Exposure to Electronic Cigarettes Impairs Pulmonary Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Viral Defenses in a Mouse Model
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{"title"=>"Exposure to electronic cigarettes impairs pulmonary anti-bacterial and anti-viral defenses in a mouse model", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Thomas E.", "last_name"=>"Sussan", "scopus_author_id"=>"8906038000"}, {"first_name"=>"Sachin", "last_name"=>"Gajghate", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194748027"}, {"first_name"=>"Rajesh K.", "last_name"=>"Thimmulappa", "scopus_author_id"=>"8310882600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jinfang", "last_name"=>"Ma", "scopus_author_id"=>"37018496700"}, {"first_name"=>"Jung Hyun", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"56034140400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kuladeep", "last_name"=>"Sudini", "scopus_author_id"=>"42262755600"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicola", "last_name"=>"Consolini", "scopus_author_id"=>"56404644300"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephania A.", "last_name"=>"Cormier", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006569525"}, {"first_name"=>"Slawo", "last_name"=>"Lomnicki", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602425142"}, {"first_name"=>"Farhana", "last_name"=>"Hasan", "scopus_author_id"=>"55912734900"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Pekosz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603813866"}, {"first_name"=>"Shyam", "last_name"=>"Biswal", "scopus_author_id"=>"35478408900"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"602005535", "sgr"=>"84922390937", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25651083", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84922390937", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0116861", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0116861"}, "id"=>"d4ab4710-198a-3ea8-a89e-cd36593f8bf7", "abstract"=>"Electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) have experienced sharp increases in popularity over the past five years due to many factors, including aggressive marketing, increased restrictions on conventional cigarettes, and a perception that E-cigs are healthy alternatives to cigarettes. Despite this perception, studies on health effects in humans are extremely limited and in vivo animal models have not been generated. Presently, we determined that E-cig vapor contains 7 x 10(11) free radicals per puff. To determine whether E-cig exposure impacts pulmonary responses in mice, we developed an inhalation chamber for E-cig exposure. Mice that were exposed to E-cig vapor contained serum cotinine concentrations that are comparable to human E-cig users. E-cig exposure for 2 weeks produced a significant increase in oxidative stress and moderate macrophage-mediated inflammation. Since, COPD patients are susceptible to bacterial and viral infections, we tested effects of E-cigs on immune response. Mice that were exposed to E-cig vapor showed significantly impaired pulmonary bacterial clearance, compared to air-exposed mice, following an intranasal infection with Streptococcus pneumonia. This defective bacterial clearance was partially due to reduced phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages from E-cig exposed mice. In response to Influenza A virus infection, E-cig exposed mice displayed increased lung viral titers and enhanced virus-induced illness and mortality. In summary, this study reports a murine model of E-cig exposure and demonstrates that E-cig exposure elicits impaired pulmonary anti-microbial defenses. Hence, E-cig exposure as an alternative to cigarette smoking must be rigorously tested in users for their effects on immune response and susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/exposure-electronic-cigarettes-impairs-pulmonary-antibacterial-antiviral-defenses-mouse-model", "reader_count"=>155, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>29, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Other"=>12, "Student > Master"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>29, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>29, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Other"=>12, "Student > Master"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>29, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>5, "Computer Science"=>2, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>12, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>41, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>7, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>12, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>41}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>12}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>7}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>7}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>12}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Philippines"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>19}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1880477"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were exposed to air or E-cig for 2 wks, then infected intranasally with 1x10<sup>5</sup> colony forming units (CFU) of <i>S</i>. <i>pneumoniae</i>. Inflammation (A) and bacterial CFUs (B) were determined in BAL at 24h after infection (N = 10 mice per group). (C) In a separate group of mice, bacterial CFUs were quantified in lung homogenates (N = 10 mice per group). (D) Alveolar macrophages from air or E-cig exposed mice were harvested and infected with <i>S</i>. <i>pneumoniae</i> at multiplicities of infection of 10 and 20. Bacterial CFUs were quantified in cell-free culture media at 4 h after infection. (E) Intracellular (internalized) and extracellular bacteria (cell-free culture media) were quantified at 1 h after <i>ex vivo</i> infection of alveolar macrophages with an MOI of 20. (F) Alveolar macrophages were harvested at 2h after final exposure, stained with antibodies against CD36 and MARCO, and analyzed by flow cytometry. (G) Bacterial clearance was measured in alveolar macrophages from mice exposed to air or traditional E-cig vapor. *p<0.05 by Student’s two-tailed t-test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["serum cotinine concentrations", "7 x 1011", "virus infection", "study reports", "alveolar macrophages", "Mouse Model Electronic cigarettes", "Streptococcus pneumonia", "inhalation chamber", "cigarette smoking", "COPD patients", "exposure", "murine model", "2 weeks", "oxidative stress", "vivo animal models", "response", "health effects", "vapor"], "article_id"=>1301328, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas E. Sussan", "Sachin Gajghate", "Rajesh K. Thimmulappa", "Jinfang Ma", "Jung-Hyun Kim", "Kuladeep Sudini", "Nicola Consolini", "Stephania A. Cormier", "Slawo Lomnicki", "Farhana Hasan", "Andrew Pekosz", "Shyam Biswal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116861.