time in association (d) that female spent with the successful mated males and rejected males is shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267512, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparisons_of_the_residuals_derived_from_the_regression_of_male_lateral_displays_a_quivers_b_and_circles_c_against_the_amount_of_time_that_female_stayed_in_each_side_of_the_tank_between_the_successfully_mated_males_and_rejected_males_further_comparison_/1267512", "title"=>"Comparisons of the residuals derived from the regression of male lateral displays (a), quivers (b), and circles (c) against the amount of time that female stayed in each side of the tank between the successfully mated males and rejected males; further comparison of the time in association (d) that female spent with the successful mated males and rejected males is shown.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833466"], "description"=>"<p>BZ represents backcross with <i>M. zebra</i>, while BB represents backcross with <i>M. benetos</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267510, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_boxplot_of_melanophore_count_in_fin_of_the_parentals_and_F_1_F_2_hybrids_and_backcrosses_/1267510", "title"=>"The boxplot of melanophore count in fin of the parentals, and F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub> hybrids and backcrosses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833477"], "description"=>"<p>The estimated effective number of factors influencing cichlid female mate choice for a range of allelic effects (C<sub>a</sub> = 0 assumes the equivalence of allelic effects; C<sub>a</sub> = 0.25 assumes a normal distribution of allelic effects; C<sub>a</sub> = 1 assumes the allelic effects have a negative exponential distribution; C<sub>a</sub> = 4 assumes that allelic effects have a leptokurtic distribution).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267521, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_estimated_effective_number_of_factors_influencing_cichlid_female_mate_choice_for_a_range_of_allelic_effects_C_a_8202_8202_0_assumes_the_equivalence_of_allelic_effects_C_a_8202_8202_0_25_assumes_a_normal_distribution_of_allelic_effects_C_a_8202_8202_1/1267521", "title"=>"The estimated effective number of factors influencing cichlid female mate choice for a range of allelic effects (C<sub>a</sub> = 0 assumes the equivalence of allelic effects; C<sub>a</sub> = 0.25 assumes a normal distribution of allelic effects; C<sub>a</sub> = 1 assumes the allelic effects have a negative exponential distribution; C<sub>a</sub> = 4 assumes that allelic effects have a leptokurtic distribution).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833462"], "description"=>"<p>Males of the two species were placed in two side partitions, while trial female were placed in the center compartment of the tank.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267506, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>60, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_experimental_mate_choice_assay_tank_design_/1267506", "title"=>"Illustration of experimental mate choice assay tank design.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1833475"], "description"=>"<p>Females of <i>M. zebra</i>, <i>M. benetos</i>, F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub> were tested in a two way mate choice tank (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798#pone-0114798-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a>), The numbers of individuals tested for female mate choice and the mean of the mate choice in each generation are given.</p><p>Results of the female mate choice assay.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanistic color pattern", "cichlid fishes", "Lake Malawi", "factors influence melanistic color patterns", "Quantitative Genetic Analyses", "mating preferences", "mate choice", "trait", "Male Color Pattern", "Female Mate Choice"], "article_id"=>1267519, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Baoqing Ding", "Daniel W. Daugherty", "Martin Husemann", "Ming Chen", "Aimee E. Howe", "Patrick D. Danley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114798.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_female_mate_choice_assay_/1267519", "title"=>"Results of the female mate choice assay.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 14:42:55"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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