Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Seasonal Presence, Residence Time and Habitat Use at Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve
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{"title"=>"Whale shark (Rhincodon typus) seasonal presence, residence time and habitat use at darwin island, galapagos marine reserve", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Acuña-Marrero", "scopus_author_id"=>"56369203800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jesús", "last_name"=>"Jiménez", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191480779"}, {"first_name"=>"Franz", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196894224"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul F.", "last_name"=>"Doherty", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202103104"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex", "last_name"=>"Hearn", "scopus_author_id"=>"9640137200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan R.", "last_name"=>"Green", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191279128"}, {"first_name"=>"Jules", "last_name"=>"Paredes-Jarrín", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191490204"}, {"first_name"=>"Pelayo", "last_name"=>"Salinas-de-León", "scopus_author_id"=>"37050271300"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PloS one", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84962175991", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0115946", "sgr"=>"84962175991", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"25551553", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"612683092"}, "id"=>"743f0255-f6e8-3e77-a76a-a324a30581c4", "abstract"=>"The life history of the whale shark ( Rhincodon typus ), including its reproductive ecology, still remains largely unknown. Here, we present results from the first whale shark population study around Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve. Following a diversified approach we characterized seasonal occurrence, population structure and size, and described habitat use of whale sharks based on fine scale movements around the island. Whale shark presence at Darwin Island was negatively correlated with Sea Surface Temperature (SST), with highest abundance corresponding to a cool season between July and December over six years of monitoring. From 2011 to 2013 we photo-identified 82 whale sharks ranging from 4 to 13.1 m Total Length (TL). Size distribution was bimodal, with a great majority (91.5%) of adult female individuals averaging 11.35 m±0.12 m (TL±SE), all but one showing signs of a potential pregnancy. Population dynamics models for apparently pregnant sharks estimated the presence of 3.76±0.90 (mean ± SE) sharks in the study area per day with an individual residence time of 2.09±0.51 (mean ± SE) days. Movement patterns analysis of four apparently pregnant individuals tracked with acoustic tags at Darwin Island revealed an intense use of Darwin's Arch, where no feeding or specific behavior has been recorded, together with periodic excursions around the island's vicinity. Sharks showed a preference for intermediate depths (20–30 m) with occasional dives mostly to mid-water, remaining the majority of their time at water temperatures between 24–25°C. All of our results point to Darwin Island as an important stopover in a migration, possibly with reproductive purposes, rather than an aggregation site. Current studies carried out in this area to investigate regional scale movement patterns may provide essential information about possible pupping grounds for this enigmatic species.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-seasonal-presence-residence-time-habitat-darwin-island-galapagos-marine", "reader_count"=>65, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>18, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>18}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Ecuador"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>6}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859053"], "description"=>"<p>Percent of time expended by the four sharks tracked at different water temperature during day and night hours.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283085, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diel_temperature_preferences_for_whale_sharks_at_Darwin_Island_/1283085", "title"=>"Diel temperature preferences for whale sharks at Darwin Island.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859052"], "description"=>"<p>Percentages of time expended by each shark tracked (RT-01 (A), RT-02 (B), RT-03 (C) and RT-04 (D)) at different depth ranges during day and night hours.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283084, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diel_depth_preferences_for_whale_sharks_at_Darwin_Island_/1283084", "title"=>"Diel depth preferences for whale sharks at Darwin Island.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859049"], "description"=>"<p>Kernel density is color coded, with warmer colors indicating highest probabilities and colder colors lower ones (A). Home range deduced from UD with 95% and 50% of probability indicated by dotted and continuous lines, respectively (A). (B) Detail of bathymetry at Darwin's Arch.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283081, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kernel_Utilization_Distribution_UD_of_whale_sharks_at_Darwin_Island_/1283081", "title"=>"Kernel Utilization Distribution (UD) of whale sharks at Darwin Island.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859047"], "description"=>"<p>Size measurements by laser photogrammetry (N = 47; dark grey bars and dotted line) and visual estimation (N = 35; light grey bars and dotted line) of the 82 whale sharks photo-identified at Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve, between 2011 and 2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283079, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Size_frequency_distribution_/1283079", "title"=>"Size-frequency distribution.