Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain
Publication Date
June 24, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Mukta Chakraborty, Solveig Walløe, Signe Nedergaard, Emma E. Fridel, et al
Volume
10
Issue
6
Pages
e0118496
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0118496
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107173
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4479475
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26107173
Web of Science
000356932500003
Scopus
84939183667
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/core-shell-song-systems-unique-parrot-brain
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Core and shell song systems unique to the parrot brain", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mukta", "last_name"=>"Chakraborty", "scopus_author_id"=>"57200771783"}, {"first_name"=>"Solveig", "last_name"=>"Walløe", "scopus_author_id"=>"36657645700"}, {"first_name"=>"Signe", "last_name"=>"Nedergaard", "scopus_author_id"=>"57190365175"}, {"first_name"=>"Emma E.", "last_name"=>"Fridel", "scopus_author_id"=>"56780462900"}, {"first_name"=>"Torben", "last_name"=>"Dabelsteen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003875538"}, {"first_name"=>"Bente", "last_name"=>"Pakkenberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006126244"}, {"first_name"=>"Mads F.", "last_name"=>"Bertelsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55771341500"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerry M.", "last_name"=>"Dorrestein", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005287281"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven E.", "last_name"=>"Brauth", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004461997"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah E.", "last_name"=>"Durand", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006172834"}, {"first_name"=>"Erich D.", "last_name"=>"Jarvis", "scopus_author_id"=>"35414140800"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84939183667", "pmid"=>"26107173", "sgr"=>"84939183667", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"605585573", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0118496"}, "id"=>"c700d5ac-d32b-300a-a380-383145466fad", "abstract"=>"The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot \"core\" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the \"shell\" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/core-shell-song-systems-unique-parrot-brain", "reader_count"=>55, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>9, "Philosophy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Linguistics"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>9}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>3, "Netherlands"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "France"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146807"], "description"=>"<p>The data represent qualitative analyses of gene expression (mRNA or protein) labeling in the song nucleus relative to the surround of that same brain subdivision conducted in this and other studies. + = Relative level of expression higher than the surrounding non-vocal or non-motor areas;— = lower expression; no value entered means no difference relative to the surrounding areas. The other studies are: <i>PVALB</i>, Hara et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref038\" target=\"_blank\">38</a>]; <i>SLIT1</i>, Wang et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref039\" target=\"_blank\">39</a>]; <i>FOXP1</i>, Haesler et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref054\" target=\"_blank\">54</a>]; <i>EGR-1</i>, Feenders et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref035\" target=\"_blank\">35</a>]; <i>NR2A</i>, Wada et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref056\" target=\"_blank\">56</a>]; <i>GLUR1</i>, Wada et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref056\" target=\"_blank\">56</a>]; NADPH-d, Brauth et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref057\" target=\"_blank\">57</a>]; <i>AR</i>, Matsunaga and Okanoya [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref060\" target=\"_blank\">60</a>]; mENK, Durand et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref058\" target=\"_blank\">58</a>]; TH, Roberts et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref061\" target=\"_blank\">61</a>]; CGRP-LI, Durand et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref059\" target=\"_blank\">59</a>]; <i>DUSP1</i>, Horita et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref045\" target=\"_blank\">45</a>], <i>C-FOS</i>, Jarvis [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref044\" target=\"_blank\">44</a>]; <i>EGR-1</i>, Jarvis and Mello [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>]. The <i>NR2A</i> mRNA levels are also consistent with protein levels detected by immunocytochemistry [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref085\" target=\"_blank\">85</a>].</p><p>Summary of gene expression specializations in budgerigar.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462176, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_gene_expression_specializations_in_budgerigar_/1462176", "title"=>"Summary of gene expression specializations in budgerigar.