Deep Sequencing and Ecological Characterization of Gut Microbial Communities of Diverse Bumble Bee Species
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{"title"=>"Deep sequencing and ecological characterization of gut microbial communities of diverse bumble bee species", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Haw Chuan", "last_name"=>"Lim", "scopus_author_id"=>"24468333100"}, {"first_name"=>"Chia Ching", "last_name"=>"Chu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56008693700"}, {"first_name"=>"Manfredo J.", "last_name"=>"Seufferheld", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602944468"}, {"first_name"=>"Sydney A.", "last_name"=>"Cameron", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202228310"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"2010651040599", "pmid"=>"25768110", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0118566", "pui"=>"604134944", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84928911068", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84928911068"}, "id"=>"7ec0ad6c-43c2-393e-b050-629c6f6af4b1", "abstract"=>"Gut bacterial communities of bumble bees are correlated with defense against pathogens. Further understanding this host-microbe association is vitally important as bumble bees are currently experiencing global population declines, potentially due in part to emergent diseases. In this study, we used pyrosequencing and community fingerprinting (ARISA) to characterize the gut microbial communities of nine bumble species from across the Bombus phylogeny. Overall, we delimited 74 bacterial taxa (operational taxonomic units or OTUs) belonging to Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Each bacterial community was taxonomically simple, containing an average of 1.9 common (relative abundance per sample > 5%) bacterial OTUs. The most abundant and prevalent (occurring in 92% of the samples) bacterial OTU, based on 16S rRNA sequences, closely matched that of the previously described Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi. Bacteria that were first described in bee-related external environments dominated a number of gut bacterial communities, suggesting that they are not strictly dependent on the internal gut environment. The ARISA data showed a correlation between bacterial community structures and the geographic locations where the bees were sampled, suggesting that at least a subset of the bacterial species may be transmitted environmentally. Using light and fluorescent microscopy, we demonstrated that the gut bacteria form a biofilm on the internal epithelial surface of the ileum, corroborating results obtained from Apis mellifera.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/deep-sequencing-ecological-characterization-gut-microbial-communities-diverse-bumble-bee-species", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>43, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>43}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "United States"=>6, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948375"], "description"=>"<p>A significant <i>P-</i>value (<i>P</i> < 0.05, in bold) indicates that the bacterial community tested has more unique branch length than expected by chance.</p><p>Significance of UniFrac tests that compared a single pyrosequencing sample against all other samples combined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335392, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significance_of_UniFrac_tests_that_compared_a_single_pyrosequencing_sample_against_all_other_samples_combined_/1335392", "title"=>"Significance of UniFrac tests that compared a single pyrosequencing sample against all other samples combined.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948356"], "description"=>"<p>On the left is a cladogram showing phylogenetic relationships of the OTUs (tip labels = representative sequence ID). The IDs of the OTUs are abbreviated by only keeping their unique, last five characters (e.g., HUSOE0I01<i>BDDRB</i> to <i>BDDRB</i>). On the right are classifications of the OTUs at two taxonomic levels, if available. For clarity, only labels for OTUs with relative abundance > 10% are shown. Atop the heatmap, a cladogram indicates phylogenetic relationships of the bee species investigated. The bars at the bottom of the graph indicate the phylogenetic clade in which each bee species falls. MD = Mendacibombus (subgenus). See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566#pone.0118566.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4 Fig.</a> for fully labeled tips.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335373, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heatmap_showing_relative_abundance_of_each_bacterial_OTU_rows_in_each_of_the_pyrosequencing_sample_columns_/1335373", "title"=>"Heatmap showing relative abundance of each bacterial OTU (rows) in each of the pyrosequencing sample (columns).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948373"], "description"=>"<p>Sequencing depth and number of OTUs detected for each pyrosequencing sample.