Long-Range Gene Flow and the Effects of Climatic and Ecological Factors on Genetic Structuring in a Large, Solitary Carnivore: The Eurasian Lynx
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{"title"=>"Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: The Eurasian lynx", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mirosław", "last_name"=>"Ratkiewicz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602318232"}, {"first_name"=>"Maciej", "last_name"=>"Matosiuk", "scopus_author_id"=>"55233799700"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander P.", "last_name"=>"Saveljev", "scopus_author_id"=>"15760998800"}, {"first_name"=>"Vadim", "last_name"=>"Sidorovich", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003697717"}, {"first_name"=>"Janis", "last_name"=>"Ozolins", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506924185"}, {"first_name"=>"Peep", "last_name"=>"Männil", "scopus_author_id"=>"15760153200"}, {"first_name"=>"Linas", "last_name"=>"Balciauskas", "scopus_author_id"=>"25029782700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ilpo", "last_name"=>"Kojola", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701491422"}, {"first_name"=>"Henryk", "last_name"=>"Okarma", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701324879"}, {"first_name"=>"Rafał", "last_name"=>"Kowalczyk", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006215511"}, {"first_name"=>"Krzysztof", "last_name"=>"Schmidt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403914732"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84938635883", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0115160", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84938635883", "pui"=>"605455262", "pmid"=>"25551216"}, "id"=>"737f72c8-8af1-3580-8cbc-8ca050e0861d", "abstract"=>"Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/longrange-gene-flow-effects-climatic-ecological-factors-genetic-structuring-large-solitary-carnivore", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>32}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>32}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Bulgaria"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858848"], "description"=>"<p><i>N</i> – sample size, N<sub>A</sub> – number of alleles, A<sub>R</sub> – allelic richness, <i>He</i> – expected heterozygosity, <i>F<sub>IS</sub></i> – inbreeding coefficient, * - p <0.05. Population abbreviations according to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone-0115160-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p><p>Microsatellite DNA diversity indices for the Eurasian lynx in Europe.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282912, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microsatellite_DNA_diversity_indices_for_the_Eurasian_lynx_in_Europe_/1282912", "title"=>"Microsatellite DNA diversity indices for the Eurasian lynx in Europe.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858845"], "description"=>"<p>Results of the approximate Bayesian computation conducted with the use of DIYABC 2.0.4 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone.0115160-Cornuet1\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a> to estimate the relative likelihood of alternative scenarios for the lynx's colonization history. A) Graphs in the upper panel illustrate the four final best supported scenarios from among nine scenarios proposed in the analyses (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone.0115160.s008\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Appendix</a> for details). The ten sampling locations analyzed in this study were grouped into five populations based on its distinctness suggested by the STRUCTURE and SAMOVA analyses: 1) Nor (Norway), 2) NE PL (BPF and KARPF), 3) Balt (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Belarus), 4) Rus (Russia and Finland) and 5) CARP (Carpathians). Colors in the colonization scenarios indicate different (but unknown) population sizes (Ne). Zero means sampling time and t1-t4 mean relative times of past events of suggested population splitting. Graphs in the lower panel indicate the relative likelihoods of the four best scenarios compared by a logistic regression based on microsatellite (B) and mtDNA (C) data with a 2% subset of the closest simulated data. The best support is for the scenario 2 and 9 for microsatellite (B) and mtDNA (C) data, respectively. Note, although four scenarios were analyzed for mtDNA (C) the posterior probability of scenario 4 is not visible due to highly similar values with scenario 6.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282910, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>80, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Possible_scenarios_of_Eurasian_lynx_population_history_/1282910", "title"=>"Possible scenarios of Eurasian lynx population history.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858825"], "description"=>"<p>Correlograms of the average autocorrelation coefficient (r) for 20 distance classes of 100 km each for male (A) and female (B) Eurasian lynx. The dashed lines represent the 95% upper and lower bounds of the null distribution assuming no spatial structure. The error bars represent the 95% confidence intervals about r. Significant spatial structure is observed when r exceeds the null distribution and the error bars do not overlap zero.