Contrasting Effects of Different Mammalian Herbivores on Sagebrush Plant Communities
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{"title"=>"Contrasting effects of different mammalian herbivores on sagebrush plant communities", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kari E.", "last_name"=>"Veblen", "scopus_author_id"=>"16064991300"}, {"first_name"=>"Kyle C.", "last_name"=>"Nehring", "scopus_author_id"=>"56524323300"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher M.", "last_name"=>"McGlone", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603255294"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark E.", "last_name"=>"Ritchie", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102927055"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84923238732", "pmid"=>"25671428", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0118016", "pui"=>"602263226", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84923238732"}, "id"=>"059a1b26-1bfb-3061-96b7-614df99d92d6", "abstract"=>"Herbivory by both grazing and browsing ungulates shapes the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and both types of herbivory have been implicated in major ecosystem state changes. Despite the ecological consequences of differences in diets and feeding habits among herbivores, studies that experimentally distinguish effects of grazing from spatially co-occurring, but temporally segregated browsing are extremely rare. Here we use a set of long-term exclosures in northern Utah, USA, to determine how domestic grazers vs. wild ungulate herbivores (including browsers and mixed feeders) affect sagebrush-dominated plant communities that historically covered ~62 million ha in North America. We sampled plant community properties and found that after 22 years grazing and browsing elicited perceptible changes in overall plant community composition and distinct responses by individual plant species. In the woody layer of the plant community, release from winter and spring wild ungulate herbivory increased densities of larger Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, ssp. wyomingensis) at the expense of small sagebrush, while disturbance associated with either cattle or wild ungulate activity alone was sufficient to increase bare ground and reduce cover of biological soil crusts. The perennial bunchgrass, bottlebrush squirretail (Elymus elymoides), responded positively to release from summer cattle grazing, and in turn appeared to competitively suppress another more grazing tolerant perennial grass, Sandberg's blue grass (Poa secunda). Grazing by domestic cattle also was associated with increased non-native species biomass. Together, these results illustrate that ungulate herbivory has not caused sagebrush plant communities to undergo dramatic state shifts; however clear, herbivore-driven shifts are evident. In a dry, perennial-dominated system where plant community changes can occur very slowly, our results provide insights into potential long-term trajectories of these plant communities under different large herbivore regimes. Our results can be used to guide long-term management strategies for sagebrush systems and improve habitat for endemic wildlife species such as sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.).", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/contrasting-effects-different-mammalian-herbivores-sagebrush-plant-communities", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"South Africa"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1893615"], "description"=>"<p>Means and 90% confidence intervals for Cohen’s <i>d</i> effect size analyses of annual biomass in 2012 and 2013. “Total” denotes effect of exclusion of all large herbivores relative to Control plots (where no large herbivores are excluded), and “Cattle” denotes effects of exclusion of only cattle (but not wild herbivores) relative to Control plots. Bold values indicate treatments with confidence intervals that do not overlap zero and are considered significantly different from control.</p><p>Biomass effect sizes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["herbivore", "sagebrush plant communities", "ecosystem state changes", "plant community properties", "usa", "species", "Sagebrush Plant Communities Herbivory", "Different Mammalian Herbivores", "plant community changes", "plant community composition", "ungulate herbivory"], "article_id"=>1305993, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari E. Veblen", "Kyle C. Nehring", "Christopher M. McGlone", "Mark E. Ritchie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118016.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biomass_effect_sizes_/1305993", "title"=>"Biomass effect sizes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-11 02:57:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1893614"], "description"=>"<p>Mean densities (# per ha) ±1 SE for pellet groups by species across three herbivore treatments: 1) Total exclosure plots that exclude both cattle and wild ungulates, 2) Cattle exclosure plots that exclude only cattle, and 3) Control plots where no large herbivores are excluded.</p><p>Dung pellet groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["herbivore", "sagebrush plant communities", "ecosystem state changes", "plant community properties", "usa", "species", "Sagebrush Plant Communities Herbivory", "Different Mammalian Herbivores", "plant community changes", "plant community composition", "ungulate herbivory"], "article_id"=>1305992, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari E. Veblen", "Kyle C. Nehring", "Christopher M. McGlone", "Mark E. Ritchie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118016.