Potassium Channel Antagonists 4-Aminopyridine and the T-Butyl Carbamate Derivative of 4-Aminopyridine Improve Hind Limb Function in Chronically Non-Ambulatory Dogs; A Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial
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{"title"=>"Potassium channel antagonists 4-aminopyridine and the T-butyl carbamate derivative of 4-aminopyridine improve hind limb function in chronically non-ambulatory dogs; a blinded, placebo-controlled trial", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ji Hey", "last_name"=>"Lim", "scopus_author_id"=>"57158005500"}, {"first_name"=>"Audrey C.", "last_name"=>"Muguet-Chanoit", "scopus_author_id"=>"52264372800"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel T.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"57097491500"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric", "last_name"=>"Laber", "scopus_author_id"=>"36679147300"}, {"first_name"=>"Natasha J.", "last_name"=>"Olby", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004258619"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PloS one", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"612682410", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0116139", "sgr"=>"84990960730", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84990960730", "pmid"=>"25551385"}, "id"=>"17a56d5c-053e-39a6-8942-01d3d462a27b", "abstract"=>"4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) blocks voltage gated potassium channels, restoring conduction to demyelinated axons and improving function in demyelinating conditions, but its use is associated with adverse effects and benefit in spinal cord injury is limited. Derivatives of 4-AP have been developed to improve clinical efficacy while reducing toxicity. We compared the therapeutic effects of orally administered 4-AP and its t-butyl carbamate derivative (t-butyl) with placebo in dogs that had suffered an acute spinal cord injury that left them chronically paralyzed. Nineteen dogs were entered into the trial, conducted in two-week treatment blocks starting with placebo, followed by random assignment to 4-AP or t-butyl, a washout and then the opposite medication followed by placebo. Investigators and owners were blinded to treatment group. Primary outcome measures included open field gait score (OFS), and treadmill based stepping score and regularity index, with additional secondary measures also considered. Thirteen of 19 dogs completed the protocol. Two were euthanized due to unrelated heath problems, two developed side effects and two were unable to complete for unrelated reasons. Dogs showed significant improvement in supported stepping score (from 17.39 to 37.24% with 4-AP; 16.85 to 29.18% with t-butyl p<0.0001) and OFS (from 3.63 to 4.73 with 4-AP; 3.78 to 4.45 with t-butyl, p = 0.005). Response was individually variable and most dramatic in three dogs that were able to walk without support with treatment. No significant difference was found between 4-AP and t-butyl. No adverse effects were reported with t-butyl but gastrointestinal upset and seizures were observed in two dogs with 4-AP. In conclusion, both 4-AP and t-butyl significantly improved supported stepping ability in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury with no adverse effects noted with t-butyl. Drug response varied widely between individuals, highlighting the need to understand the factors that influence canine and human patients' response to therapy.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/potassium-channel-antagonists-4aminopyridine-tbutyl-carbamate-derivative-4aminopyridine-improve-hind", "reader_count"=>19, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859846"], "description"=>"<p>Mean supported stepping score (a), regulatory index (b) and OFS (c) during weeks 1–2, 5–6 and 9–10 did not change significantly (see p values for <i>ß</i><sup>k</sup><sub>1</sub> provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139#pone-0116139-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>), showing that there is no significant treatment effect carried over from the treatment periods. Mean supported stepping score (d), regulatory index (e) and OFS (f) for 4-AP and t-butyl treatment periods compared to the preceding 2 week period. Stepping score and OFS show significant improvement with treatment (***) (see p values for <i>ß</i><sup>k</sup><sub>0</sub> provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139#pone-0116139-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>); Data represents mean ± SD, CTR: the 2-week control period immediately preceding treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Primary outcome measures", "ofs", "Hind Limb Function", "ap", "cord injury", "field gait score", "blocks voltage gated potassium channels"], "article_id"=>1283712, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ji-Hey Lim", "Audrey C. Muguet-Chanoit", "Daniel T. Smith", "Eric Laber", "Natasha J. Olby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_primary_outcome_measurements_of_gait_/1283712", "title"=>"Results of the primary outcome measurements of gait.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:31:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859847"], "description"=>"<p>Outcome measures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Primary outcome measures", "ofs", "Hind Limb Function", "ap", "cord injury", "field gait score", "blocks voltage gated potassium channels"], "article_id"=>1283713, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ji-Hey Lim", "Audrey C. Muguet-Chanoit", "Daniel T. Smith", "Eric Laber", "Natasha J. Olby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Outcome_measures_/1283713", "title"=>"Outcome measures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:31:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859848"], "description"=>"<p>Ordinal testing scales.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Primary outcome measures", "ofs", "Hind Limb Function", "ap", "cord injury", "field gait score", "blocks voltage gated potassium channels"], "article_id"=>1283714, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ji-Hey Lim", "Audrey C. Muguet-Chanoit", "Daniel T. Smith", "Eric Laber", "Natasha J. Olby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ordinal_testing_scales_/1283714", "title"=>"Ordinal testing scales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:31:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859849"], "description"=>"<p>Wt: weight; MC: male castrated; FS: female spayed; M: male; IVDD:intervertebral disc disease (type I); T-SCI: traumatic spinal cord injury; m:months;</p><p>*: at the time of enrollmen.