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>60, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_E_cig_exposure_reduces_pulmonary_bacterial_clearance_in_mice_infected_with_S_pneumoniae_/1301328", "title"=>"E-cig exposure reduces pulmonary bacterial clearance in mice infected with <i>S</i>. <i>pneumoniae</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-04 02:50:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1880480"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were exposed to air or E-cig for 2 wks, then infected intranasally with TCID<sub>50</sub> 10<sup>2</sup> of H1N1. BAL was collected at day 4 (N = 5) and day 8 (N = 4) after infection, followed by quantification of inflammatory cells (A) and cytokines (B). *p<0.05 by Student’s two-tailed t-test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["serum cotinine concentrations", "7 x 1011", "virus infection", "study reports", "alveolar macrophages", "Mouse Model Electronic cigarettes", "Streptococcus pneumonia", "inhalation chamber", "cigarette smoking", "COPD patients", "exposure", "murine model", "2 weeks", "oxidative stress", "vivo animal models", "response", "health effects", "vapor"], "article_id"=>1301331, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas E. Sussan", "Sachin Gajghate", "Rajesh K. Thimmulappa", "Jinfang Ma", "Jung-Hyun Kim", "Kuladeep Sudini", "Nicola Consolini", "Stephania A. Cormier", "Slawo Lomnicki", "Farhana Hasan", "Andrew Pekosz", "Shyam Biswal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116861.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influenza_induced_inflammation_is_altered_by_E_cig_exposure_/1301331", "title"=>"Influenza-induced inflammation is altered by E-cig exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-04 02:50:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1880479"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were exposed to air or E-cig for 2 wks, then infected intranasally with either TCID<sub>50</sub> 10<sup>2</sup> (A-B) or TCID<sub>50</sub> 10<sup>3</sup> (C) of H1N1 virus. (A) Viral titer was determined by TCID<sub>50</sub> assay in lung homogenates at 4 days after infection (N = 5 mice per group). (B-C) Mice were weighed daily after infection with either TCID<sub>50</sub> 10<sup>2</sup> (B) or 10<sup>3</sup> (C), and values are presented as percent of starting weight (N = 10 mice per group). For mice that died during the experiments, body weights were included in the analysis up until the day of death. (D) Mortality curves in response to intranasal infection with TCID<sub>50</sub> 10<sup>2</sup> or 10<sup>3</sup> H1N1 (N = 10 mice per group). *p<0.05 by Student’s two-tailed t-test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["serum cotinine concentrations", "7 x 1011", "virus infection", "study reports", "alveolar macrophages", "Mouse Model Electronic cigarettes", "Streptococcus pneumonia", "inhalation chamber", "cigarette smoking", "COPD patients", "exposure", "murine model", "2 weeks", "oxidative stress", "vivo animal models", "response", "health effects", "vapor"], "article_id"=>1301330, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas E. Sussan", "Sachin Gajghate", "Rajesh K. Thimmulappa", "Jinfang Ma", "Jung-Hyun Kim", "Kuladeep Sudini", "Nicola Consolini", "Stephania A. Cormier", "Slawo Lomnicki", "Farhana Hasan", "Andrew Pekosz", "Shyam Biswal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116861.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_E_cig_exposure_impairs_viral_clearance_and_causes_significant_morbidity_and_mortality_in_mice_following_influenza_virus_infection_/1301330", "title"=>"E-cig exposure impairs viral clearance and causes significant morbidity and mortality in mice following influenza virus infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-04 02:50:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1880472"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic of our E-cig exposure model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["serum cotinine concentrations", "7 x 1011", "virus infection", "study reports", "alveolar macrophages", "Mouse Model Electronic cigarettes", "Streptococcus pneumonia", "inhalation chamber", "cigarette smoking", "COPD patients", "exposure", "murine model", "2 weeks", "oxidative stress", "vivo animal models", "response", "health effects", "vapor"], "article_id"=>1301323, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas E. Sussan", "Sachin Gajghate", "Rajesh K. Thimmulappa", "Jinfang Ma", "Jung-Hyun Kim", "Kuladeep Sudini", "Nicola Consolini", "Stephania A. Cormier", "Slawo Lomnicki", "Farhana Hasan", "Andrew Pekosz", "Shyam Biswal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116861.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>48, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_of_our_E_cig_exposure_model_/1301323", "title"=>"Schematic of our E-cig exposure model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-04 02:50:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1880475"], "description"=>"<p>(A) EPR spectra of E-cig TPM. The presented spectrum is a result of subtraction of a Cambridge filter pad EPR signal before and after collection of TPM. (B) Lipid peroxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in lung homogenates from C57BL/6 mice that were exposed to air or E-cig vapor for 1.5 h, twice per day, for 2 wks. (C) Inflammatory cells were quantified in the BAL at 24h after the final exposure. (D) Cytokines were analyzed in cell-free BAL fluid from air and E-cig exposed mice at 24h after the final exposure. N = 10 mice per group. *p<0.05 by Student’s two-tailed t-test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["serum cotinine concentrations", "7 x 1011", "virus infection", "study reports", "alveolar macrophages", "Mouse Model Electronic cigarettes", "Streptococcus pneumonia", "inhalation chamber", "cigarette smoking", "COPD patients", "exposure", "murine model", "2 weeks", "oxidative stress", "vivo animal models", "response", "health effects", "vapor"], "article_id"=>1301326, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas E. Sussan", "Sachin Gajghate", "Rajesh K. Thimmulappa", "Jinfang Ma", "Jung-Hyun Kim", "Kuladeep Sudini", "Nicola Consolini", "Stephania A. Cormier", "Slawo Lomnicki", "Farhana Hasan", "Andrew Pekosz", "Shyam Biswal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116861.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_E_cig_induced_pulmonary_response_/1301326", "title"=>"E-cig-induced pulmonary response.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-04 02:50:25"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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