Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream
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{"title"=>"Small but powerful: Top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Pablo", "last_name"=>"Rodríguez-Lozano", "scopus_author_id"=>"56534153700"}, {"first_name"=>"Iraima", "last_name"=>"Verkaik", "scopus_author_id"=>"14038427900"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria", "last_name"=>"Rieradevall", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602737366"}, {"first_name"=>"Narcís", "last_name"=>"Prat", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003308567"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84923899560", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0117630", "sgr"=>"84923899560", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"25714337", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"602543198"}, "id"=>"e6d9beff-2c47-3ab9-b09e-6d5fe69fe57a", "abstract"=>"Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore ecosystem structure and function.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/small-powerful-top-predator-local-extinction-affects-ecosystem-structure-function-intermittent-strea", "reader_count"=>69, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>29, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>29}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1924060"], "description"=>"<p><i>Barbus meridionalis</i> density effects on macroinvertebrate abundance (mean ± SE individuals m<sup>-2</sup>) and rarefied taxa richness (mean ± SE rarefied taxa sample<sup>-1</sup>) for: (a-b) primary consumers, (c-d) secondary consumers, and (e-f) the ratio of secondary to primary consumers (mean ± SE ratio sample<sup>-1</sup>). Red bars = treatment without barbels; yellow bars = treatment with a low density of barbels; blue bars = treatment with a high density of barbels. Different letters correspond to significant differences resulting from the pairwise comparisons among treatments (<i>U</i>-test, p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "ecosystem function", "apex consumer absence", "release", "extinction", "Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure", "macroinvertebrate community composition", "food web theory", "meridionali"], "article_id"=>1317627, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano", "Iraima Verkaik", "Maria Rieradevall", "Narcís Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117630.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Barbus_meridionalis_density_effects_on_macroinvertebrate_abundance_and_rarefied_richness_for_primary_and_secondary_consumers_/1317627", "title"=>"<i>Barbus meridionalis</i> density effects on macroinvertebrate abundance and rarefied richness for primary and secondary consumers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-25 02:51:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1924059"], "description"=>"<p>Macroinvertebrate abundance for eight of the most abundant taxa (> 50 ind m<sup>-2</sup> in the treatment lacking barbels) in the three treatments with varying <i>B</i>. <i>meridionalis</i> densities. Bars represent mean ± SE (individuals m<sup>-2</sup>). Graphs are sorted by taxa abundance: (a) <i>Tanytarsus</i> sp., (b) <i>Zavrelimyia</i> sp., (c) <i>Habrophlebia</i> sp., (d) <i>Gyraulus</i> sp., (e) <i>Radix</i> sp., (f) <i>Chalcolestes viridis</i>, (g) <i>Stictonectes</i> sp. and (h) <i>Chaoborus</i> sp. Red bars = treatment without barbels; yellow bars = treatment with a low density of barbels; blue bars = treatment with a high density of barbels. Different letters correspond to significant differences resulting from the pairwise comparisons among treatments (<i>U</i>-test, p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "ecosystem function", "apex consumer absence", "release", "extinction", "Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure", "macroinvertebrate community composition", "food web theory", "meridionali"], "article_id"=>1317626, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano", "Iraima Verkaik", "Maria Rieradevall", "Narcís Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117630.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Macroinvertebrate_abundance_for_eight_common_taxa_in_the_three_barbel_treatments_/1317626", "title"=>"Macroinvertebrate abundance for eight common taxa in the three barbel treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-25 02:51:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1924062"], "description"=>"<p>T—Treatments: 1 = treatment without barbels, 2 = treatment with a low density of barbels. IndVal—indicator value. P—its respective <i>p</i>-value.</p><p>Macroinvertebrate taxa detected as significant indicators for the three barbel density treatments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "ecosystem function", "apex consumer absence", "release", "extinction", "Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure", "macroinvertebrate community composition", "food web theory", "meridionali"], "article_id"=>1317629, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano", "Iraima Verkaik", "Maria Rieradevall", "Narcís Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117630.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Macroinvertebrate_taxa_detected_as_significant_indicators_for_the_three_barbel_density_treatments_/1317629", "title"=>"Macroinvertebrate taxa detected as significant indicators for the three barbel density treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-25 02:51:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1924061"], "description"=>"<p>Bars represent mean ± SE (mg m<sup>-2</sup> d<sup>-1</sup>). Red bars = treatment without barbels; yellow bars = treatment with a low density of barbels; blue bars = treatment with a high density of barbels. Different letters correspond to significant differences resulting from the pairwise comparisons among treatments (<i>U</i>-test, p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "ecosystem function", "apex consumer absence", "release", "extinction", "Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure", "macroinvertebrate community composition", "food web theory", "meridionali"], "article_id"=>1317628, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano", "Iraima Verkaik", "Maria Rieradevall", "Narcís Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117630.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Periphyton_net_primary_production_measured_as_the_chlorophyll_a_on_tiles_for_the_three_experimental_treatments_/1317628", "title"=>"Periphyton net primary production measured as the chlorophyll-<i>a</i> on tiles for the three experimental treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-25 02:51:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1924056"], "description"=>"<p>This diagram describes our two hypotheses related to apex consumer extirpation: a) ‘prey release’ hypothesis and b) ‘mesopredator release’ hypothesis. Circumference size in top predator absence diagrams represents the density decrease, increase or persistence compared to the top predator presence diagram. Arrows represent trophic interactions. Thicker arrows = magnified trophic interactions due to apex consumer extirpation; grey arrows = lost trophic interactions after apex consumer extirpation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "ecosystem function", "apex consumer absence", "release", "extinction", "Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure", "macroinvertebrate community composition", "food web theory", "meridionali"], "article_id"=>1317623, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano", "Iraima Verkaik", "Maria Rieradevall", "Narcís Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117630.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagram_of_the_trophic_interactions_in_intermittent_stream_food_webs_in_the_presence_and_absence_of_the_apex_consumer_/1317623", "title"=>"Diagram of the trophic interactions in intermittent stream food webs in the presence and absence of the apex consumer.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-25 02:51:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1924057"], "description"=>"<p>Diagram of the experimental enclosure and one of the four identical trays that contained stones for macroinvertebrate colonisation and glass tiles for periphyton colonisation. Dimensions are indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "ecosystem function", "apex consumer absence", "release", "extinction", "Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure", "macroinvertebrate community composition", "food web theory", "meridionali"], "article_id"=>1317624, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano", "Iraima Verkaik", "Maria Rieradevall", "Narcís Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117630.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagram_of_the_experimental_enclosure_/1317624", "title"=>"Diagram of the experimental enclosure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-25 02:51:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1924064"], "description"=>"<div><p>Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, <i>Barbus meridionalis</i> (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where <i>B. meridionalis</i> became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, <i>B. meridionalis</i> extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore ecosystem structure and function.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "ecosystem function", "apex consumer absence", "release", "extinction", "Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure", "macroinvertebrate community composition", "food web theory", "meridionali"], "article_id"=>1317631, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano", "Iraima Verkaik", "Maria Rieradevall", "Narcís Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117630", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Small_but_Powerful_Top_Predator_Local_Extinction_Affects_Ecosystem_Structure_and_Function_in_an_Intermittent_Stream_/1317631", "title"=>"Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-25 02:51:07"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"76", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"61", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"66", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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