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146810", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146811"], "description"=>"<div><p>The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462179, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Core_and_Shell_Song_Systems_Unique_to_the_Parrot_Brain_/1462179", "title"=>"Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146790"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a-b</b>) <i>SLIT1</i> mRNA is downregulated in the AAC core (dashed white lines), but not in the AAC shell relative to the surrounding arcopallium. (<b>c-d</b>) <i>FOXP1</i> mRNA is upregulated in the NLC core (dashed white lines) and part of the shell relative to the surrounding nidopallium. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. <i>FOXP1</i> images adapted from Feenders et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref035\" target=\"_blank\">35</a>]. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462159, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Darkfield_photomicrographs_showing_specialized_SLIT1_and_FOXP1_mRNA_expression_in_budgerigar_song_nuclei_/1462159", "title"=>"Darkfield photomicrographs showing specialized <i>SLIT1</i> and <i>FOXP1</i> mRNA expression in budgerigar song nuclei.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146803"], "description"=>"<p><b>(a-h)</b> Low and high power views of darkfield images showing <i>PVALB</i> mRNA expression in the core region of the NAO song nucleus in eight parrot species. Silver grains is white; red-brown is cresyl violet staining. Brain sections are not to scale, due to large size differences between species. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462172, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anterior_song_nucleus_NAO_in_different_parrot_species_/1462172", "title"=>"Anterior song nucleus NAO in different parrot species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146800"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Targeted injection of BDA in the MO shell; (<b>b</b>) High power view of labeled fibers and cells in the MO core; (<b>c</b>) High power view of densely labeled cells and fibers in the NAO shell; (<b>d</b>) Sparse labeled fibers present in the NAO core; (<b>e</b>) Labeled fibers are present in the dorsal and ventral NLC shell; (<b>f</b>) High power view of labeled fibers present in the dorsal region of the NLC shell; (<b>g</b>) Labeled fibers present in the ventral region of the NLC shell; (<b>h</b>) No labeled fibers or cells visible in the NLC core; (<b>i</b>) Labeled fibers in the AAC shell; (<b>j</b>) No labeled fibers or cells visible in the AAC core. Red arrows indicate labeled cells and fibers. Black worm like structures are blood vessels that were not completely perfused. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462169, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Connections_of_the_MO_shell_/1462169", "title"=>"Connections of the MO shell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146793"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a-b</b>) Brightfield photomicrographs showing higher NADPH-d staining in the NLC, AAC, MO, and NAO cores, and moderate specialized expression in the NLC, AAC, and MO shells. (<b>c-d</b>) Darkfield photomicrographs showing higher mENK staining in the NLC, AAC, MO, and NAO cores, and more moderate levels in the shells. Figures adapted from Brauth et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref057\" target=\"_blank\">57</a>] and Durand et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref058\" target=\"_blank\">58</a>], and reproduced with permission from S.E. Brauth and S.E. Durand. Abbreviations inside the images were based on an older nomenclature at the time. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. Scale bars = 100 μm in <b>a</b>—<b>b</b>, and 1mm in <b>c</b>—<b>d</b>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462162, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brightfield_and_darkfield_photomicrographs_showing_specialized_NADPH_d_and_mENK_staining_in_budgerigar_song_nuclei_/1462162", "title"=>"Brightfield and darkfield photomicrographs showing specialized NADPH-d and mENK staining in budgerigar song nuclei.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146806"], "description"=>"<p>Drawn are sections in the coronal plane through a budgerigar brain, showing the core (red shapes) and surrounding shell (yellow shapes) song nuclei. Arrows show descending core-to-core pathways (orange), descending shell-to-shell pathways (purple), descending connections to MMSt (dark blue), ascending bilateral song pathways (blue), and shell and core interactions within the same song nucleus (green). The connections are based on findings in this and prior studies of Durand et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref034\" target=\"_blank\">34</a>], Brauth et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref031\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>], Striedter [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref032\" target=\"_blank\">32</a>], and Paton et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref033\" target=\"_blank\">33</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462175, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g020", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_drawing_summarizing_the_findings_of_this_and_other_studies_/1462175", "title"=>"Schematic drawing summarizing the findings of this and other studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146777"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Darkfield images of <i>EGR-1</i>, <i>DUSP1</i>, and <i>PVALB</i> mRNA expression in sections containing song nuclei of the posterior vocal pathway. (i) Vocalizing-induced <i>EGR-1</i> expression within the NLC core and shell; <i>EGR-1</i> mRNA expression is not distinguishable in AAC in this animal because of lower amount of vocalizing behavior; (ii) Vocalizing-induced <i>DUSP1</i> expression in the NLC and AAC core and shells; (iii) <i>PVALB</i> specialized expression in the NLC and AAC core and shells, as well as adjacent motor areas around the shells; (iv) Lack of hearing-induced <i>EGR-1</i> expression in the NLC and AAC in a silent bird; (v) Movement-induced <i>EGR-1</i> expression in regions around the NLC shell and AAC shell song nuclei; (vi) Merged images of movement-induced <i>EGR-1</i> expression (green) which overlaps with the motor part of the shell region defined by <i>PVALB</i> expression (purple), and the <i>PVALB</i>-defined core and shell regions of NLC and AAC (purple); (vii) Schematic diagram showing regions of song nuclei cores (red) and shells (yellow), and adjacent motor shell regions (green). (<b>b</b>) Darkfield photomicrographs of <i>PVALB</i>, <i>EGR-1</i>, and <i>DUSP1</i> mRNA expression in coronal brain sections containing anterior vocal pathway song nuclei. (i) Vocalizing-induced <i>EGR-1</i> expression in the MO and NAO core and shell song nuclei, and the MMSt song nucleus; (ii) Vocalizing-induced <i>DUSP1</i> expression in the MO and NAO core and part of shell song nuclei; (iii) <i>PVALB</i> expression in the MO core; (iv); <i>PVALB</i> expression in the NAO core; (v) Movement-induced <i>EGR-1</i> expression in the areas surrounding the MO and NAO shells; (vi) Schematic diagram showing regions of the MO and NAO core (in red) and shell (yellow) song nuclei, and motor regions surrounding them (green). Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. Some sections are compiled from the same animals of studies conducted in Horita et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref045\" target=\"_blank\">45</a>] (panels a-i to ii, b-ii), Jarvis and Mello [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>] (a-iv, b-i), and Feenders et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref035\" target=\"_blank\">35</a>] (panels a-v, b-v). See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> for nomenclature. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462152, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Darkfield_photomicrographs_showing_PVALB_EGR_1_and_DUSP1_mRNA_expression_in_the_budgerigar_brain_in_different_behavioral_states_/1462152", "title"=>"Darkfield photomicrographs showing <i>PVALB</i>, <i>EGR-1</i>, and <i>DUSP1</i> mRNA expression in the budgerigar brain in different behavioral states.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146809"], "description"=>"<p><b>*</b> NAs defined in Striedter [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref032\" target=\"_blank\">32</a>] is a small portion of what we find as the NAO shell, in which authors said was analogous to songbird LMAN. NAom defined in Durand et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref034\" target=\"_blank\">34</a>] is another small portion of what we define as NAO shell. NAo core and surround and HVo core and surround in Jarvis et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>] was together called the NAo and HVo complex. AAcv in Durand et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref034\" target=\"_blank\">34</a>] and Jarvis et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>] comprised the ventral part of the AAC shell described here.</p><p>List of abbreviated names of song nuclei used in describing the parrot song system by various studies interpreted relative to our study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462178, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_abbreviated_names_of_song_nuclei_used_in_describing_the_parrot_song_system_by_various_studies_interpreted_relative_to_our_study_/1462178", "title"=>"List of abbreviated names of song nuclei used in describing the parrot song system by various studies interpreted relative to our study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146799"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Targeted injection of biocytin in the MO core; (<b>b</b>) Densely labeled fibers in adjacent parts of the MO core and shell; (<b>c</b>) Densely labeled fibers within the MO core, NAO core, and in MMSt, and sparse fibers in the NAO shell; (<b>d</b>) Densely labeled fibers and cells in the MO shell; (<b>e</b>) High power view of labeled fibers in the NAO core; (<b>f</b>) Sparse labeled fibers present in the NAO shell; (<b>g</b>) Dense clusters of labeled fibers in MMSt; (<b>h</b>) Clusters of fibers projecting to the NLC core and AAC core; (<b>i</b>) High power view of labeled fibers in the AAC core; (<b>j</b>) Absence of fibers in the AAC shell (<b>k</b>) Clusters of labeled fibers in the NLC core; (<b>l</b>) Sparse fibers present in the NLC shell. Red arrows indicate labeled cells and fibers. Black worm like structures are blood vessels that were not completely perfused. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462168, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Connections_of_the_MO_core_/1462168", "title"=>"Connections of the MO core.