Hind-Casting the Quantity and Composition of Discards by Mixed Demersal Fisheries in the North Sea
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{"title"=>"Hind-casting the quantity and composition of discards by mixed demersal fisheries in the North Sea", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael R.", "last_name"=>"Heath", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201976239"}, {"first_name"=>"Robin M.", "last_name"=>"Cook", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403130591"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84925061866", "pmid"=>"25774938", "sgr"=>"84925061866", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0117078", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"603024233"}, "id"=>"2d8778b8-69d5-3af2-8257-ac7cbf043235", "abstract"=>"Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/hindcasting-quantity-composition-discards-mixed-demersal-fisheries-north-sea", "reader_count"=>25, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949504"], "description"=>"<p>On the right, the abundance and length distributions of fish in the sea, the distribution of the fishery catch, and the partitioning of lengths between landings and discards, are essentially unobserved. All we know is the biomass of fish which are landed—and for the reference species the biomass discarded. On the left, we have information on the abundance and lengths of fish in the trawl surveys. From this we can estimate the biomass and length composition of catch and the partitioning between landings and discards, given information on the catch ratio, capture and retention selectivities. Equation numbers refer to equations in the text.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336347, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_basis_of_the_statistical_model_/1336347", "title"=>"Conceptual basis of the statistical model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949506"], "description"=>"<p>Red circles: MLS vs observer data estimates of <i>RL</i><sub><i>50</i></sub> for species subject to a legal landing size limit (cod, haddock, whiting, plaice, sole, saithe, hake—see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078#pone.0117078.s011\" target=\"_blank\">S5 Table</a>). Black triangles: <i>de-facto</i> MLS vs observer data based <i>RL</i><sub><i>50</i></sub> for species with no legal landing size limit (gurnard, dab, turbot, brill. Green symbols: legal MLS vs <i>RL</i><sub><i>50</i></sub> for reference species estimated by the full model. Blue line: 1:1 relationship; black line fitted regression through the origin for full model reference species data. Regression coefficient = 0.874 (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.817).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336349, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_legal_or_de_facto_minimum_landing_size_MLS_and_estimated_or_fitted_values_of_RL_50_the_length_at_50_retention_/1336349", "title"=>"Relationships between legal or <i>de-facto</i> minimum landing size (MLS), and estimated or fitted values of <i>RL</i><sub><i>50</i></sub> (the length at 50% retention).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949508"], "description"=>"<p>Blue line and shading: fitted proportions and 95% credible intervals. Red symbols: observed proportions from ICES stock assessment reports.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336351, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Full_model_fitted_estimates_of_the_total_proportions_of_catch_discarded_p_for_the_reference_species_/1336351", "title"=>"Full model fitted estimates of the total proportions of catch discarded (<i>p</i>) for the reference species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949510"], "description"=>"<p>Blue line and shading: median of estimated proportions and 95% credible intervals. Red symbols: quantity-related discard proportions derived from data on catch and discard numbers and mean weights-at-age. In this case, the model was not fitted to the observed data so coincidence between the model and data is an independent validation of the model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336353, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Full_model_estimates_of_the_quantity_related_proportions_of_catch_discarded_q_/1336353", "title"=>"Full model estimates of the quantity-related proportions of catch discarded (<i>q</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949511"], "description"=>"<p>Blue line and shading: median of estimated weight discarded and 95% credible intervals from the reduced model. Red symbols: observed weights discarded from ICES stock assessment reports. In this case, the model was not fitted to the observed data so coincidence between the model and data is a validation of the reduced model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336354, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cross_validation_test_of_the_reduced_model_discarded_weights_of_the_reference_species_/1336354", "title"=>"Cross-validation test of the reduced model: discarded weights of the reference species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949512"], "description"=>"<p>Blue line and shading: median of estimated index and 95% credible intervals. Red symbols: observed index. Results for the five reference species from the full model; results for all other species from the reduced model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336355, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modelled_and_observed_time_series_of_the_survey_biomass_index_u_t_for_the_reference_and_other_species_/1336355", "title"=>"Modelled and observed time series of the survey biomass index (<i>u</i><sub><i>t</i></sub>) for the reference and other species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949513"], "description"=>"<p>Blue line and shading: median of estimated landings and 95% credible intervals. Red symbols: observed weight landed. Results for the five reference species from the full model; results for all other species from the reduced model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336356, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modelled_and_observed_time_series_of_the_weight_landed_for_the_reference_and_other_species_/1336356", "title"=>"Modelled and observed time series of the weight landed for the reference and other species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949519"], "description"=>"<p>Blue line and shading: median of estimated total discarded weight and 95% credible intervals; red line estimated size-related weight discarded. Black symbols for reference species only: observed weight discarded. Results for the five reference species from the full model; results for all other species from the reduced model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336362, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modelled_time_series_of_the_weight_discarded_for_the_reference_and_other_species_/1336362", "title"=>"Modelled time series of the weight discarded for the reference and other species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949523"], "description"=>"<p>Blue line and shading: median of estimated total proportion discarded and 95% credible intervals; red line estimated quantity-related proportion discarded. Black symbols for reference species only: observed total proportion discarded. Results for the five reference species from the full model; results for all other species from the reduced model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336365, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modelled_time_series_of_the_proportion_of_catch_discarded_for_the_reference_and_other_species_/1336365", "title"=>"Modelled time series of the proportion of catch discarded for the reference and other species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949524"], "description"=>"<p>Mean observed proportions of catch discarded from the ICES data in the case of the reference species (averaged over 2001–2010), and from fragments of data harvested from the literature in the case of all other species (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078#pone.0117078.s009\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Table</a>). Estimated proportion discarded averaged over 2001–2010 from the reduced model in all cases. Horizontal dashed lines indicate ± 1 s.d. of logit transformed observed data. Red circles: reference species; blue circles: all other species. Black line indicates the 1:1 relationship.