</p><p>Patient signalment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Primary outcome measures", "ofs", "Hind Limb Function", "ap", "cord injury", "field gait score", "blocks voltage gated potassium channels"], "article_id"=>1283715, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ji-Hey Lim", "Audrey C. Muguet-Chanoit", "Daniel T. Smith", "Eric Laber", "Natasha J. Olby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Patient_signalment_/1283715", "title"=>"Patient signalment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:31:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859850"], "description"=>"<p>Control weeks: 2 weeks period immediately preceding treatment with either 4-AP or t-butyl; OFS: open field score (0–13); SS: stepping score; RI: regularity index; DNI: decreased (−1), no change (0), improved (+1); HL: hind limb; <i>ß</i><sup>k</sup><sub>0</sub>: treatment effect of 4-AP or t-butyl relative to control; <i>ß</i><sup>k</sup><sub>1</sub>: relative treatment effects of 4-AP and t-butyl. Positive values of <i>ß</i><sup>k</sup><sub>1</sub> reflect outperformance by 4-AP, and negative values reflect t-butyl. The scores denoted with * were not changed by treatment, therefore <i>ß</i><sup>k</sup><sub>0</sub> and <i>ß</i><sup>k</sup><sub>1</sub> values could not be calculated.</p><p>Outcome data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Primary outcome measures", "ofs", "Hind Limb Function", "ap", "cord injury", "field gait score", "blocks voltage gated potassium channels"], "article_id"=>1283716, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ji-Hey Lim", "Audrey C. Muguet-Chanoit", "Daniel T. Smith", "Eric Laber", "Natasha J. Olby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Outcome_data_/1283716", "title"=>"Outcome data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:31:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859906", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859907", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859908", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859909", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859910"], "description"=>"<div><p>4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) blocks voltage gated potassium channels, restoring conduction to demyelinated axons and improving function in demyelinating conditions, but its use is associated with adverse effects and benefit in spinal cord injury is limited. Derivatives of 4-AP have been developed to improve clinical efficacy while reducing toxicity. We compared the therapeutic effects of orally administered 4-AP and its t-butyl carbamate derivative (t-butyl) with placebo in dogs that had suffered an acute spinal cord injury that left them chronically paralyzed. Nineteen dogs were entered into the trial, conducted in two-week treatment blocks starting with placebo, followed by random assignment to 4-AP or t-butyl, a washout and then the opposite medication followed by placebo. Investigators and owners were blinded to treatment group. Primary outcome measures included open field gait score (OFS), and treadmill based stepping score and regularity index, with additional secondary measures also considered. Thirteen of 19 dogs completed the protocol. Two were euthanized due to unrelated heath problems, two developed side effects and two were unable to complete for unrelated reasons. Dogs showed significant improvement in supported stepping score (from 17.39 to 37.24% with 4-AP; 16.85 to 29.18% with t-butyl p<0.0001) and OFS (from 3.63 to 4.73 with 4-AP; 3.78 to 4.45 with t-butyl, p = 0.005). Response was individually variable and most dramatic in three dogs that were able to walk without support with treatment. No significant difference was found between 4-AP and t-butyl. No adverse effects were reported with t-butyl but gastrointestinal upset and seizures were observed in two dogs with 4-AP. In conclusion, both 4-AP and t-butyl significantly improved supported stepping ability in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury with no adverse effects noted with t-butyl. Drug response varied widely between individuals, highlighting the need to understand the factors that influence canine and human patients' response to therapy.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Primary outcome measures", "ofs", "Hind Limb Function", "ap", "cord injury", "field gait score", "blocks voltage gated potassium channels"], "article_id"=>1283763, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ji-Hey Lim", "Audrey C. Muguet-Chanoit", "Daniel T. Smith", "Eric Laber", "Natasha J. Olby"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Potassium_Channel_Antagonists_4_Aminopyridine_and_the_T_Butyl_Carbamate_Derivative_of_4_Aminopyridine_Improve_Hind_Limb_Function_in_Chronically_Non_Ambulatory_Dogs_A_Blinded_Placebo_Controlled_Trial_/1283763", "title"=>"Potassium Channel Antagonists 4-Aminopyridine and the T-Butyl Carbamate Derivative of 4-Aminopyridine Improve Hind Limb Function in Chronically Non-Ambulatory Dogs; A Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:31:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1859842"], "description"=>"<p>A: Diagram of the study design. B: Treatment assignments for each subject by week. Boxes indicated by an asterisk (*) represent sub-therapeutic dosing with t-butyl. These and the preceding two-week treatment periods were removed from statistical analysis. Symbols indicate dogs that did not complete the trial; Δ: owners unable to continue; ‡: euthanasia; ¶: discontinuation due to adverse effects. Dog 13 received just 2 doses of 4-AP prior to development of seizures. Dog 19 received 10 doses of 4-AP prior to developing gastrointestinal signs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Primary outcome measures", "ofs", "Hind Limb Function", "ap", "cord injury", "field gait score", "blocks voltage gated potassium channels"], "article_id"=>1283708, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ji-Hey Lim", "Audrey C. Muguet-Chanoit", "Daniel T. Smith", "Eric Laber", "Natasha J. Olby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116139.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_design_and_patient_treatment_allocation_/1283708", "title"=>"Study design and patient treatment allocation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-31 03:31:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"64", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"96", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biomechanics", "average_usage"=>[303, 468]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[289]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Critical care and emergency medicine", "average_usage"=>[245]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmaceutics", "average_usage"=>[299, 467]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
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