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335390, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sequencing_depth_and_number_of_OTUs_detected_for_each_pyrosequencing_sample_/1335390", "title"=>"Sequencing depth and number of OTUs detected for each pyrosequencing sample.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948370"], "description"=>"<p>(A) shows the whole alimentary canal and general locations where sectioning and imaging were made (multiple individuals were used to create the dissected gut and microscopy images). Section made at (1), (2) and (3) were used to produce images (B), (C) and (D), respectively. Fluorescent images (E) and (F) were produced by visualizing a portion of the ileum located between (1) and (2), and between (2) and (3), respectively. (B) shows both yeast and bacterial cells in the lumen, whereas (C) and (D) show only bacterial cells in the lumen. Villi and longitudinal folds composed of epithelial cells can be observed in (C) and (D), respectively. Insert in (C) shows a villus and bacterial cells (black dots) in greater detail. In (E) and (F), each fluorescing green spot represents one bacterial cell. Abbreviations: ba = bacteria; ep = epithelial cells; lu = lumen; mu = transverse muscle; yc = yeast cell.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335387, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Images_of_B_impatiens_gut_A_from_light_B_C_and_D_and_fluorescent_microscopy_E_and_F_/1335387", "title"=>"Images of <i>B. impatiens</i> gut (A) from light (B, C and D) and fluorescent microscopy (E and F).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948355"], "description"=>"<p>The IDs of the OTUs are abbreviated by only keeping their unique, last five characters (e.g., HUSOE0I01<i>A9P4E</i> to <i>A9P4E</i>). The tree was inferred by combining these sequences with 274 16S rRNA sequences from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566#pone.0118566.ref042\" target=\"_blank\">42</a>], followed by dropping the latter sequences from the tree using the drop.tip function found in the R package “ape”. Thickened branches indicate posterior probabilities of 90% or higher; stars signify sequences that have classification-phylogeny incompatibility. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566#pone.0118566.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Fig.</a> for classifications of the OTUs at various taxonomic levels. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566#pone.0118566.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Fig.</a> for the full trees that include sequences from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566#pone.0118566.ref042\" target=\"_blank\">42</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335372, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Consensus_Bayesian_inference_tree_showing_phylogenetic_relationships_of_representative_sequences_of_74_bacterial_OTUs_and_their_classifications_at_the_level_of_Class_classification_bootstrap_confidence_in_parenthesis_/1335372", "title"=>"Consensus Bayesian inference tree showing phylogenetic relationships of representative sequences of 74 bacterial OTUs, and their classifications at the level of Class (classification bootstrap confidence in parenthesis).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948386", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948387", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948388", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948389", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948390", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948391", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948392"], "description"=>"<div><p>Gut bacterial communities of bumble bees are correlated with defense against pathogens. Further understanding this host-microbe association is vitally important as bumble bees are currently experiencing global population declines, potentially due in part to emergent diseases. In this study, we used pyrosequencing and community fingerprinting (ARISA) to characterize the gut microbial communities of nine bumble species from across the <i>Bombus</i> phylogeny. Overall, we delimited 74 bacterial taxa (operational taxonomic units or OTUs) belonging to Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Each bacterial community was taxonomically simple, containing an average of 1.9 common (relative abundance per sample > 5%) bacterial OTUs. The most abundant and prevalent (occurring in 92% of the samples) bacterial OTU, based on 16S rRNA sequences, closely matched that of the previously described Betaproteobacteria species <i>Snodgrassella alvi</i>. Bacteria that were first described in bee-related external environments dominated a number of gut bacterial communities, suggesting that they are not strictly dependent on the internal gut environment. The ARISA data showed a correlation between bacterial community structures and the geographic locations where the bees were sampled, suggesting that at least a subset of the bacterial species may be transmitted environmentally. Using light and fluorescent microscopy, we demonstrated that the gut bacteria form a biofilm on the internal epithelial surface of the ileum, corroborating results obtained from <i>Apis mellifera</i>.