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146805"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Ratios of core and shell areas of song nuclei in males; (<b>b</b>) Ratios of core and shell areas of song nuclei in females. Values were normalized to brain section size, from the same brain sections that core and shell measurements were taken from. Error bars are S.E.M., in cases where we had n > 1 animal. (<b>c-f</b>) Regression log scale plots of core and shell nuclei area sizes relative to brain section area size, to test for presence of isometric (slope B ~1; p < 0.05) or allometric (slope B >1 or <1; p < 0.05) scaling. (<b>g-j</b>) Regression log scale plots of shell:core (inverse of core:shell in b) nuclei area size ratios relative to brain section area size, to determine if the ratio is related to the brain section size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462174, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g019", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differences_in_core_and_shell_song_nuclei_area_sizes_across_species_/1462174", "title"=>"Differences in core and shell song nuclei area sizes across species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146802"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a-h</b>) Low and high power views of darkfield images showing <i>PVALB</i> mRNA expression in the core region of the MO song nucleus in eight parrot species. Silver grains is white; red-brown is cresyl violet staining. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. Brain sections are not to scale, due to large size differences between species. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462171, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anterior_song_nucleus_MO_in_different_parrot_species_/1462171", "title"=>"Anterior song nucleus MO in different parrot species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146761"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) High power view of darkfield (i-ii) and brightfield (cresyl violet stained) (iii) images showing expression of parvalbumin mRNA. (<b>b</b>) Serial sections of a budgerigar brain (i-xvi) showing the core and shell regions of NLC and AAC song nuclei. Silver grains is white; cresyl violet is red-brown. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. See list for abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462138, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PVALB_mRNA_expression_in_the_core_and_shell_regions_of_the_NLC_and_AAC_song_nuclei_in_the_budgerigar_brain_/1462138", "title"=>"<i>PVALB</i> mRNA expression in the core and shell regions of the NLC and AAC song nuclei in the budgerigar brain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146792"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a-b</b>) <i>NR2A</i> mRNA is upregulated in the NLC core (dashed red lines in b) relative to the surrounding nidopallium. (<b>c-d</b>) <i>GluR1</i> mRNA is downregulated in the NLC core (dashed red line in d) relative to the surrounding nidopallium. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. Sections are adjacent to those in Wada et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref056\" target=\"_blank\">56</a>]. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462161, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brightfield_photomicrographs_of_autoradiographs_of_in_situ_hybridizations_showing_specialized_NR2A_and_GluR1_mRNA_expression_in_budgerigar_song_nuclei_/1462161", "title"=>"Brightfield photomicrographs of autoradiographs of <i>in situ</i> hybridizations showing specialized <i>NR2A</i> and <i>GluR1</i> mRNA expression in budgerigar song nuclei.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146785"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) <i>PVALB</i> and <i>C-FOS</i> mRNA expression in the NLC and AAC core and shells. (i) <i>PVALB</i> specialized mRNA expression in the NLC and AAC core and shell, as well as adjacent motor areas; (ii) Vocalizing-driven <i>C-FOS</i> mRNA expression in the NLC and AAC core and shells; (iii) Movement-induced <i>C-FOS</i> mRNA expression in parts of the shell regions around NLC and AAC; (iv) Lack of hearing-induced <i>C-FOS</i> mRNA expression in the NLC and AAC song nuclei in a silent bird. (<b>b</b>) <i>PVALB</i> and <i>C-FOS</i> mRNA expression in the MO and NAO of the anterior vocal pathway in birds. (i) <i>PVALB</i> mRNA expression in the MO core; (ii) <i>PVALB</i> mRNA expression in the NAO core; (iii) Vocalizing-induced <i>C-FOS</i> mRNA expression in the MO and NAO core and shells, and the MMSt song nucleus; (iv) Movement-induced <i>C-FOS</i> mRNA expression in the areas surrounding the MO and NAO core and shells, and the MMSt song nucleus. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. Some sections are from the same animals used in experiments of Feenders et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref035\" target=\"_blank\">35</a>] (a-iii, b-iv), Jarvis and Mello [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>], and Jarvis [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref044\" target=\"_blank\">44</a>] (a-ii, a-iv, b-iii, b-iv). See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462154, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Darkfield_photomicrographs_showing_PVALB_and_C_FOS_mRNA_expression_in_the_budgerigar_brain_in_different_behavioral_states_/1462154", "title"=>"Darkfield photomicrographs showing <i>PVALB</i> and <i>C-FOS</i> mRNA expression in the budgerigar brain in different behavioral states.