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dung_pellet_groups_/1305992", "title"=>"Dung pellet groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-11 02:57:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1893612"], "description"=>"<p>Effect size analyses of (a) perennial grass (<i>Achnatherum hymenoides</i> [ACHY], <i>Elymus elymoides</i> [ELEL], <i>Hesperostipa comata</i> [HECO], <i>Poa secunda</i> [POSE], <i>Pseudoroegneria spicata</i> [PSSP]) density, (b) sagebrush (<i>A. tridentata</i> ssp. <i>wyomingensis</i>) density, (c) inter-plant gap size, and (d) soil cover across herbivore treatments. “Total Ex” denotes exclusion of all large herbivores, and “Cattle Ex” denotes exclusion of only cattle (but not wild herbivores). If symbol is above the zero line, then magnitude of response is greater in the treatment exclosure than in the control. If symbol is below the zero line, then response is less than in the control. Error bars show 90% CI. If error bars do not equal or cross zero line, then difference is considered significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["herbivore", "sagebrush plant communities", "ecosystem state changes", "plant community properties", "usa", "species", "Sagebrush Plant Communities Herbivory", "Different Mammalian Herbivores", "plant community changes", "plant community composition", "ungulate herbivory"], "article_id"=>1305990, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari E. Veblen", "Kyle C. Nehring", "Christopher M. McGlone", "Mark E. Ritchie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118016.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_size_analyses_/1305990", "title"=>"Effect size analyses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-11 02:57:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1893609"], "description"=>"<p>Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) results depicting sample points and convex hulls for (a) three herbivore treatments and (b) three pastures in relation to plant species community composition (n = 125 frequency frames per sample point); and (c-e) treatments within individual pastures (n = 25 frequency frames per sample point). Total, Cattle, and Control treatments exclude, respectively, all large herbivores, cattle only, and no large herbivores.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["herbivore", "sagebrush plant communities", "ecosystem state changes", "plant community properties", "usa", "species", "Sagebrush Plant Communities Herbivory", "Different Mammalian Herbivores", "plant community changes", "plant community composition", "ungulate herbivory"], "article_id"=>1305987, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari E. Veblen", "Kyle C. Nehring", "Christopher M. McGlone", "Mark E. Ritchie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118016.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NMDS_results_/1305987", "title"=>"NMDS results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-11 02:57:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1893608"], "description"=>"<p>Conceptual model of interactions among browsing, grazing, woody plants, and perennial grasses. Model assumes that wild ungulates (top left) will both browse and graze, while cattle (top right) will primarily graze. Solid arrows indicate direct effects and assume net negative effects of herbivory and competition on plant biomass. Dashed arrows indicate indirect effects of browsing and grazing mediated through competition between woody plants (bottom left) and perennial grasses (bottom right). Browsing and grazing, depending on their timing, intensities, interactions, and net effects, can shift plant communities between woody- and grass-dominated states.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["herbivore", "sagebrush plant communities", "ecosystem state changes", "plant community properties", "usa", "species", "Sagebrush Plant Communities Herbivory", "Different Mammalian Herbivores", "plant community changes", "plant community composition", "ungulate herbivory"], "article_id"=>1305986, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari E. Veblen", "Kyle C. Nehring", "Christopher M. McGlone", "Mark E. Ritchie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118016.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_model_/1305986", "title"=>"Conceptual model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-11 02:57:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1893617", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1893618"], "description"=>"<div><p>Herbivory by both grazing and browsing ungulates shapes the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and both types of herbivory have been implicated in major ecosystem state changes. Despite the ecological consequences of differences in diets and feeding habits among herbivores, studies that experimentally distinguish effects of grazing from spatially co-occurring, but temporally segregated browsing are extremely rare. Here we use a set of long-term exclosures in northern Utah, USA, to determine how domestic grazers vs. wild ungulate herbivores (including browsers and