Genetic Stratigraphy of Key Demographic Events in Arabia
Publication Date
March 04, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Verónica Fernandes, Petr Triska, Joana B. Pereira, Farida Alshamali, et al
Volume
10
Issue
3
Pages
e0118625
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0118625
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738654
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4349752
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25738654
Web of Science
000350685900058
Scopus
84928905713
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/genetic-stratigraphy-key-demographic-events-arabia
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{"title"=>"Genetic stratigraphy of key demographic events in Arabia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Verónica", "last_name"=>"Fernandes", "scopus_author_id"=>"12775420000"}, {"first_name"=>"Petr", "last_name"=>"Triska", "scopus_author_id"=>"56526717500"}, {"first_name"=>"Joana B.", "last_name"=>"Pereira", "scopus_author_id"=>"26530688400"}, {"first_name"=>"Farida", "last_name"=>"Alshamali", "scopus_author_id"=>"24729195400"}, {"first_name"=>"Teresa", "last_name"=>"Rito", "scopus_author_id"=>"26644264700"}, {"first_name"=>"Alison", "last_name"=>"Machado", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196572794"}, {"first_name"=>"Zuzana", "last_name"=>"Fajkošová", "scopus_author_id"=>"55899763500"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruno", "last_name"=>"Cavadas", "scopus_author_id"=>"25631686900"}, {"first_name"=>"Viktor", "last_name"=>"Černý", "scopus_author_id"=>"56365366600"}, {"first_name"=>"Pedro", "last_name"=>"Soares", "scopus_author_id"=>"15061713600"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin B.", "last_name"=>"Richards", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402054812"}, {"first_name"=>"Luísa", "last_name"=>"Pereira", "scopus_author_id"=>"57189891644"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84928905713", "sgr"=>"84928905713", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25738654", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0118625", "pui"=>"604166042"}, "id"=>"a9ff057a-8fd5-3dbe-b8c5-b3257dbe7290", "abstract"=>"At the crossroads between Africa and Eurasia, Arabia is necessarily a melting pot, its peoples enriched by successive gene flow over the generations. Estimating the timing and impact of these multiple migrations are important steps in reconstructing the key demographic events in the human history. However, current methods based on genome-wide information identify admixture events inefficiently, tending to estimate only the more recent ages, as here in the case of admixture events across the Red Sea (~8-37 generations for African input into Arabia, and 30-90 generations for \"back-to-Africa\" migrations). An mtDNA-based founder analysis, corroborated by detailed analysis of the whole-mtDNA genome, affords an alternative means by which to identify, date and quantify multiple migration events at greater time depths, across the full range of modern human history, albeit for the maternal line of descent only. In Arabia, this approach enables us to infer several major pulses of dispersal between the Near East and Arabia, most likely via the Gulf corridor. Although some relict lineages survive in Arabia from the time of the out-of-Africa dispersal, 60 ka, the major episodes in the peopling of the Peninsula took place from north to south in the Late Glacial and, to a lesser extent, the immediate post-glacial/Neolithic. Exchanges across the Red Sea were mainly due to the Arab slave trade and maritime dominance (from ~2.5 ka to very recent times), but had already begun by the early Holocene, fuelled by the establishment of maritime networks since ~8 ka. The main \"back-to-Africa\" migrations, again undetected by genome-wide dating analyses, occurred in the Late Glacial period for introductions into eastern Africa, whilst the Neolithic was more significant for migrations towards North Africa.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genetic-stratigraphy-key-demographic-events-arabia", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Arts and Humanities"=>5, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935430"], "description"=>"<p>N/A—not assigned.</p><p>* By eliminating one individual with a high level of African ancestry.</p><p>Estimates of admixture proportions (%) and date of admixture (in generations) calculated in ROLLOFF when using western (Yoruba) and eastern (Maasai) African and Italians + Spanish as ancestral populations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relict lineages", "North Africa", "time depths", "Arab slave trade", "Gene flow", "admixture events", "Glacial period", "60 ka", "migration events", "arabia", "Key Demographic Events", "admixture events inefficiently", "generation", "African input", "Gulf corridor", "Genetic Stratigraphy", "Red Sea"], "article_id"=>1325787, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Verônica Fernandes", "Petr Triska", "Joana B. Pereira", "Farida Alshamali", "Teresa Rito", "Alison Machado", "Zuzana Fajkošová", "Bruno Cavadas", "Viktor Černý", "Pedro Soares", "Martin B. Richards", "Luisa Pereira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_admixture_proportions_and_date_of_admixture_in_generations_calculated_in_ROLLOFF_when_using_western_Yoruba_and_eastern_Maasai_African_and_Italians_Spanish_as_ancestral_populations_/1325787", "title"=>"Estimates of admixture proportions (%) and date of admixture (in generations) calculated in ROLLOFF when using western (Yoruba) and eastern (Maasai) African and Italians + Spanish as ancestral populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-04 03:30:30"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935425"], "description"=>"<p>Probabilistic distribution of founder clusters across migration times, with time scanned at 200 year intervals from 0–60 ka, using <i>f1</i> (blue line) and <i>f2</i> criteria (red line), when considering putative migrations from the Near East, Iran and Pakistan to Arabia for (A) whole-mtDNA genomes or (C) HVS-I for haplogroups J and T; and probabilistic proportion of founder clusters considering different migration events, using <i>f1</i> (blue bar) and <i>f2</i> criteria (red bar), when considering putative migrations from the Near East, Iran and Pakistan to Arabia for (B) whole-mtDNA genomes or (D) HVS-I for haplogroups J and T.