Dental Ontogeny in Pliocene and Early Pleistocene Hominins
Publication Date
February 18, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Tanya M. Smith, Paul Tafforeau, Adeline Le Cabec, Anne Bonnin, et al
Volume
10
Issue
2
Pages
e0118118
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0118118
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25692765
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4334485
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25692765
Web of Science
000350061500098
Scopus
84923303921
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/dental-ontogeny-pliocene-early-pleistocene-hominins
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Dental ontogeny in Pliocene and early Pleistocene hominins", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tanya M.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"8756438300"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Tafforeau", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507952614"}, {"first_name"=>"Adeline", "last_name"=>"Le Cabec", "scopus_author_id"=>"55362629800"}, {"first_name"=>"Anne", "last_name"=>"Bonnin", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197166041"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexandra", "last_name"=>"Houssaye", "scopus_author_id"=>"17434845400"}, {"first_name"=>"Joane", "last_name"=>"Pouech", "scopus_author_id"=>"36451245700"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacopo", "last_name"=>"Moggi-Cecchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602689395"}, {"first_name"=>"Fredrick", "last_name"=>"Manthi", "scopus_author_id"=>"18437618200"}, {"first_name"=>"Carol", "last_name"=>"Ward", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401533281"}, {"first_name"=>"Masrour", "last_name"=>"Makaremi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56592900700"}, {"first_name"=>"Colin G.", "last_name"=>"Menter", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506762997"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"602339298", "sgr"=>"84923303921", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25692765", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84923303921", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0118118", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"2f72a8a2-11fc-39ca-9014-a85ef06cd9df", "abstract"=>"Until recently, our understanding of the evolution of human growth and development derived from studies of fossil juveniles that employed extant populations for both age determination and comparison. This circular approach has led to considerable debate about the human-like and ape-like affinities of fossil hominins. Teeth are invaluable for understanding maturation as age at death can be directly assessed from dental microstructure, and dental development has been shown to correlate with life history across primates broadly. We employ non-destructive synchrotron imaging to characterize incremental development, molar emergence, and age at death in more than 20 Australopithecus anamensis, Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus and South African early Homo juveniles. Long-period line periodicities range from at least 6-12 days (possibly 5-13 days), and do not support the hypothesis that australopiths have lower mean values than extant or fossil Homo. Crown formation times of australopith and early Homo postcanine teeth fall below or at the low end of extant human values; Paranthropus robustus dentitions have the shortest formation times. Pliocene and early Pleistocene hominins show remarkable variation, and previous reports of age at death that employ a narrow range of estimated long-period line periodicities, cuspal enamel thicknesses, or initiation ages are likely to be in error. New chronological ages for SK 62 and StW 151 are several months younger than previous histological estimates, while Sts 24 is more than one year older. Extant human standards overestimate age at death in hominins predating Homo sapiens, and should not be applied to other fossil taxa. We urge caution when inferring life history as aspects of dental development in Pliocene and early Pleistocene fossils are distinct from modern humans and African apes, and recent work has challenged the predictive power of primate-wide associations between hominoid first molar emergence and certain life history variables.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dental-ontogeny-pliocene-early-pleistocene-hominins", "reader_count"=>88, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. 