The Psychedelic State Induced by Ayahuasca Modulates the Activity and Connectivity of the Default Mode Network
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{"title"=>"The psychedelic state induced by Ayahuasca modulates the activity and connectivity of the Default Mode Network", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Fernanda", "last_name"=>"Palhano-Fontes", "scopus_author_id"=>"55974198400"}, {"first_name"=>"Katia C.", "last_name"=>"Andrade", "scopus_author_id"=>"24167743400"}, {"first_name"=>"Luis F.", "last_name"=>"Tofoli", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505724820"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonio C.Santos", "last_name"=>"Jose", "scopus_author_id"=>"56524986900"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexandre S.", "last_name"=>"Crippa", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198015486"}, {"first_name"=>"Jaime E.C.", "last_name"=>"Hallak", "scopus_author_id"=>"34569763900"}, {"first_name"=>"Sidarta", "last_name"=>"Ribeiro", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102629648"}, {"first_name"=>"Draulio B.", "last_name"=>"De Araujo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701820375"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84923294503", "sgr"=>"84923294503", "pui"=>"602339285", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"25693169", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0118143"}, "id"=>"02aa7458-5c98-37df-83b2-9299481bd27e", "abstract"=>"The experiences induced by psychedelics share a wide variety of subjective features, related to the complex changes in perception and cognition induced by this class of drugs. A remarkable increase in introspection is at the core of these altered states of consciousness. Self-oriented mental activity has been consistently linked to the Default Mode Network (DMN), a set of brain regions more active during rest than during the execution of a goal-directed task. Here we used fMRI technique to inspect the DMN during the psychedelic state induced by Ayahuasca in ten experienced subjects. Ayahuasca is a potion traditionally used by Amazonian Amerindians composed by a mixture of compounds that increase monoaminergic transmission. In particular, we examined whether Ayahuasca changes the activity and connectivity of the DMN and the connection between the DMN and the task-positive network (TPN). Ayahuasca caused a significant decrease in activity through most parts of the DMN, including its most consistent hubs: the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC)/Precuneus and the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). Functional connectivity within the PCC/Precuneus decreased after Ayahuasca intake. No significant change was observed in the DMN-TPN orthogonality. Altogether, our results support the notion that the altered state of consciousness induced by Ayahuasca, like those induced by psilocybin (another serotonergic psychedelic), meditation and sleep, is linked to the modulation of the activity and the connectivity of the DMN.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/psychedelic-state-induced-ayahuasca-modulates-activity-connectivity-default-mode-network-9", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Psychology"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911076"], "description"=>"<p>Nvoxel = number of voxels in each ROI, mean and standard deviation of β-values before and after Ayahuasca ingestion (in % BOLD signal change). * Indicates significant differences after Ayahuasca (p<0.0011, corresponding to p<0.01 corrected for multiple comparisons by the number of ROI).</p><p>Changes in DMN (rest > task) BOLD signal following Ayahuasca intake.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychedelics share", "tpn", "Ayahuasca intake", "brain regions", "dmn", "pcc", "Ayahuasca changes", "medial prefrontal cortex", "Ayahuasca Modulates", "results support", "psychedelic state", "Posterior Cingulate Cortex", "functional connectivity", "default mode network", "fMRI technique", "increase monoaminergic transmission", "Psychedelic State Induced", "Amazonian Amerindians"], "article_id"=>1312501, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fernanda Palhano-Fontes", "Katia C. Andrade", "Luis F. Tofoli", "Antonio C. Santos", "José Alexandre S. Crippa", "Jaime E. C. Hallak", "Sidarta Ribeiro", "Draulio B. de Araujo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118143.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_DMN_rest_gt_task_BOLD_signal_following_Ayahuasca_intake_/1312501", "title"=>"Changes in DMN (rest > task) BOLD signal following Ayahuasca intake.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:59:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911074"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Connectivity within the PCC/Precuneus decreased after Ayahuasca ingestion. (B) Considering only the PCC seed, we can observe that this seed drives the contribution for the decrease in DMN connectivity. Images were thresholded using a cluster corrected pcluster < 0.01 (using a voxel collection threshold of p < 0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychedelics share", "tpn", "Ayahuasca intake", "brain regions", "dmn", "pcc", "Ayahuasca changes", "medial prefrontal cortex", "Ayahuasca Modulates", "results support", "psychedelic state", "Posterior Cingulate Cortex", "functional connectivity", "default mode network", "fMRI technique", "increase monoaminergic transmission", "Psychedelic State Induced", "Amazonian Amerindians"], "article_id"=>1312499, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fernanda Palhano-Fontes", "Katia C. Andrade", "Luis F. Tofoli", "Antonio C. Santos", "José Alexandre S. Crippa", "Jaime E. C. Hallak", "Sidarta Ribeiro", "Draulio B. de Araujo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118143.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_functional_connectivity_of_DMN_/1312499", "title"=>"Changes in functional connectivity of DMN.