A Highly Accurate Inclusive Cancer Screening Test Using Caenorhabditis elegans Scent Detection
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{"title"=>"A highly accurate inclusive cancer screening test using Caenorhabditis elegans scent detection", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Takaaki", "last_name"=>"Hirotsu", "scopus_author_id"=>"8514028800"}, {"first_name"=>"Hideto", "last_name"=>"Sonoda", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004958687"}, {"first_name"=>"Takayuki", "last_name"=>"Uozumi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55312932200"}, {"first_name"=>"Yoshiaki", "last_name"=>"Shinden", "scopus_author_id"=>"55917767700"}, {"first_name"=>"Koshi", "last_name"=>"Mimori", "scopus_author_id"=>"35414017500"}, {"first_name"=>"Yoshihiko", "last_name"=>"Maehara", "scopus_author_id"=>"35371979200"}, {"first_name"=>"Naoko", "last_name"=>"Ueda", "scopus_author_id"=>"56542628000"}, {"first_name"=>"Masayuki", "last_name"=>"Hamakawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"56543367400"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84924368185", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0118699", "pui"=>"602884919", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25760772", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84924368185"}, "id"=>"5fc4bc9c-33b6-38be-a929-4a79f649ff0e", "abstract"=>"Early detection and treatment are of vital importance to the successful eradication of various cancers, and development of economical and non-invasive novel cancer screening systems is critical. Previous reports using canine scent detection demonstrated the existence of cancer-specific odours. However, it is difficult to introduce canine scent recognition into clinical practice because of the need to maintain accuracy. In this study, we developed a Nematode Scent Detection Test (NSDT) using Caenorhabditis elegans to provide a novel highly accurate cancer detection system that is economical, painless, rapid and convenient. We demonstrated wild-type C. elegans displayed attractive chemotaxis towards human cancer cell secretions, cancer tissues and urine from cancer patients but avoided control urine; in parallel, the response of the olfactory neurons of C. elegans to the urine from cancer patients was significantly stronger than to control urine. In contrast, G protein α mutants and olfactory neurons-ablated animals were not attracted to cancer patient urine, suggesting that C. elegans senses odours in urine. We tested 242 samples to measure the performance of the NSDT, and found the sensitivity was 95.8%; this is markedly higher than that of other existing tumour markers. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.0%. Importantly, this test was able to diagnose various cancer types tested at the early stage (stage 0 or 1). To conclude, C. elegans scent-based analyses might provide a new strategy to detect and study disease-associated scents.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/highly-accurate-inclusive-cancer-screening-test-using-caenorhabditis-elegans-scent-detection", "reader_count"=>141, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>49, "Philosophy"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Chemistry"=>4, "Computer Science"=>2, "Engineering"=>12, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>19, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>29, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>29}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>12}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>49}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>19}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Japan"=>6, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944883"], "description"=>"<p>Box plots (A) and dot plots (B) of chemotactic responses of wild-type <i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> to urine samples from control subjects (n = 218) or cancer patients (n = 24). Whiskers indicate 10th and 90th percentiles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elegans senses odours", "novel cancer screening systems", "cancer patient urine", "cancer patients", "NSDT", "Caenorhabditis elegans Scent Detection", "cancer detection system", "Accurate Inclusive Cancer Screening Test", "Nematode Scent Detection Test", "G protein α mutants", "cancer cell secretions", "control urine"], "article_id"=>1332829, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takaaki Hirotsu", "Hideto Sonoda", "Takayuki Uozumi", "Yoshiaki Shinden", "Koshi Mimori", "Yoshihiko Maehara", "Naoko Ueda", "Masayuki Hamakawa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NSDT_of_242_urine_samples_/1332829", "title"=>"NSDT of 242 urine samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 02:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944884"], "description"=>"<p>The type and stage of cancer from which serum CEA, serum anti-p53 antibody, urinary DiAcSpm/Cre, some TMs and NSDT were measured or detected in 24 cancer patients are shown. Some TMs indicate that positive results were found for at least one tumour marker: CEA, Anti-p53 Ab or DiAcSpm. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and efficiency are also demonstrated. Such values of the NSDT were markedly higher than those of other existing tumour markers.</p><p>Accuracy of tumour markers in extended characterization.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elegans senses odours", "novel cancer screening systems", "cancer patient urine", "cancer patients", "NSDT", "Caenorhabditis elegans Scent Detection", "cancer detection system", "Accurate Inclusive Cancer Screening Test", "Nematode Scent Detection Test", "G protein α mutants", "cancer cell secretions", "control urine"], "article_id"=>1332830, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takaaki Hirotsu", "Hideto Sonoda", "Takayuki Uozumi", "Yoshiaki Shinden", "Koshi Mimori", "Yoshihiko Maehara", "Naoko Ueda", "Masayuki Hamakawa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Accuracy_of_tumour_markers_in_extended_characterization_/1332830", "title"=>"Accuracy of tumour markers in extended characterization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 02:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944882"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Chemotaxis to urine from controls (c5 and c10) or cancer patients (p5, p8 and p18) in wild-type animals with AWC, AWA, ASH or AWB neuron ablation (n ≥ 5 assays). (B) Chemotaxis of wild-type <i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> to urine samples from controls (A and B) or cancer patients (C and D) with or without filtration that were used in imaging experiments (n ≥ 5 assays). Filtration of urine had no significant effect. (C) Calcium responses of AWC olfactory neurons on removal of control or cancer patient urine. (D) Average fluorescence changes in AWC for 10 s following urine removal (n ≥ 8 animals). Values are normalized to the average change in ratio of Control-A. (E) Calcium responses of AWA olfactory neurons after addition of urine from controls or cancer patients. (F) Average fluorescence changes in AWA for 10 s after urine stimulation (n ≥ 8 animals). Values are normalized to the average change in ratio of Control-A. The brown shading indicates that urine was present. Error bars and shaded regions around the curves represent SEM. Significant differences from control samples are indicated by * (<i>P</i> < 0.05); ** (<i>P</i> < 0.01); *** (<i>P</i> < 0.001) as calculated by Dunnett’s tests (A, D, F).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elegans senses odours", "novel cancer screening systems", "cancer patient urine", "cancer patients", "NSDT", "Caenorhabditis elegans Scent Detection", "cancer detection system", "Accurate Inclusive Cancer Screening Test", "Nematode Scent Detection Test", "G protein α mutants", "cancer cell secretions", "control urine"], "article_id"=>1332828, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takaaki Hirotsu", "Hideto Sonoda", "Takayuki Uozumi", "Yoshiaki Shinden", "Koshi Mimori", "Yoshihiko Maehara", "Naoko Ueda", "Masayuki Hamakawa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Olfactory_neurons_of_C_elegans_respond_to_urine_from_cancer_patients_/1332828", "title"=>"Olfactory neurons of <i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> respond to urine from cancer patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 02:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944887", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944888", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944889", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944890", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944891", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944892", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944893", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944894", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944895", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944896", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944897"], "description"=>"<div><p>Early detection and treatment are of vital importance to the successful eradication of various cancers, and development of economical and non-invasive novel cancer screening systems is critical. Previous reports using canine scent detection demonstrated the existence of cancer-specific odours. However, it is difficult to introduce canine scent recognition into clinical practice because of the need to maintain accuracy. In this study, we developed a Nematode Scent Detection Test (NSDT) using <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> to provide a novel highly accurate cancer detection system that is economical, painless, rapid and convenient. We demonstrated wild-type <i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> displayed attractive chemotaxis towards human cancer cell secretions, cancer tissues and urine from cancer patients but avoided control urine; in parallel, the response of the olfactory neurons of <i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> to the urine from cancer patients was significantly stronger than to control urine. In contrast, G protein α mutants and olfactory neurons-ablated animals were not attracted to cancer patient urine, suggesting that <i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> senses odours in urine. We tested 242 samples to measure the performance of the NSDT, and found the sensitivity was 95.8%; this is markedly higher than that of other existing tumour markers. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.0%. Importantly, this test was able to diagnose various cancer types tested at the early stage (stage 0 or 1). To conclude, <i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> scent-based analyses might provide a new strategy to detect and study disease-associated scents.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elegans senses odours", "novel cancer screening systems", "cancer patient urine", "cancer patients", "NSDT", "Caenorhabditis elegans Scent Detection", "cancer detection system", "Accurate Inclusive Cancer Screening Test", "Nematode Scent Detection Test", "G protein α mutants", "cancer cell secretions", "control urine"], "article_id"=>1332833, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takaaki Hirotsu", "Hideto Sonoda", "Takayuki Uozumi", "Yoshiaki Shinden", "Koshi Mimori", "Yoshihiko Maehara", "Naoko Ueda", "Masayuki Hamakawa"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.s011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>18, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Highly_Accurate_Inclusive_Cancer_Screening_Test_Using_Caenorhabditis_elegans_Scent_Detection/1332833", "title"=>"A Highly Accurate Inclusive Cancer Screening Test Using <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> Scent Detection", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 02:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1944880"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Chemotaxis of wild-type <i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> to 10<sup>-6</sup> and 10<sup>-7</sup> dilutions of MEM, EMEM or RPMI medium only, or culture medium from fibroblast (KMST-6 and CCD-112CoN), colorectal cancer (SW480, COLO201 and COLO205), breast cancer (MCF7) or gastric cancer (NUGC4, MKN1 and MKN7) cells (n ≥ 5 assays). (B) Chemotaxis of wild type and <i>odr-3</i> mutants (n ≥ 5 assays) in response to a 10<sup>-6</sup> dilution of conditioned culture medium from colorectal, breast or gastric cancer cells. (C) Chemotaxis of wild type to 10<sup>-2</sup>, 10<sup>-3</sup> and 10<sup>-4</sup> dilutions of saline with normal and cancer tissue (n ≥ 5 assays). (D) Chemotaxis to normal and cancer tissue by wild-type and <i>odr-3</i> mutants (n ≥ 5 assays). (E) Chemotaxis of wild type to human urine samples from control subjects (blue bars; c1–c10) or cancer patients (orange bars; p1–p20) at 10<sup>-1</sup> dilution (n = 5 assays). (F) Chemotaxis to urine from cancer patients by wild-type and <i>odr-3</i> mutants at 10<sup>-1</sup> dilution (n ≥ 6 assays). Error bars represent SEM. Significant differences from control samples are indicated by * (<i>P</i> < 0.05); ** (<i>P</i> < 0.01); *** (<i>P</i> < 0.001) by Dunnett’s tests (A) or Student’s <i>t</i>-tests (B, C, D, F). † indicates a significant difference (<i>P</i> < 0.05) by Student’s <i>t</i>-tests (A).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elegans senses odours", "novel cancer screening systems", "cancer patient urine", "cancer patients", "NSDT", "Caenorhabditis elegans Scent Detection", "cancer detection system", "Accurate Inclusive Cancer Screening Test", "Nematode Scent Detection Test", "G protein α mutants", "cancer cell secretions", "control urine"], "article_id"=>1332826, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takaaki Hirotsu", "Hideto Sonoda", "Takayuki Uozumi", "Yoshiaki Shinden", "Koshi Mimori", "Yoshihiko Maehara", "Naoko Ueda", "Masayuki Hamakawa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118699.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_C_elegans_can_respond_to_cancer_cell_culture_medium_and_cancer_tissue_and_detect_cancer_smells_in_human_urine_/1332826", "title"=>"<i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> can respond to cancer cell culture medium and cancer tissue, and detect cancer smells in human urine.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-11 02:46:25"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"119", "full-text"=>"130", "pdf"=>"36", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"34", "supp-data"=>"18", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"86", "full-text"=>"95", "pdf"=>"22", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"23", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"15", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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