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relict lineages", "North Africa", "time depths", "Arab slave trade", "Gene flow", "admixture events", "Glacial period", "60 ka", "migration events", "arabia", "Key Demographic Events", "admixture events inefficiently", "generation", "African input", "Gulf corridor", "Genetic Stratigraphy", "Red Sea"], "article_id"=>1325781, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Verônica Fernandes", "Petr Triska", "Joana B. Pereira", "Farida Alshamali", "Teresa Rito", "Alison Machado", "Zuzana Fajkošová", "Bruno Cavadas", "Viktor Černý", "Pedro Soares", "Martin B. Richards", "Luisa Pereira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Founder_analysis_results_on_JT_lineages_/1325781", "title"=>"Founder analysis results on JT lineages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-04 03:30:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935423"], "description"=>"<p>Probabilistic distribution of founder clusters across migration times, with time scanned at 200 year intervals from 0–60 ka, using <i>f1</i> (blue line) and <i>f2</i> criteria (red line), when considering putative migrations: (A) from the Near East, Iran and Pakistan to Arabia; (C) from Africa into Arabia plus the Near East and Iran; (E) Arabia plus the Near East and Iran into eastern Africa; (G) Arabia plus the Near East and Iran into North Africa; and probabilistic proportion of founder clusters considering different migration events, using <i>f1</i> (blue bar) and <i>f2</i> criteria (red bar), when considering putative migrations: (B) from the Near East, Iran and Pakistan to Arabia; (D) from African into Arabia plus the Near East and Iran; (F) Arabia plus the Near East and Iran into eastern Africa; (H) Arabia plus the Near East and Iran into North Africa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relict lineages", "North Africa", "time depths", "Arab slave trade", "Gene flow", "admixture events", "Glacial period", "60 ka", "migration events", "arabia", "Key Demographic Events", "admixture events inefficiently", "generation", "African input", "Gulf corridor", "Genetic Stratigraphy", "Red Sea"], "article_id"=>1325780, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Verônica Fernandes", "Petr Triska", "Joana B. Pereira", "Farida Alshamali", "Teresa Rito", "Alison Machado", "Zuzana Fajkošová", "Bruno Cavadas", "Viktor Černý", "Pedro Soares", "Martin B. Richards", "Luisa Pereira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Founder_analysis_results_/1325780", "title"=>"Founder analysis results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-04 03:30:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935449", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935451", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935452", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935453", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935454", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935455", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935456", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935457", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935459", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935460", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935461", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935462", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935463", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935464", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935466", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935467", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935468", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935469", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935470", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935471", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935472", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935473", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935475", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935476", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935477", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935478", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935479", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935480", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935482", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935483", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935484", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935485", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935486", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935487", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935489", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935490", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935491", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935492", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935493", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935494", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935495", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935496", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935497", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935498", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935499", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935500", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935501", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935502", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935503", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935504", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935505", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935506", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935507", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935508"], "description"=>"<div><p>At the crossroads between Africa and Eurasia, Arabia is necessarily a melting pot, its peoples enriched by successive gene flow over the generations. Estimating the timing and impact of these multiple migrations are important steps in reconstructing the key demographic events in the human history. However, current methods based on genome-wide information identify admixture events