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:59:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911075"], "description"=>"<p>(A) TPN (red) and DMN (blue) masks are shown. (B) TPN and DMN were anti-correlated when the global signal was regressed out, no significant alterations are observed following Ayahuasca intake. (C) Without regression against global signal, TPN and DMN were positively correlated and no significant changes were observed after Ayahuasca ingestion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychedelics share", "tpn", "Ayahuasca intake", "brain regions", "dmn", "pcc", "Ayahuasca changes", "medial prefrontal cortex", "Ayahuasca Modulates", "results support", "psychedelic state", "Posterior Cingulate Cortex", "functional connectivity", "default mode network", "fMRI technique", "increase monoaminergic transmission", "Psychedelic State Induced", "Amazonian Amerindians"], "article_id"=>1312500, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fernanda Palhano-Fontes", "Katia C. Andrade", "Luis F. Tofoli", "Antonio C. Santos", "José Alexandre S. Crippa", "Jaime E. C. Hallak", "Sidarta Ribeiro", "Draulio B. de Araujo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118143.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Task_Positive_and_Default_Mode_Networks_/1312500", "title"=>"Task Positive and Default Mode Networks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:59:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911073"], "description"=>"<p>P < 0.05 uncorrected.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychedelics share", "tpn", "Ayahuasca intake", "brain regions", "dmn", "pcc", "Ayahuasca changes", "medial prefrontal cortex", "Ayahuasca Modulates", "results support", "psychedelic state", "Posterior Cingulate Cortex", "functional connectivity", "default mode network", "fMRI technique", "increase monoaminergic transmission", "Psychedelic State Induced", "Amazonian Amerindians"], "article_id"=>1312498, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fernanda Palhano-Fontes", "Katia C. Andrade", "Luis F. Tofoli", "Antonio C. Santos", "José Alexandre S. Crippa", "Jaime E. C. Hallak", "Sidarta Ribeiro", "Draulio B. de Araujo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118143.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_maps_showing_regions_where_BOLD_signal_of_the_DMN_rest_gt_task_decreases_after_Ayahuasca_ingestion_/1312498", "title"=>"Statistical maps showing regions where BOLD signal of the DMN (rest > task) decreases after Ayahuasca ingestion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:59:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911084", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911085", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911086", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911087", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1911088"], "description"=>"<div><p>The experiences induced by psychedelics share a wide variety of subjective features, related to the complex changes in perception and cognition induced by this class of drugs. A remarkable increase in introspection is at the core of these altered states of consciousness. Self-oriented mental activity has been consistently linked to the Default Mode Network (DMN), a set of brain regions more active during rest than during the execution of a goal-directed task. Here we used fMRI technique to inspect the DMN during the psychedelic state induced by Ayahuasca in ten experienced subjects. Ayahuasca is a potion traditionally used by Amazonian Amerindians composed by a mixture of compounds that increase monoaminergic transmission. In particular, we examined whether Ayahuasca changes the activity and connectivity of the DMN and the connection between the DMN and the task-positive network (TPN). Ayahuasca caused a significant decrease in activity through most parts of the DMN, including its most consistent hubs: the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC)/Precuneus and the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). Functional connectivity within the PCC/Precuneus decreased after Ayahuasca intake. No significant change was observed in the DMN-TPN orthogonality. Altogether, our results support the notion that the altered state of consciousness induced by Ayahuasca, like those induced by psilocybin (another serotonergic psychedelic), meditation and sleep, is linked to the modulation of the activity and the connectivity of the DMN.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychedelics share", "tpn", "Ayahuasca intake", "brain regions", "dmn", "pcc", "Ayahuasca changes", "medial prefrontal cortex", "Ayahuasca Modulates", "results support", "psychedelic state", "Posterior Cingulate Cortex", "functional connectivity", "default mode network", "fMRI technique", "increase monoaminergic transmission", "Psychedelic State Induced", "Amazonian Amerindians"], "article_id"=>1312509, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fernanda Palhano-Fontes", "Katia C. Andrade", "Luis F. Tofoli", "Antonio C. Santos", "José Alexandre S. Crippa", "Jaime E. C. Hallak", "Sidarta Ribeiro", "Draulio B. de Araujo"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118143.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118143.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118143.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118143.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118143.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>53, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Psychedelic_State_Induced_by_Ayahuasca_Modulates_the_Activity_and_Connectivity_of_the_Default_Mode_Network_/1312509", "title"=>"The Psychedelic State Induced by Ayahuasca Modulates the Activity and Connectivity of the Default Mode Network", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-02-18 03:59:37"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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