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336367, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_modelled_and_observed_proportions_discarded_/1336367", "title"=>"Comparison of modelled and observed proportions discarded.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949527"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Annual proportion of total demersal fish catch discarded (mean and 95% credible interval). (b) Total catch and landings of demersal fish. The blue line and shaded area indicates the mean and 95% credible interval of model estimated total catch, whilst the vertical bars indicate the measured landings. (c) Quantities (thousands of tonnes) of all demersal fish discarded. Blue line and shaded area indicates the mean and 95% credible interval of total discard quantity. The red line indicates the size-related weight of fish discarded, hence the area between the red and blue lines represents quantity-related discards. (d) Annual proportions of the eight most abundant species in the discarded weight of demersal fish (in rank order of long-term average proportions: plaice, haddock, dab, whiting, cod, saithe, gurnard, ling).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336369, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_model_results_for_the_entire_demersal_fish_assemblage_/1336369", "title"=>"Summary of model results for the entire demersal fish assemblage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949530"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Annual catch and discard quantities (tonnes) for the group of species which, in 2010, were not subject to any landing quota (TAC) restrictions (bass, gurnards, halibut, ling, mullets, pollack, tusk, wolfish, and the ‘other marketable’ and ‘discard-only’ groups). (b) catch and discards of non-TAC species as proportions of total demersal catch and discards (solid lines), and the discard rate (proportion of catch discarded) for non-TAC species as a group (dashed line). 95% credible intervals around each of the time series indicated by shaded regions and/or thin lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336372, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_results_for_non_TAC_species_/1336372", "title"=>"Model results for non-TAC species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949531"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated parameters in the full model fitted simultaneously to the five reference species for which both landings and discards data are available, and the choice of priors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336373, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_parameters_in_the_full_model_fitted_simultaneously_to_the_five_reference_species_for_which_both_landings_and_discards_data_are_available_and_the_choice_of_priors_/1336373", "title"=>"Estimated parameters in the full model fitted simultaneously to the five reference species for which both landings and discards data are available, and the choice of priors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949532"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated parameters in the reduced model for a single species where only landings data are available, and the choice of priors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336374, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_parameters_in_the_reduced_model_for_a_single_species_where_only_landings_data_are_available_and_the_choice_of_priors_/1336374", "title"=>"Estimated parameters in the reduced model for a single species where only landings data are available, and the choice of priors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949533"], "description"=>"<p>SI and CR that merely maintained legal landing sizes at current values are not listed.</p><p>*Although blue ling have an assigned legal minimum landing size, they are only rarely caught in the IBTS trawl surveys, so were included in the ‘other marketable’ species category for analysis with the reduced model.</p><p>Legal minimum landing sizes of North Sea fish species under UK Statutory Instruments (SI) and European Council Regulations (CR) post-introduction of the Common Fisheries Policy in 1983.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336375, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Legal_minimum_landing_sizes_of_North_Sea_fish_species_under_UK_Statutory_Instruments_SI_and_European_Council_Regulations_CR_post_introduction_of_the_Common_Fisheries_Policy_in_1983_/1336375", "title"=>"Legal minimum landing sizes of North Sea fish species under UK Statutory Instruments (SI) and European Council Regulations (CR) post-introduction of the Common Fisheries Policy in 1983.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949535"], "description"=>"<p><i>De-facto</i> landing sizes of species for which there is no legal minimum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336376, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_De_facto_landing_sizes_of_species_for_which_there_is_no_legal_minimum_/1336376", "title"=>"<i>De-facto</i> landing sizes of species for which there is no legal minimum.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949537", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949538", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949539", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949540", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949541", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949542", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949543", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949544", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949545", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949546", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949547", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949548", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949549", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1949550"], "description"=>"<div><p>Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["term", "observer", "fishing", "information", "fishery", "North Sea", "legislation", "Mixed Demersal Fisheries", "practice", "data", "discarding", "utilising", "species", "discard", "model", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1336379, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael R. Heath", "Robin M. Cook"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117078.s014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>27, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hind_Casting_the_Quantity_and_Composition_of_Discards_by_Mixed_Demersal_Fisheries_in_the_North_Sea_/1336379", "title"=>"Hind-Casting the Quantity and Composition of Discards by Mixed Demersal Fisheries in the North Sea", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-03-16 03:11:38"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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