Age, Gender and Normalization Covariates for Spinal Cord Gray Matter and Total Cross-Sectional Areas at Cervical and Thoracic Levels: A 2D Phase Sensitive Inversion Recovery Imaging Study
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{"title"=>"Age, gender and normalization covariates for spinal cord gray matter and total cross-sectional areas at cervical and thoracic levels: A 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery imaging study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nico", "last_name"=>"Papinutto", "scopus_author_id"=>"8402019400"}, {"first_name"=>"Regina", "last_name"=>"Schlaeger", "scopus_author_id"=>"36549532200"}, {"first_name"=>"Valentina", "last_name"=>"Panara", "scopus_author_id"=>"56296700100"}, {"first_name"=>"Alyssa H.", "last_name"=>"Zhu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56327140400"}, {"first_name"=>"Eduardo", "last_name"=>"Caverzasi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56380224100"}, {"first_name"=>"William A.", "last_name"=>"Stern", "scopus_author_id"=>"56326670200"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen L.", "last_name"=>"Hauser", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201831074"}, {"first_name"=>"Roland G.", "last_name"=>"Henry", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401911643"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84925004644", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0118576", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"603051678", "pmid"=>"25781178", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84925004644"}, "id"=>"6763050c-f44a-3d77-aadb-05c60784e6c1", "abstract"=>"The source of inter-subject variability and the influence of age and gender on morphometric characteristics of the spinal cord, such as the total cross-sectional area (TCA), the gray mat-ter (GM) and white matter (WM) areas, currently remain under investigation. Understanding the effect of covariates such as age, gender, brain volumes, and skull-and vertebra-derived metrics on cervical and thoracic spinal cord TCA and GM areas in healthy subjects would be fundamental for exploring compartment specific changes in neurological diseases affect-ing the spinal cord. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T we investigated 32 healthy subjects using a 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery sequence and we measured TCA, GM and WM areas at 4 cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord. We assessed age and gender relationships of cord measures and explored associations between cord mea-sures and a) brain volumes and b) skull-and vertebra-derived metrics. Age and gender had a significant effect on TCA, WM and GM areas (with women and elderly having smaller val-ues than men and younger people respectively), but not on the GM area/TCA ratio. The total intracranial volume and C3 vertebra dimensions showed the highest correlations with cord measures. When used in multi-regression models, they reduced cord areas group vari-ability by approximately a third. Age and gender influences on cord measures and normali-zation strategies here presented might be of use in the study of compartment specific changes in various neurological diseases affecting the spinal cord.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/age-gender-normalization-covariates-spinal-cord-gray-matter-total-crosssectional-areas-cervical-thor", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>3, "Unspecified"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1953884"], "description"=>"<p>PSIR measures at the C2-C3 and T9-T10 disc levels of young versus elderly persons using linear regression with gender as covariate. Mean values are least square means with adjustment for gender. Adj.: adjusted; StdErr: standard error, Diff.: difference between means, TCA: total cross-sectional area, GM: gray matter, WM: white matter. p-values are 2-sided.</p><p>Age influence on spinal cord areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cord areas group variability", "wm", "2 D Phase", "GM areas", "Spinal Cord Gray Matter", "tca", "brain volumes", "cord measures", "Magnetic resonance imaging", "Inversion Recovery Imaging Study", "inversion recovery sequence", "C 3 vertebra dimensions"], "article_id"=>1339689, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nico Papinutto", "Regina Schlaeger", "Valentina Panara", "Alyssa H. Zhu", "Eduardo Caverzasi", "William A. Stern", "Stephen L. Hauser", "Roland G. Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_influence_on_spinal_cord_areas_/1339689", "title"=>"Age influence on spinal cord areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-17 06:30:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1953882"], "description"=>"<p>Total cross-sectional areas (TCA) and gray matter (GM) areas in function of total intracranial volume (TICV) at the C2-C3 and T9-T10 disc levels for men (blue) and women (red). Areas are reported in mm<sup>2</sup>, volumes in 10<sup>6</sup> mm<sup>3</sup>. Linear regression lines for the whole cohort of subjects (cervical level: n = 32; thoracic level: n = 30) are reported.