Lithic Landscapes: Early Human Impact from Stone Tool Production on the Central Saharan Environment
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{"title"=>"Lithic landscapes: Early human impact from stone tool production on the Central Saharan environment", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Robert A.", "last_name"=>"Foley", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102887389"}, {"first_name"=>"Marta Mirazón", "last_name"=>"Lahr", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603894491"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25760999", "sgr"=>"84924401912", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0116482", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84924401912", "pui"=>"602884891", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"3f2ed4f7-7c51-3c85-a49c-ee9b7c422f2e", "abstract"=>"Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world's ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools-Acheulean and Middle Stone Age-indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/lithic-landscapes-early-human-impact-stone-tool-production-central-saharan-environment", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Arts and Humanities"=>19, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>12, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>19}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1945576"], "description"=>"<p>a) The Messak is located in the Libyan Central Sahara (Fazzan); b) the Messak is a massif of sandstone that lies between two sand seas, the Awbari to the north, and Murzuq, to the south (source: Google Earth); c) view of the Messak from the south, close to the town of Jarma with excavations of the Garamantes Royal Cemetery by DJ Mattingly and team in the foreground. Sources: Images: Elevation map of Africa from Nasa (<a href=\"http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04964\" target=\"_blank\">http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04964</a>), detailed map of Fazzan adapted from Wikimedia Commons (<a href=\"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Libya_Topography.png\" target=\"_blank\">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Libya_Topography.png</a>); photo of Messak by M Mirazon Lahr.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact", "Pleistocene stone tools", "hominin stone exploitation", "Stone Tool Production", "Central Saharan Environment Humans", "stone tool", "Messak Settafet"], "article_id"=>1333344, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert A. Foley", "Marta Mirazon Lahr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116482.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_Messak_/1333344", "title"=>"Location of Messak.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 03:41:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1945592"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency distribution of artefact densities in the 50 1 x 1 m sample squares.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact", "Pleistocene stone tools", "hominin stone exploitation", "Stone Tool Production", "Central Saharan Environment Humans", "stone tool", "Messak Settafet"], "article_id"=>1333353, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert A. Foley", "Marta Mirazon Lahr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116482.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_distribution_of_artefact_densities_in_the_50_1_x_1_m_sample_squares_/1333353", "title"=>"Frequency distribution of artefact densities in the 50 1 x 1 m sample squares.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 03:41:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1945590"], "description"=>"<p>a) Satellite image of the Messak, showing the seismic grid lines laid for the oil exploration. Each of these lines was walked by archaeologists from the Libyan Department of Antiquities, in both directions. Major archaeological localities were recorded on and between the lines, and the presence of lithics and rough density recorded in 2 x 2 m box every 100 m along the lines. b) Artefact density across the 2 x 2 boxes from the survey; white circles indicate presences of lithics, with the size reflecting low, medium and high density. c) Detail of a small 3 x 2 km area from within the survey area on the plateau’s surface, showing the presence and density of lithics. Sources: MESSAK SURVEY BACKGROUND MAP: satellite image donated by Occidental Plc. (WGS 1984 UTM Zone 33N, Extent: 2960788.37_291786.562_326263.362_2913482.77)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact", "Pleistocene stone tools", "hominin stone exploitation", "Stone Tool Production", "Central Saharan Environment Humans", "stone tool", "Messak Settafet"], "article_id"=>1333351, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert A. Foley", "Marta Mirazon Lahr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116482.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_and_distribution_of_lithics_on_the_Messak_as_recorded_in_the_OXY_survey_/1333351", "title"=>"Frequency and distribution of lithics on the Messak as recorded in the OXY survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 03:41:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1945589"], "description"=>"<p>The Messak is almost entirely without soil or superficial sediments, other than recent Aeolian deposits from the adjacent sand seas (a). The surface is made up of broken rocks (b, c, d), many of which have been humanly modified. In some cases (c), the removal of rocks has led to small depressions that can become small puddles or ponds. Sources: photos by authors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact", "Pleistocene stone tools", "hominin stone exploitation", "Stone Tool Production", "Central Saharan Environment Humans", "stone tool", "Messak Settafet"], "article_id"=>1333350, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert A. Foley", "Marta Mirazon Lahr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116482.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Messak_landscape_/1333350", "title"=>"The Messak landscape.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 03:41:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1945598"], "description"=>"<div><p>Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world’s ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools—Acheulean and Middle Stone Age—indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact", "Pleistocene stone tools", "hominin stone exploitation", "Stone Tool Production", "Central Saharan Environment Humans", "stone tool", "Messak Settafet"], "article_id"=>1333359, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert A. Foley", "Marta Mirazon Lahr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116482", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lithic_Landscapes_Early_Human_Impact_from_Stone_Tool_Production_on_the_Central_Saharan_Environment_/1333359", "title"=>"Lithic Landscapes: Early Human Impact from Stone Tool Production on the Central Saharan Environment", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 03:41:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1945593"], "description"=>"<p>Ten one metre quadrats were sampled in five areas.</p><p>Numbers of stones and lithics per sample quadrat (1 m<sup>2</sup> each).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact", "Pleistocene stone tools", "hominin stone exploitation", "Stone Tool Production", "Central Saharan Environment Humans", "stone tool", "Messak Settafet"], "article_id"=>1333354, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert A. Foley", "Marta Mirazon Lahr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116482.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Numbers_of_stones_and_lithics_per_sample_quadrat_1_m_2_each_/1333354", "title"=>"Numbers of stones and lithics per sample quadrat (1 m<sup>2</sup> each).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 03:41:02"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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