mixed feeders) affect sagebrush-dominated plant communities that historically covered ~62 million ha in North America. We sampled plant community properties and found that after 22 years grazing and browsing elicited perceptible changes in overall plant community composition and distinct responses by individual plant species. In the woody layer of the plant community, release from winter and spring wild ungulate herbivory increased densities of larger Wyoming big sagebrush (<i>Artemisia tridentata</i>, ssp. <i>wyomingensis</i>) at the expense of small sagebrush, while disturbance associated with either cattle or wild ungulate activity alone was sufficient to increase bare ground and reduce cover of biological soil crusts. The perennial bunchgrass, bottlebrush squirretail (<i>Elymus elymoides</i>), responded positively to release from summer cattle grazing, and in turn appeared to competitively suppress another more grazing tolerant perennial grass, Sandberg’s blue grass (<i>Poa secunda</i>). Grazing by domestic cattle also was associated with increased non-native species biomass. Together, these results illustrate that ungulate herbivory has not caused sagebrush plant communities to undergo dramatic state shifts; however clear, herbivore-driven shifts are evident. In a dry, perennial-dominated system where plant community changes can occur very slowly, our results provide insights into potential long-term trajectories of these plant communities under different large herbivore regimes. Our results can be used to guide long-term management strategies for sagebrush systems and improve habitat for endemic wildlife species such as sage-grouse (<i>Centrocercus</i> spp.).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["herbivore", "sagebrush plant communities", "ecosystem state changes", "plant community properties", "usa", "species", "Sagebrush Plant Communities Herbivory", "Different Mammalian Herbivores", "plant community changes", "plant community composition", "ungulate herbivory"], "article_id"=>1305995, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari E. Veblen", "Kyle C. Nehring", "Christopher M. McGlone", "Mark E. Ritchie"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118016.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118016.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contrasting_Effects_of_Different_Mammalian_Herbivores_on_Sagebrush_Plant_Communities_/1305995", "title"=>"Contrasting Effects of Different Mammalian Herbivores on Sagebrush Plant Communities", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-02-11 02:57:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1893616"], "description"=>"<p>Means ±1 SE for perennial grass densities by species, sagebrush (<i>Artemisia tridentata</i> ssp. <i>wyomingensis</i>) densities by size class, inter-plant gaps by total length in each gap size class, and soil cover types across three herbivore treatments: 1) Total exclosure plots that exclude both cattle and wild ungulates, 2) Cattle exclosure plots that exclude only cattle, and 3) Control plots where no large herbivores are excluded.</p><p><sup>a</sup> #/ha</p><p><sup>b</sup> total cm</p><p><sup>c</sup> # pin hits (of 20)</p><p>Plant densities, gaps, and soil cover.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["herbivore", "sagebrush plant communities", "ecosystem state changes", "plant community properties", "usa", "species", "Sagebrush Plant Communities Herbivory", "Different Mammalian Herbivores", "plant community changes", "plant community composition", "ungulate herbivory"], "article_id"=>1305994, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari E. Veblen", "Kyle C. Nehring", "Christopher M. McGlone", "Mark E. Ritchie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118016.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plant_densities_gaps_and_soil_cover_/1305994", "title"=>"Plant densities, gaps, and soil cover.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-11 02:57:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1893611"], "description"=>"<p>Mean biomass ± 1 S.E. in (a) 2012 and (b) 2013 of different plant growth forms (Total [i.e., all groups combined], Shrubs, Grasses, Forbs, and Non-natives) across three herbivore treatments. “Total Ex” denotes exclusion of large herbivore wildlife and cattle, “Cattle Ex” denotes exclusion of only cattle (but not wild herbivores), and “Control” denotes no exclusion i.e., access by both types of herbivore. Asterisks indicate treatment-year combinations that are significantly different (p < 0.10) than all other treatment-year combinations within a given plant growth form.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["herbivore", "sagebrush plant communities", "ecosystem state changes", "plant community properties", "usa", "species", "Sagebrush Plant Communities Herbivory", "Different Mammalian Herbivores", "plant community changes", "plant community composition", "ungulate herbivory"], "article_id"=>1305989, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari E. Veblen", "Kyle C. Nehring", "Christopher M. McGlone", "Mark E. Ritchie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118016.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plant_Biomass_/1305989", "title"=>"Plant Biomass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-11 02:57:55"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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