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859048"], "description"=>"<p>Image of two female whale sharks recorded at Darwin Island that displayed different signs of pregnancy (A) a 9.3 m TL female sighted on November 18<sup>th</sup> 2013 with its belly not distended; (B) a 12 m TL female sighted on October 20<sup>th</sup> 2012 with a clear distended belly, which is a sign of pregnancy (Ramírez-Macías et al. 2012b); (photo credit: David Acuña-Marrero).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283080, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visual_evidence_of_R_typus_possible_pregnancy_/1283080", "title"=>"Visual evidence of <i>R. typus</i> possible pregnancy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859046"], "description"=>"<p>Least square regression's result between SST and whale shark sightings per diver hour<sup>−1</sup> in the vicinity of Darwin's Arch from November 2007 to December 2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283078, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_SST_and_sighting_frequency_of_R_typus_/1283078", "title"=>"Relationship between SST and sighting frequency of <i>R. typus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859055"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of <i>R. typus</i> tracks at Darwin Island in 2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283087, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_R_typus_tracks_at_Darwin_Island_in_2013_/1283087", "title"=>"Summary of <i>R. typus</i> tracks at Darwin Island in 2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859054"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates of superpopulation, probability of detection, apparent survival, probability of entry and residence time for 47 whale sharks recorded at Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve, during two individual survey trips in September and October 2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283086, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_superpopulation_probability_of_detection_apparent_survival_probability_of_entry_and_residence_time_for_47_whale_sharks_recorded_at_Darwin_Island_Galapagos_Marine_Reserve_during_two_individual_survey_trips_in_September_and_October_2013_/1283086", "title"=>"Estimates of superpopulation, probability of detection, apparent survival, probability of entry and residence time for 47 whale sharks recorded at Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve, during two individual survey trips in September and October 2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859051"], "description"=>"<p>Plots showing dive profile and bottom depth of RT-01 (A), RT-02 (B), RT-03 (C: Nov 14<sup>th</sup>, and D: Nov 15<sup>th</sup>, the latter only showing her dive profile during the time she remained in the vicinity of the island (<1.3 nm)) and RT-04 (E: Nov 16<sup>th</sup>, and F: Nov 17<sup>th</sup>), respectively. Signal from RT-03 was lost from 13:33 PM to 14:32 PM on Nov 14<sup>th</sup> (C). Note that bottom depth contour was obtained from skiff position, so sharks dive's and bottom depth's profiles relationship may not coincide exactly with the reality. For this reason shark dive profiles overlap with bottom depth in few occasions, especially at shallow areas (<30 m).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283083, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Whale_sharks_dive_profiles_at_Darwin_Island_/1283083", "title"=>"Whale sharks dive profiles at Darwin Island.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859045"], "description"=>"<p>Plot showing whale shark sightings per diver hour<sup>−1</sup> (left axis, grey bars) with mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST; right axis, grey dotted line) at Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve, between 2007–2013. Values over columns indicate the sampling effort (i.e., number of surveys) for each month.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283077, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Monthly_distribution_of_R_typus_at_Darwin_Island_/1283077", "title"=>"Monthly distribution of <i>R. typus</i> at Darwin Island.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859044"], "description"=>"<p>A) Tracks of the four <i>R. typus</i> around Darwin Island with its bathymetry (10 m isobaths); B) Galapagos Archipelago's setting in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (Ecuador national territory in dark grey); C) Galapagos Islands with the Galapagos Marine Reserve boundaries that extends 40 nm from the islands (discontinued line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Darwin Island", "movement patterns analysis", "Whale shark presence", "sea surface temperature", "scale movement patterns", "Galapagos Marine Reserve", "whale shark population study", "sst", "se", "population dynamics models", "tl"], "article_id"=>1283076, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David Acuña-Marrero", "Jesús Jiménez", "Franz Smith", "Paul F. Doherty Jr.", "Alex Hearn", "Jonathan R. Green", "Jules Paredes-Jarrín", "Pelayo Salinas-de-León"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115946.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_the_whale_shark_study_area_/1283076", "title"=>"Location of the whale shark study area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:14:18"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Marine and aquatic sciences", "average_usage"=>[343]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Biogeography", "average_usage"=>[327, 527]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Habitats", "average_usage"=>[348, 516]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Equipment", "average_usage"=>[287, 444]}]}
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