inefficiently, tending to estimate only the more recent ages, as here in the case of admixture events across the Red Sea (∼8–37 generations for African input into Arabia, and 30–90 generations for “back-to-Africa” migrations). An mtDNA-based founder analysis, corroborated by detailed analysis of the whole-mtDNA genome, affords an alternative means by which to identify, date and quantify multiple migration events at greater time depths, across the full range of modern human history, albeit for the maternal line of descent only. In Arabia, this approach enables us to infer several major pulses of dispersal between the Near East and Arabia, most likely via the Gulf corridor. Although some relict lineages survive in Arabia from the time of the out-of-Africa dispersal, 60 ka, the major episodes in the peopling of the Peninsula took place from north to south in the Late Glacial and, to a lesser extent, the immediate post-glacial/Neolithic. Exchanges across the Red Sea were mainly due to the Arab slave trade and maritime dominance (from ∼2.5 ka to very recent times), but had already begun by the early Holocene, fuelled by the establishment of maritime networks since ∼8 ka. The main “back-to-Africa” migrations, again undetected by genome-wide dating analyses, occurred in the Late Glacial period for introductions into eastern Africa, whilst the Neolithic was more significant for migrations towards North Africa.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relict lineages", "North Africa", "time depths", "Arab slave trade", "Gene flow", "admixture events", "Glacial period", "60 ka", "migration events", "arabia", "Key Demographic Events", "admixture events inefficiently", "generation", "African input", "Gulf corridor", "Genetic Stratigraphy", "Red Sea"], "article_id"=>1325806, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Verônica Fernandes", "Petr Triska", "Joana B. Pereira", "Farida Alshamali", "Teresa Rito", "Alison Machado", "Zuzana Fajkošová", "Bruno Cavadas", "Viktor Černý", "Pedro Soares", "Martin B. Richards", "Luisa Pereira"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s025", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s026", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s027", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s028", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s029", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s030", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s031", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s032", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s033", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s034", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s035", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s036", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s037", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s038", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s039", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s040", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s041", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s042", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s043", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s044", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s045", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s046", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s047", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s048", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s049", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s050", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s051", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s052", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s053", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.s054"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_Stratigraphy_of_Key_Demographic_Events_in_Arabia_/1325806", "title"=>"Genetic Stratigraphy of Key Demographic Events in Arabia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-03-04 03:30:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935426"], "description"=>"<p>Scatter plot of individuals, showing the first two principal components. Each symbol corresponds to one individual and the colour indicates the region of origin.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relict lineages", "North Africa", "time depths", "Arab slave trade", "Gene flow", "admixture events", "Glacial period", "60 ka", "migration events", "arabia", "Key Demographic Events", "admixture events inefficiently", "generation", "African input", "Gulf corridor", "Genetic Stratigraphy", "Red Sea"], "article_id"=>1325783, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Verônica Fernandes", "Petr Triska", "Joana B. Pereira", "Farida Alshamali", "Teresa Rito", "Alison Machado", "Zuzana Fajkošová", "Bruno Cavadas", "Viktor Černý", "Pedro Soares", "Martin B. Richards", "Luisa Pereira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PCA_results_/1325783", "title"=>"PCA results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-04 03:30:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1935427"], "description"=>"<p>Population structure inferred by ADMIXTURE analysis. Each individual is represented by a vertical (100%) stacked column of genetic components proportions shown in colour for K = 6.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relict lineages", "North Africa", "time depths", "Arab slave trade", "Gene flow", "admixture events", "Glacial period", "60 ka", "migration events", "arabia", "Key Demographic Events", "admixture events inefficiently", "generation", "African input", "Gulf corridor", "Genetic Stratigraphy", "Red Sea"], "article_id"=>1325784, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Verônica Fernandes", "Petr Triska", "Joana B. Pereira", "Farida Alshamali", "Teresa Rito", "Alison Machado", "Zuzana Fajkošová", "Bruno Cavadas", "Viktor Černý", "Pedro Soares", "Martin B. Richards", "Luisa Pereira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118625.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ADMIXTURE_results_/1325784", "title"=>"ADMIXTURE results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-04 03:30:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"58", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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