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cord areas group variability", "wm", "2 D Phase", "GM areas", "Spinal Cord Gray Matter", "tca", "brain volumes", "cord measures", "Magnetic resonance imaging", "Inversion Recovery Imaging Study", "inversion recovery sequence", "C 3 vertebra dimensions"], "article_id"=>1339687, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nico Papinutto", "Regina Schlaeger", "Valentina Panara", "Alyssa H. Zhu", "Eduardo Caverzasi", "William A. Stern", "Stephen L. Hauser", "Roland G. Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cord_measures_associations_with_total_intracranial_volume_/1339687", "title"=>"Cord measures associations with total intracranial volume.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-17 06:30:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1953883"], "description"=>"<p>PSIR measures at the C2-C3 and T9-T10 disc levels of men and women using linear regression with age as covariate. Mean values are least square means with adjustment for age. Adj.: adjusted; StdErr: standard error, Diff.: difference between means, TCA: total cross-sectional area, GM: gray matter, WM: white matter. p-values are 2-sided.</p><p>Gender influence on spinal cord areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cord areas group variability", "wm", "2 D Phase", "GM areas", "Spinal Cord Gray Matter", "tca", "brain volumes", "cord measures", "Magnetic resonance imaging", "Inversion Recovery Imaging Study", "inversion recovery sequence", "C 3 vertebra dimensions"], "article_id"=>1339688, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nico Papinutto", "Regina Schlaeger", "Valentina Panara", "Alyssa H. Zhu", "Eduardo Caverzasi", "William A. Stern", "Stephen L. Hauser", "Roland G. Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gender_influence_on_spinal_cord_areas_/1339688", "title"=>"Gender influence on spinal cord areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-17 06:30:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1953881"], "description"=>"<p>Total cross-sectional area (TCA), gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) areas in function of age at the C2-C3 and T9-T10 disc level for men (blue) and women (red). Areas are reported in mm<sup>2</sup>. Linear regression lines are reported (blue: men; red: women; black dotted: whole cohort -cervical level: n = 32; thoracic level: n = 30−).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cord areas group variability", "wm", "2 D Phase", "GM areas", "Spinal Cord Gray Matter", "tca", "brain volumes", "cord measures", "Magnetic resonance imaging", "Inversion Recovery Imaging Study", "inversion recovery sequence", "C 3 vertebra dimensions"], "article_id"=>1339686, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nico Papinutto", "Regina Schlaeger", "Valentina Panara", "Alyssa H. Zhu", "Eduardo Caverzasi", "William A. Stern", "Stephen L. Hauser", "Roland G. Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_age_on_spinal_cord_areas_/1339686", "title"=>"Influence of age on spinal cord areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-17 06:30:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1953878"], "description"=>"<p>Example of acquisition and total cross-sectional area (TCA) and gray matter (GM) segmentation on a representative healthy subject. Left: Sagittal images, positioning of 2D PSIR slices (A: cervical portion, D: thoracic portion). Right: segmentation on the phase-sensitive reconstructed images (B: C2-C3, C: C3-C4, E: T8-T9, F: T9-T10 disc levels).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cord areas group variability", "wm", "2 D Phase", "GM areas", "Spinal Cord Gray Matter", "tca", "brain volumes", "cord measures", "Magnetic resonance imaging", "Inversion Recovery Imaging Study", "inversion recovery sequence", "C 3 vertebra dimensions"], "article_id"=>1339683, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nico Papinutto", "Regina Schlaeger", "Valentina Panara", "Alyssa H. Zhu", "Eduardo Caverzasi", "William A. Stern", "Stephen L. Hauser", "Roland G. Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_acquisition_and_segmentation_/1339683", "title"=>"Example of acquisition and segmentation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-17 06:30:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1953886"], "description"=>"<p>Normalization coefficients derived by multi-linear regression analysis for Model 3 (age, TICV and sagittal_vertebra_area) and Model 2 (age, TICV, ap_vertebra_diameter) with total cross-sectional area (TCA) as outcome variable at the C3-C4, T8-T9 and T9-T10 disc levels.</p><p>Normalization coefficients derived by multi-linear regression analysis for Model 2a (TICV, ap_vertebra_diameter) and gray matter (GM) area as outcome variable at the C3-C4, T8-T9 and T9-T10 disc levels.</p><p>The adjusted R<sup>2</sup> and the %RSD (ratios of the group standard deviation and the respective means) for the calculated values are reported. %RSD<sub>meas</sub> refers to the non-normalized measured data.</p><p>The mean values of the independent variables for the total cohort of subjects are reported in the legend of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576#pone.0118576.t006\" target=\"_blank\">Table 6</a>.