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282892, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_spatial_autocorrelation_analysis_/1282892", "title"=>"Results of the spatial autocorrelation analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858822"], "description"=>"<p>Map showing distribution of sampling locations of the Eurasian lynx in north-eastern and central Europe. The color of each sampled individual denotes the haplotype of cr mtDNA and corresponds to the haplotype network in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone-0115160-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a>. Points are clustered into four groups as assigned by SAMOVA (both based on mtDNA and microsatellites) and shaded with different colors: Norway (yellow), BPF (green), Carpathians (blue) and remaining samples (pink). Names of arbitrarily assigned populations are given. Intensity of grey shading refers to the terrain ruggedness indicating mountainous areas. The background map was extracted from open access database available through USGS: <a href=\"http://srtm.usgs.gov/index.php\" target=\"_blank\">http://srtm.usgs.gov/index.php</a>). It is similar but not identical to the original image, and is therefore for representative purposes only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282889, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_Eurasian_lynx_sampling_locations_and_mtDNA_haplotypes_/1282889", "title"=>"Distribution of Eurasian lynx sampling locations and mtDNA haplotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858855", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858856", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858857", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858858", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858859", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858860", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858861", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858862"], "description"=>"<div><p>Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, <i>Lynx lynx</i> throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome <i>b</i> and <i>ATP6</i> mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (<i>Cervus elaphus</i>) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282920, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Long_Range_Gene_Flow_and_the_Effects_of_Climatic_and_Ecological_Factors_on_Genetic_Structuring_in_a_Large_Solitary_Carnivore_The_Eurasian_Lynx_/1282920", "title"=>"Long-Range Gene Flow and the Effects of Climatic and Ecological Factors on Genetic Structuring in a Large, Solitary Carnivore: The Eurasian Lynx", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858850"], "description"=>"<p><i>F</i><sub>ST</sub> values based on 12 microsatellites (below diagonal) and <i>Φ</i><sub>ST</sub> values based on the mtDNA control region (above diagonal). Nonsignificant values are given in italics.</p><p>Pairwise differentiation between Eurasian lynx populations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282915, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pairwise_differentiation_between_Eurasian_lynx_populations_/1282915", "title"=>"Pairwise differentiation between Eurasian lynx populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858834"], "description"=>"<p>Results of the STRUCTURE analysis assuming number of clusters from K = 3 to K = 10. Numbers correspond to classification of populations in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone-0115160-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. Note consistency of populations: 1 (Norway), 7 and 8 (KARPF and BPF, both NE Poland) being composed of two uniform genetic clusters across all values of K.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282900, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bayesian_clustering_of_the_Eurasian_lynx_population_in_north_eastern_Europe_/1282900", "title"=>"Bayesian clustering of the Eurasian lynx population in north-eastern Europe.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858824"], "description"=>"<p>Haplotype network illustrating the relationship among 16 haplotypes of Eurasian lynx. Small black circles indicate missing haplotypes. Numbers denote the haplotypes. The size of the circles (except the haplotypes not found in this study) refers to the relative frequencies of a given haplotype in the whole sample. Colors of haplotypes correspond to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone-0115160-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282891, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_mtDNA_haplotype_network_of_Eurasian_lynx_/1282891", "title"=>"mtDNA haplotype network of Eurasian lynx.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858839"], "description"=>"<p>Maps showing contour lines of the first axis of the PCA performed on a sample-wise matrix of genetic distance for microsatellite (A) and mtDNA (B) data interpolated with the use of the kriging algorithm (Surfer12 software) and superimposed onto a geographic map of the study area. Black and white arrows show possible migration barriers or migratory corridors respectively. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone-0115160-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a> for other explanations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282905, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_spatial_analysis_of_genetic_differentiation_in_the_Eurasian_lynx_/1282905", "title"=>"Results of spatial analysis of genetic differentiation in the Eurasian lynx.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858836"], "description"=>"<p>Recent migration rates within the Eurasian lynx population in north-eastern and central Europe between arbitrarily assigned sampling populations, estimated using BayesAss. Directions and rates of migrations are shown with arrows and associated numbers. The numbers within the circles denote proportions of non-immigrants within the sampled populations (denoted with small digits which refer to the population numbers and names in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone-0115160-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). Grey shading represents the forest cover. It is prepared based on an open access GlobCOVER database (<a href=\"http://due.esrin.esa.int/globcover/\" target=\"_blank\">http://due.esrin.esa.int/globcover/</a>) by extracting a range of data indicating forested and non forested areas (limited to values of 40–110). It is thus similar but not identical to the original image, and is therefore for representative purposes only. The lynx range (after Von Arx <i>et al</i>. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone.0115160-VonArx1\" target=\"_blank\">[91]</a>) is marked by continuous lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282902, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>55, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Migration_routes_and_rates_of_Eurasian_lynx_across_north_eastern_Europe_/1282902", "title"=>"Migration routes and rates of Eurasian lynx across north-eastern Europe.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858851"], "description"=>"<p>Marginal, conditional and sequential tests of the forward selection procedure are reported. Percentage of genetic variation explained by a particular variable (% var), probability values (<i>P</i>), upper line - mtDNA data, bottom line (<i>in italics</i>) - microsatellites. NAO – North Atlantic Oscillation Index; Snow – snow Cover Depth (SCD) and Days with Snow Cover (DSC) together. Prey – the proportion of main prey species in the lynx's diet (see Appendix 1). n.a. – not applicable since coordinates were used as covariables in conditional tests, (-) – not tested.</p><p>Effects of abiotic climatic variables on genetic differentiation based on mtDNA and microsatellites among Eurasian lynx populations in Europe.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282916, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_abiotic_climatic_variables_on_genetic_differentiation_based_on_mtDNA_and_microsatellites_among_Eurasian_lynx_populations_in_Europe_/1282916", "title"=>"Effects of abiotic climatic variables on genetic differentiation based on mtDNA and microsatellites among Eurasian lynx populations in Europe.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1858846"], "description"=>"<p><i>N</i> – sample size, <i>Nh</i> – number of haplotypes, <i>h</i> – haplotype diversity, <i>π</i> – nucleotide diversity (%), <i>S</i> – number of segregating sites, PD – mean number of pairwise differences, SE – standard error, KARPF – Knyszyn, Augustów, Rominta, Piska Forests, BPF – Białowieża Primeval Forest. * - data from Ratkiewicz et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone.0115160-Luo1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>, # - increased sample size from data utilized in Ratkiewicz et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160#pone.0115160-Luo1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>.</p><p>Mitochondrial DNA- control region diversity indices for the Eurasian lynx samples studied.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bia łowie Primeval Forest", "genetic", "microsatellite population divergence patterns", "bottleneck", "last glacial maximum", "habitat", "norway", "variability", "mtDNA control region", "marker", "samova", "Eurasian lynx", "ATP 6 mtDNA genes", "mitochondrial DNA control region", "bpf"], "article_id"=>1282911, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mirosław Ratkiewicz", "Maciej Matosiuk", "Alexander P. Saveljev", "Vadim Sidorovich", "Janis Ozolins", "Peep Männil", "Linas Balciauskas", "Ilpo Kojola", "Henryk Okarma", "Rafał Kowalczyk", "Krzysztof Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115160.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mitochondrial_DNA_control_region_diversity_indices_for_the_Eurasian_lynx_samples_studied_/1282911", "title"=>"Mitochondrial DNA- control region diversity indices for the Eurasian lynx samples studied.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:01:19"}

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