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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911103"], "description"=>"<div><p>Until recently, our understanding of the evolution of human growth and development derived from studies of fossil juveniles that employed extant populations for both age determination and comparison. This circular approach has led to considerable debate about the human-like and ape-like affinities of fossil hominins. Teeth are invaluable for understanding maturation as age at death can be directly assessed from dental microstructure, and dental development has been shown to correlate with life history across primates broadly. We employ non-destructive synchrotron imaging to characterize incremental development, molar emergence, and age at death in more than 20 <i>Australopithecus anamensis</i>, <i>Australopithecus africanus</i>, <i>Paranthropus robustus</i> and South African early <i>Homo</i> juveniles. Long-period line periodicities range from at least 6–12 days (possibly 5–13 days), and do not support the hypothesis that australopiths have lower mean values than extant or fossil <i>Homo</i>. Crown formation times of australopith and early <i>Homo</i> postcanine teeth fall below or at the low end of extant human values; <i>Paranthropus robustus</i> dentitions have the shortest formation times. Pliocene and early Pleistocene hominins show remarkable variation, and previous reports of age at death that employ a narrow range of estimated long-period line periodicities, cuspal enamel thicknesses, or initiation ages are likely to be in error. New chronological ages for SK 62 and StW 151 are several months younger than previous histological estimates, while Sts 24 is more than one year older. Extant human standards overestimate age at death in hominins predating <i>Homo sapiens</i>, and should not be applied to other fossil taxa. We urge caution when inferring life history as aspects of dental development in Pliocene and early Pleistocene fossils are distinct from modern humans and African apes, and recent work has challenged the predictive power of primate-wide associations between hominoid first molar emergence and certain life history variables.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["life history variables", "Pleistocene hominins show", "sk", "molar emergence", "inferring life history", "cuspal enamel thicknesses", "crown formation times", "hominins predating Homo", "Homo postcanine teeth fall", "Paranthropus robustus dentitions", "20 Australopithecus anamensis", "pliocene"], "article_id"=>1312522, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tanya M. Smith", "Paul Tafforeau", "Adeline Le Cabec", "Anne Bonnin", "Alexandra Houssaye", "Joane Pouech", "Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi", "Fredrick Manthi", "Carol Ward", "Masrour Makaremi", "Colin G. Menter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dental_Ontogeny_in_Pliocene_and_Early_Pleistocene_Hominins_/1312522", "title"=>"Dental Ontogeny in Pliocene and Early Pleistocene Hominins", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:58:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911077"], "description"=>"<p>DNH 67 (right lower first molar: left), DNH 71 (right upper central incisor: middle), and DNH 70 (left upper first molar: right). Images are from scans performed with the following voxel sizes: 20 μm (upper row), 5 μm (middle row), and 0.7 μm (lower row; DNH 67: left, DNH 70: right). An identical internal developmental defect pattern confirmed that the two molars, which were found isolated but in close proximity, came from the same individual. They also both show an identical long-period line periodicity of 8 days, as 8 light and dark bands (cross-striations illustrated in white brackets) can be seen between successive long-period lines (Retzius lines illustrated by white arrows). It was not possible to determine the age death for this individual due to postmortem loss of the incisor cervix and dentine from all teeth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["life history variables", "Pleistocene hominins show", "sk", "molar emergence", "inferring life history", "cuspal enamel thicknesses", "crown formation times", "hominins predating Homo", "Homo postcanine teeth fall", "Paranthropus robustus dentitions", "20 Australopithecus anamensis", "pliocene"], "article_id"=>1312502, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tanya M. Smith", "Paul Tafforeau", "Adeline Le Cabec", "Anne Bonnin", "Alexandra Houssaye", "Joane Pouech", "Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi", "Fredrick Manthi", "Carol Ward", "Masrour Makaremi", "Colin G. Menter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multiscale_synchrotron_imaging_of_a_fossil_Homo_juvenile_individual_/1312502", "title"=>"Multiscale synchrotron imaging of a fossil <i>Homo</i> juvenile individual.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:58:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911078"], "description"=>"<p>Two values (5 or 6 days) are presented for <i>A</i>. <i>anamensis</i> KNM-KP 34725 due to some uncertainty (indicated by “?”), as shown in Fig. B in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 File</a>. Individual hominin values and sample sizes of extant taxa are given in Tables A and B in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 File</a>, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["life history variables", "Pleistocene hominins show", "sk", "molar emergence", "inferring life history", "cuspal enamel thicknesses", "crown formation times", "hominins predating Homo", "Homo postcanine teeth fall", "Paranthropus robustus dentitions", "20 Australopithecus anamensis", "pliocene"], "article_id"=>1312503, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tanya M. Smith", "Paul Tafforeau", "Adeline Le Cabec", "Anne Bonnin", "Alexandra Houssaye", "Joane Pouech", "Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi", "Fredrick Manthi", "Carol Ward", "Masrour Makaremi", "Colin G. Menter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Long_period_line_periodicity_values_in_Pliocene_and_early_Pleistocene_hominins_extant_humans_and_African_apes_/1312503", "title"=>"Long-period line periodicity values in Pliocene and early Pleistocene hominins, extant humans, and African apes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:58:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911079"], "description"=>"<p>UM1 ml cusp = maxillary first molar mesiolingual cusp; LM1 ml cusp = mandibular first molar mesiolingual cusp. UM1 ml cusp of <i>A</i>. <i>anamensis</i> from ref. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref065\" target=\"_blank\">65</a>]; LM1 ml cusp of <i>A</i>. <i>afarensis</i> from ref. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref047\" target=\"_blank\">47</a>]. Extant comparative data sources are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["life history variables", "Pleistocene hominins show", "sk", "molar emergence", "inferring life history", "cuspal enamel thicknesses", "crown formation times", "hominins predating Homo", "Homo postcanine teeth fall", "Paranthropus robustus dentitions", "20 Australopithecus anamensis", "pliocene"], "article_id"=>1312504, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tanya M. Smith", "Paul Tafforeau", "Adeline Le Cabec", "Anne Bonnin", "Alexandra Houssaye", "Joane Pouech", "Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi", "Fredrick Manthi", "Carol Ward", "Masrour Makaremi", "Colin G. Menter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>54, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_molar_crown_formation_times_in_days_in_early_hominins_and_extant_apes_and_humans_/1312504", "title"=>"Average molar crown formation times (in days) in early hominins and extant apes and humans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:58:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911080"], "description"=>"<p>Two values are presented for <i>A</i>. <i>anamensis</i> KNM-KP 34725 due to uncertainty in the periodicity value. Data on extant human children derive from panoramic X-rays of known-age European and North African children, representing an expanded sample originally detailed in [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref054\" target=\"_blank\">54</a>]. Fossil <i>Homo sapiens</i> and <i>Homo neanderthalensis</i> samples are from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref054\" target=\"_blank\">54</a>]; <i>Pan troglodytes</i> are known-age wild western chimpanzees [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref072\" target=\"_blank\">72</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["life history variables", "Pleistocene hominins show", "sk", "molar emergence", "inferring life history", "cuspal enamel thicknesses", "crown formation times", "hominins predating Homo", "Homo postcanine teeth fall", "Paranthropus robustus dentitions", "20 Australopithecus anamensis", "pliocene"], "article_id"=>1312505, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tanya M. Smith", "Paul Tafforeau", "Adeline Le Cabec", "Anne Bonnin", "Alexandra Houssaye", "Joane Pouech", "Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi", "Fredrick Manthi", "Carol Ward", "Masrour Makaremi", "Colin G. Menter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ages_predicted_from_extant_human_molar_calcification_standards_compared_to_known_or_histologically_derived_ages_/1312505", "title"=>"Ages predicted from extant human molar calcification standards compared to known- or histologically-derived ages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:58:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911081"], "description"=>"<p>Tooth types: R—right, L—left, U—upper, L—lower, I—incisor, C—canine, P—premolar, M—molar, dP—deciduous premolar. Many of these teeth had yet to complete crown formation prior to death, and none of the fossils in this study possessed associated third molars.</p><p>Hominin material included in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["life history variables", "Pleistocene hominins show", "sk", "molar emergence", "inferring life history", "cuspal enamel thicknesses", "crown formation times", "hominins predating Homo", "Homo postcanine teeth fall", "Paranthropus robustus dentitions", "20 Australopithecus anamensis", "pliocene"], "article_id"=>1312506, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tanya M. Smith", "Paul Tafforeau", "Adeline Le Cabec", "Anne Bonnin", "Alexandra Houssaye", "Joane Pouech", "Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi", "Fredrick Manthi", "Carol Ward", "Masrour Makaremi", "Colin G. Menter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hominin_material_included_in_this_study_/1312506", "title"=>"Hominin material included in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:58:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911082"], "description"=>"<p>Tooth/cusp types: U—upper, L—lower, I—incisor, C—canine, P—premolar, M—molar, buc—buccal cusp, ling—lingual cusp, mb—mesiobuccal cusp, ml—mesiolingual cusp, db—distobuccal cusp, dl—distolingual cusp. <i>Homo sapiens</i> European (EUR) and South African (SA) ranges and sample sizes given in refs. 54, 83. <i>Pan troglodytes</i> data modified from refs. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref072\" target=\"_blank\">72</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref084\" target=\"_blank\">84</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref085\" target=\"_blank\">85</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref088\" target=\"_blank\">88</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref104\" target=\"_blank\">104</a>]; <i>Gorilla gorilla</i> data from refs. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref010\" target=\"_blank\">10</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref089\" target=\"_blank\">89</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref105\" target=\"_blank\">105</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref106\" target=\"_blank\">106</a>]; samples sizes for extant apes are given in parentheses when greater than one. Fossil hominin sample sizes are given in parentheses when greater than one; <i>A</i>. <i>anamensis</i> values reported for periodicity of 5 or 6 days in KNM-KP 34725; StW 151 values based on cuspal daily secretion rates of 5.53 um/day (<i>A</i>. <i>africanus</i>) from ref. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref053\" target=\"_blank\">53</a>] and 6.06 um/day (early <i>Homo</i>, determined from this study); KB 5223 values based on cuspal daily secretion rates from ref. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref057\" target=\"_blank\">57</a>] and long-period line periodicity values of 12 or 13.</p><p>Average crown formation times (in days) determined by histological methods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["life history variables", "Pleistocene hominins show", "sk", "molar emergence", "inferring life history", "cuspal enamel thicknesses", "crown formation times", "hominins predating Homo", "Homo postcanine teeth fall", "Paranthropus robustus dentitions", "20 Australopithecus anamensis", "pliocene"], "article_id"=>1312507, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tanya M. Smith", "Paul Tafforeau", "Adeline Le Cabec", "Anne Bonnin", "Alexandra Houssaye", "Joane Pouech", "Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi", "Fredrick Manthi", "Carol Ward", "Masrour Makaremi", "Colin G. Menter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_crown_formation_times_in_days_determined_by_histological_methods_/1312507", "title"=>"Average crown formation times (in days) determined by histological methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:58:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911083"], "description"=>"<p>Details for individual calculations are given in Table E in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 File</a>. Ages for KNM-KP 34725, DNH 83, and KB 5223 are given for multiple periodicity values shown in parentheses (which should be considered alternative ages rather than error ranges). The age range for each periodicity value in KB 5223 also reflects some uncertainty in the age of an accentuated line matched across the dentition. The age range for TM 1536 represents estimates derived from lower central incisor initiation ages for two <i>P</i>. <i>robustus</i> specimens. The age range for DNH 47 reflects some uncertainty in postnatal long-period line number. The age range for DNH 108 reflects some uncertainty in the age of an accentuated line matched across the dentition. Due to taxonomic uncertainty, the age for StW 151 is based on estimates of average cuspal enamel secretion rates from <i>A</i>. <i>africanus</i> (from ref. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118#pone.0118118.ref053\" target=\"_blank\">53</a>]) and South African <i>Homo</i> (measured directly during this study), which should be considered alternative ages rather than error ranges.</p><p>Age at death for juvenile hominins based on incremental dental development.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["life history variables", "Pleistocene hominins show", "sk", "molar emergence", "inferring life history", "cuspal enamel thicknesses", "crown formation times", "hominins predating Homo", "Homo postcanine teeth fall", "Paranthropus robustus dentitions", "20 Australopithecus anamensis", "pliocene"], "article_id"=>1312508, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tanya M. Smith", "Paul Tafforeau", "Adeline Le Cabec", "Anne Bonnin", "Alexandra Houssaye", "Joane Pouech", "Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi", "Fredrick Manthi", "Carol Ward", "Masrour Makaremi", "Colin G. Menter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118118.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_at_death_for_juvenile_hominins_based_on_incremental_dental_development_/1312508", "title"=>"Age at death for juvenile hominins based on incremental dental development.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:58:18"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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