</p><p>Multi-linear regression analysis at cervical and thoracic levels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cord areas group variability", "wm", "2 D Phase", "GM areas", "Spinal Cord Gray Matter", "tca", "brain volumes", "cord measures", "Magnetic resonance imaging", "Inversion Recovery Imaging Study", "inversion recovery sequence", "C 3 vertebra dimensions"], "article_id"=>1339691, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nico Papinutto", "Regina Schlaeger", "Valentina Panara", "Alyssa H. Zhu", "Eduardo Caverzasi", "William A. Stern", "Stephen L. Hauser", "Roland G. Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multi_linear_regression_analysis_at_cervical_and_thoracic_levels_/1339691", "title"=>"Multi-linear regression analysis at cervical and thoracic levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-17 06:30:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1953885"], "description"=>"<p>Normalization coefficients derived by multi-linear regression analysis with C2-C3 total cross-sectional area (TCA, top) and C2-C3 gray matter area (GM area, bottom) as outcome variables and age, total intracranial volume (TICV), ap_vertebra_diameter, sagittal_vertebra_area as independent variables (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576#pone.0118576.e001\" target=\"_blank\">Eq. 1</a> in the text). The adjusted R<sup>2</sup> and the %RSD (ratios of the group standard deviation and the respective means) for the calculated values with each model are reported. %RSD<sub>meas</sub> refers to the non-normalized measured data.</p><p>Mean values of the independent variables on the total cohort of subjects:</p><p>X<sub>mean</sub> = Age<sub>mean</sub> = 48.84 years</p><p>Y<sub>mean</sub> = TICV<sub>mean</sub> = 1434165.26 mm<sup>3</sup></p><p>Z<sub>mean</sub> = ap_vertebra_diameter<sub>mean</sub> = 15.63 mm</p><p>J<sub>mean</sub> = sagittal_vertebra_area<sub>mean</sub> = 199.93 mm<sup>2</sup></p><p>Multi-linear regression analysis of C2-C3 areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cord areas group variability", "wm", "2 D Phase", "GM areas", "Spinal Cord Gray Matter", "tca", "brain volumes", "cord measures", "Magnetic resonance imaging", "Inversion Recovery Imaging Study", "inversion recovery sequence", "C 3 vertebra dimensions"], "article_id"=>1339690, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nico Papinutto", "Regina Schlaeger", "Valentina Panara", "Alyssa H. Zhu", "Eduardo Caverzasi", "William A. Stern", "Stephen L. Hauser", "Roland G. Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multi_linear_regression_analysis_of_C2_C3_areas_/1339690", "title"=>"Multi-linear regression analysis of C2-C3 areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-17 06:30:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1953880"], "description"=>"<p>Cervical skeletal based metrics defined on the sagittal MPRAGE: A: distance between the opisthion and the basion (McRae's line); B: anterior height (AP) of the C3 vertebra; C: posterior height (PH) of the C3 vertebra; D: central height of the C3 vertebra (middle_vertebra_height); E: C3 anterior-posterior vertebral body diameter (ap_vertebra_diameter); F: spinal canal diameter at the C3 vertebra level (ap_canal_diameter); G: Distance between the McRae's line and the bottom of the C4 vertebral body (McRaes_to_C4).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cord areas group variability", "wm", "2 D Phase", "GM areas", "Spinal Cord Gray Matter", "tca", "brain volumes", "cord measures", "Magnetic resonance imaging", "Inversion Recovery Imaging Study", "inversion recovery sequence", "C 3 vertebra dimensions"], "article_id"=>1339685, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nico Papinutto", "Regina Schlaeger", "Valentina Panara", "Alyssa H. Zhu", "Eduardo Caverzasi", "William A. Stern", "Stephen L. Hauser", "Roland G. Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Definition_of_spinal_skeletal_based_metrics_/1339685", "title"=>"Definition of spinal skeletal based metrics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-17 06:30:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1953879"], "description"=>"<p>Images acquired for 4 different healthy subjects: A and B: C2-C3 level; C and D: T9-T10 level. In rows A and C the magnitude reconstructions are reported to appreciate the quality of the acquisitions, while in rows B and D the phase-sensitive reconstructed images that were used for both the total cross-sectional area (TCA) and gray matter (GM) segmentations (yellow) are reported. Phase-sensitive reconstructed images allowed good intra- and inter-operator reliability of both the area measurements on a single image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cord areas group variability", "wm", "2 D Phase", "GM areas", "Spinal Cord Gray Matter", "tca", "brain volumes", "cord measures", "Magnetic resonance imaging", "Inversion Recovery Imaging Study", "inversion recovery sequence", "C 3 vertebra dimensions"], "article_id"=>1339684, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nico Papinutto", "Regina Schlaeger", "Valentina Panara", "Alyssa H. Zhu", "Eduardo Caverzasi", "William A. Stern", "Stephen L. Hauser", "Roland G. Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118576.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_C2_C3_and_T9_T10_segmentation_examples_on_4_healthy_subjects_/1339684", "title"=>"C2-C3 and T9-T10 segmentation examples on 4 healthy subjects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-17 06:30:04"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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