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146798"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Targeted injections of biocytin in the NLC shell region. (<b>b</b>) Densely labeled fibers in the AAC shell but absent in the core; (<b>c</b>) Clusters of labeled fibers in the AAC shell; (<b>d</b>) High power view of labeled fibers in the AAC shell; (<b>e</b>) Dense clusters of labeled fibers in the NLC shell; (<b>f</b>) High power view of labeled fibers in the NLC shell; (<b>g</b>) Labeled fibers present in the AAC shell immediately dorsal to the core; (<b>h</b>) High power view of labeled fibers in the AAC shell; (<b>i</b>) Absence of labeled fibers in the AAC core. Red arrows indicate labeled cells and fibers. Black worm like structures are blood vessels that were not completely perfused. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462167, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Connections_of_the_NLC_shell_/1462167", "title"=>"Connections of the NLC shell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146808"], "description"=>"<p>Sample sizes are number of animals with injections. Listed are qualitative analyses of relative degree of staining of fibers (+) and/or labeled cells (o) present in the song nucleus; no value indicates that no labeled fibers or cells were visualized in these areas. See Figs <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.g011\" target=\"_blank\">11</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.g014\" target=\"_blank\">14</a> for representative examples of tracer injection sites and spread of tracer and results for explanation of findings and sources of experiments.</p><p>Summary of neural connectivity findings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462177, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_neural_connectivity_findings_/1462177", "title"=>"Summary of neural connectivity findings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146788"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) High <i>PVALB</i> expression in HVC and RA song nuclei, and moderate expression in Ai in the male zebra finch; (<b>b</b>) <i>PVALB</i> expression in LMAN song nucleus in the zebra finch; (<b>c</b>) Vocalizing-driven <i>EGR1</i> expression in HVC and RA song nuclei in a male zebra finch that was singing alone in a sound box; (<b>d</b>) Vocalizing-driven <i>EGR1</i> expression in MO, LMAN, and Area X song nuclei of the same zebra finch as in (c); (<b>e</b>) <i>PVALB</i> expression in VLN and VA song nuclei of the male Anna’s hummingbird; (<b>f</b>) High <i>PVALB</i> expression in VAN in the Anna’s hummingbird not vocalizing; (<b>g</b>) Vocalizing-driven <i>EGR1</i> expression in VLN and VA song nuclei of the Anna’s hummingbird that was also flying and feeding, in the early morning (1h after sunrise); (<b>h</b>) Vocalizing-driven <i>EGR1</i> expression in the VAN song nucleus, except within an internal region dorsal posterior region (VANp). Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. Panels are sections collected from animals used in Hara et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref038\" target=\"_blank\">38</a>] (panels a, b, e, f) and Feenders et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref035\" target=\"_blank\">35</a>] (c, d, g, h). See list for Abbreviations. Scale bars = 2mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462157, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Darkfield_photomicrographs_showing_PVALB_and_ZENK_mRNA_expression_in_male_zebra_finch_a_songbird_and_Anna_s_hummingbird_brains_/1462157", "title"=>"Darkfield photomicrographs showing <i>PVALB</i> and <i>ZENK</i> mRNA expression in male zebra finch (a songbird) and Anna’s hummingbird brains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146747"], "description"=>"<p>Shown is a schematic 3D drawing of seven cerebral vocal nuclei (red and yellow) found in vocal learners, and auditory areas (blue) and movement associated areas (green) found in all birds. Checkered green is both movement and hearing activated regions; red vocal nuclei and white arrows, anterior vocal pathway; yellow-labeled vocal nuclei and black arrows, posterior vocal pathway. Only a few connections in hummingbirds are known and that of songbird MO is not known. Figure modified from Feenders et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref035\" target=\"_blank\">35</a>] and Jarvis et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref027\" target=\"_blank\">27</a>]. Scale bars, 1 mm. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462124, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Song_systems_of_avian_vocal_learners_/1462124", "title"=>"Song systems of avian vocal learners.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146801"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a-h</b>) Low and high power views of darkfield images showing <i>PVALB</i> mRNA expression in the core and shell regions of NLC and AAC of eight parrot species. Silver grains in white; red-brown is cresyl violet staining. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. Brain sections are not to scale, due to large size differences between species. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462170, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>43, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Posterior_song_nuclei_in_different_parrot_species_/1462170", "title"=>"Posterior song nuclei in different parrot species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146772"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) High power view of darkfield (i-ii) and brightfield (cresyl violet stained) (iii) images showing expression of parvalbumin mRNA in MO. (<b>b</b>) High power view of darkfield (i-ii) and brightfield (cresyl violet stained) (iii) images showing expression of parvalbumin mRNA in NAO. (<b>c</b>) Serial sections of a budgerigar brain (i-xv) showing the core and shell regions of MO and NAO song nuclei. Silver grains is white; cresyl violet is red-brown. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. See list for abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462147, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PVALB_mRNA_expression_in_the_core_and_shell_regions_of_the_MO_and_NAO_song_nuclei_in_the_budgerigar_brain_/1462147", "title"=>"<i>PVALB</i> mRNA expression in the core and shell regions of the MO and NAO song nuclei in the budgerigar brain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146804"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a-b</b>) <i>SLIT1</i> mRNA expression is downregulated (low expression) in the AAC core (dashed white lines) but not AAC shell region relative to the surrounding arcopallium in budgerigars and cockatiels. (<b>c-i</b>) <i>SLIT1</i> mRNA expression is downregulated in the AAC core region (dashed white lines) and shows intermediate levels in the AAC shell region relative to higher levels in the surrounding arcopallium in peach-faced lovebirds, peach-fronted conures, yellow crowned Amazon, yellow lored Amazon parrots, African Grey, kea, and blue and gold macaw. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the right, dorsal is top. Scale bar = 500 μm, 2.0 mm. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462173, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g018", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Darkfield_images_of_SLIT1_mRNA_expression_in_the_core_and_shell_regions_of_the_AAC_song_nucleus_in_nine_parrot_species_/1462173", "title"=>"Darkfield images of <i>SLIT1</i> mRNA expression in the core and shell regions of the AAC song nucleus in nine parrot species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146797"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Targeted injection of biocytin in the AAC core region; (<b>b</b>) High power view of labeled cells and fibers in the NLC core; (<b>c</b>) Very few cells and fibers in the NLC shell; (<b>d</b>) Very sparse fibers in the AAC shell; (<b>e</b>) Densely labeled fibers in the MO core; (<b>f</b>) High power view of labeled cells and fibers in the MO core; (<b>g</b>) High power view of a labeled fiber in the MO shell; (<b>h</b>) Labeled fibers in the NAO core; (<b>i</b>) High power view of labeled fibers in the NAO core; (<b>j</b>) High power view of a labeled fiber in the NAO shell. Red arrows indicate labeled cells and fibers. Black worm like structures are blood vessels that were not completely perfused. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. See list for Abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462166, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Connections_of_the_AAC_core_/1462166", "title"=>"Connections of the AAC core.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2146794"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Camera lucida drawing summarizing the staining density of labeled fibers (key below indicates shading intensity) in the NLC and AAC song nuclei; (<b>b</b>) Photomicrographs showing higher CGRP-LI fiber and cell body staining in the NLC and AAC core and shell regions; (<b>c</b>) Camera lucida drawing summarizing the staining density of labeled fibers in the anterior song nuclei; (<b>d</b>) Photomicrographs showing higher CGRP-LI fibers in the MO and NAO cores. Figures adapted from Durand et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496#pone.0118496.ref059\" target=\"_blank\">59</a>], and reproduced with permission from S.E. Durand. Abbreviations inside the images were based on an older nomenclature at the time. Sections are in the coronal plane; medial is to the left, dorsal is top. Scale bars = 500 μm in <b>b</b> and <b>d</b>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shell regions", "New Zealand kea", "species", "constitutive gene expression", "song system", "Relative size differences", "song system structures", "core", "parrots", "Shell Song Systems"], "article_id"=>1462163, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Mukta Chakraborty", "Solveig Walløe", "Signe Nedergaard", "Emma E. Fridel", "Torben Dabelsteen", "Bente Pakkenberg", "Mads F. Bertelsen", "Gerry M. Dorrestein", "Steven E. Brauth", "Sarah E. Durand", "Erich D. Jarvis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118496.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brightfield_photomicrographs_showing_specialized_CGRP_LI_staining_in_budgerigar_song_nuclei_/1462163", "title"=>"Brightfield photomicrographs showing specialized CGRP-LI staining in budgerigar song nuclei.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:04:18"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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