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335395, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>22, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Deep_Sequencing_and_Ecological_Characterization_of_Gut_Microbial_Communities_of_Diverse_Bumble_Bee_Species_/1335395", "title"=>"Deep Sequencing and Ecological Characterization of Gut Microbial Communities of Diverse Bumble Bee Species", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948358"], "description"=>"<p>The average number of sequences obtained from each pyrosequencing sample was 15,170.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335375, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_abundance_averaged_across_13_pyrosequencing_samples_of_different_bacterial_classes_/1335375", "title"=>"Relative abundance (averaged across 13 pyrosequencing samples) of different bacterial classes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948359"], "description"=>"<p>Minimum stress after 999 iterations is 0.05. The cluster of samples in the lower-left quadrate (ones without labels) is expanded in the top right corner (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335376, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_pyrosequencing_samples_in_the_2_D_nMDS_space_based_on_inter_sample_UniFrac_distances_A_/1335376", "title"=>"Plot of pyrosequencing samples in the 2-D nMDS space based on inter-sample UniFrac distances (A).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948372"], "description"=>"<p>Families listed in bold correspond to phylotypes typically found in western honey bees (<i>Apis mellifera</i>).</p><p>Results of taxonomic classification (Class to Family) conducted on representative sequences of 74 bacterial OTUs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335389, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_taxonomic_classification_Class_to_Family_conducted_on_representative_sequences_of_74_bacterial_OTUs_/1335389", "title"=>"Results of taxonomic classification (Class to Family) conducted on representative sequences of 74 bacterial OTUs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948371"], "description"=>"<p>For amplicon sequencing, bumble bees whose DNAs were pooled prior to Roche 454 library preparation were given the same pyrosequencing sample ID.</p><p>Bumble bees used in amplicon sequencing and ARISA, and their geographic origins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335388, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bumble_bees_used_in_amplicon_sequencing_and_ARISA_and_their_geographic_origins_/1335388", "title"=>"Bumble bees used in amplicon sequencing and ARISA, and their geographic origins.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948361"], "description"=>"<p>Corresponding bumble bee species and populations (collection sites) are illustrated by the colors and shapes of the markers on the right. Abbreviations: B.FR = <i>B</i>. <i>fraternus</i>; B.IM = <i>B</i>. <i>impatiens</i>; B.PE = <i>B</i>. <i>pensylvanicus</i>; B.TE = <i>B</i>. <i>terricola</i>; B.TRS = <i>B</i>. <i>terrestris</i>. Abbreviations following species names represent different collection sites, sorted by states in the US (FL, GA, MI, MN, NC, SC, WI, and WV), or across countries (ARG and FRA). ARG: Argentina, FRA: France.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335378, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>77, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_dimensional_DIM1_8211_3_nMDS_ordination_of_ARISA_profiles_of_different_bumble_bee_gut_DNA_samples_/1335378", "title"=>"Three-dimensional (DIM1–3) nMDS ordination of ARISA profiles of different bumble bee gut DNA samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1948374"], "description"=>"<p>In parentheses are bootstrap confidence of each assignment. Each of these OTUs was the most dominant OTU in at least one pyrosequencing sample. Also included are information related to each OTUs closest matching GenBank sequence reported by a published paper.</p><p>Taxonomic assignments of six OTUs based on naïve Bayesian classification of 16S rRNA sequence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gut bacteria form", "Diverse Bumble Bee Species Gut", "ARISA data", "taxonomic units", "community structures", "Gut Microbial Communities", "otu", "epithelial surface", "Deep sequencing", "delimited 74", "16 S rRNA sequences", "corroborating results", "population declines", "Betaproteobacteria species Snodgrassella alvi", "Apis mellifera", "community fingerprinting", "gut environment", "Ecological Characterization", "Bombus phylogeny"], "article_id"=>1335391, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Haw Chuan Lim", "Chia-Ching Chu", "Manfredo J. Seufferheld", "Sydney A. Cameron"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118566.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Taxonomic_assignments_of_six_OTUs_based_on_na_239_ve_Bayesian_classification_of_16S_rRNA_sequence_/1335391", "title"=>"Taxonomic assignments of six OTUs based on naïve Bayesian classification of 16S rRNA sequence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-13 04:15:08"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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