The α2,3-Sialyltransferase Encoded by Myxoma Virus Is a Virulence Factor that Contributes to Immunosuppression
Publication Date
February 23, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Bérengère Boutard, Sophie Vankerckhove, Nicolas Markine Goriaynoff, Mickaël Sarlet, et al
Volume
10
Issue
2
Pages
e0118806
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0118806
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25705900
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338283
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25705900
Web of Science
000350662100205
Scopus
84923373944
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/%CE%B123sialyltransferase-encoded-myxoma-virus-virulence-factor-contributes-immunosuppression
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The α2,3-sialyltransferase encoded by myxoma virus is a virulence factor that contributes to immunosuppression", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bérengère", "last_name"=>"Boutard", "scopus_author_id"=>"56527427000"}, {"first_name"=>"Sophie", "last_name"=>"Vankerckhove", "scopus_author_id"=>"56677728400"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Markine-Goriaynoff", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508056333"}, {"first_name"=>"Mickaël", "last_name"=>"Sarlet", "scopus_author_id"=>"23475158400"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Desmecht", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005922123"}, {"first_name"=>"Grant", "last_name"=>"McFadden", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103055169"}, {"first_name"=>"Alain", "last_name"=>"Vanderplasschen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003795553"}, {"first_name"=>"Laurent", "last_name"=>"Gillet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603465553"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84923373944", "pui"=>"602475431", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0118806", "pmid"=>"25705900", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84923373944", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"4ae8c89b-033b-3eed-9351-4e7cccd00a3c", "abstract"=>"Myxoma virus (MYXV) induces a lethal disease called Myxomatosis in European rabbits. MYXV is one of the rare viruses that encodes an α2,3-sialyltransferase through its M138L gene. In this study, we showed that although the absence of the enzyme was not associated with any in vitro deficit, the M138L deficient strains are highly attenuated in vivo. Indeed, while all rabbits infected with the parental and the revertant strains died within 9 days post-infection from severe myxomatosis, all but one rabbit inoculated with the M138L deficient strains survived the infection. In primary lesions, this resistance to the infection was associated with an increased ability of innate immune cells, mostly neutrophils, to migrate to the site of virus replication at 4 days post-infection. This was followed by the development of a better specific immune response against MYXV. Indeed, at day 9 post-infection, we observed an important proliferation of lymphocytes and an intense congestion of blood vessels in lymph nodes after M138L knockouts infection. Accordingly, in these rabbits, we observed an intense mononuclear cell infiltration throughout the dermis in primary lesions and higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Finally, this adaptive immune response provided protection to these surviving rabbits against a challenge with the MYXV WT strain. Altogether, these results show that expression of the M138L gene contributes directly or indirectly to immune evasion by MYXV. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the pathogenesis of myxomatosis but also the importance of glycans in regulation of immune responses.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/%CE%B123sialyltransferase-encoded-myxoma-virus-virulence-factor-contributes-immunosuppression", "reader_count"=>8, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922028"], "description"=>"<p>PBMCs were infected with WT eGFP or M138L Del strains. 24h p.i., cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for eGFP expression (<b>A</b>) and for apoptosis by Annexin V-APC staining (<b>B</b>). The data presented are the average +/- SEMs for 3 independent replicates and were analyzed by Student's test. No statistical difference was observed between groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316365, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ex_vivo_infection_of_rabbit_PBMCs_by_MYXV_eGFP_expressing_strains_/1316365", "title"=>"<i>Ex vivo</i> infection of rabbit PBMCs by MYXV eGFP expressing strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922011"], "description"=>"<p>MYXV virions were neutralized by the sialic acid-specific lectin MAA (<i>Maackia amurensis</i>) and by the alternative pathway of complement. <b>A.</b> MYXV WT, M138L Del, M138L STOP and M138L Rev mature virions (MVs) were incubated with dilutions of MAA lectin. After incubation (2h, 37°C) the viruses were plaque assayed for infectivity on RK13 cells. Data are expressed as plaque number relative to untreated equivalent virus samples. Data are the average +/- SEMs for 2 independent experiments and were analyzed by 2way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-tests. <b>B-C.</b> MYXV WT, M138L Del, M138L STOP and M138L Rev mature virions (MVs) (<b>B</b>) or freshly-prepared extracellular virions (EVs) (<b>C</b>) were incubated with serum from naïve rabbits, either untreated (continuous lines) or heat-inactivated (dashed lines). After incubation (2h, 37°C) the viruses were plaque assayed for infectivity on RK13 cells. Data are the average +/- SEMs for 3 independent experiments and were analyzed by 2way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-tests. No significant difference was observed between the different viral strains.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316350, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neutralization_of_MYXV_virions_/1316350", "title"=>"Neutralization of MYXV virions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922008"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> Rabbit PBMCs were cultured <i>ex vivo</i> and infected with a MOI of 0.05. Infected cells and their supernatants were harvested together at different times post-infection and the quantity of infectious virus was determined by titration on RK13 cells. The data presented are the average +/- SEMs for 3 independent experiments. <b>B.</b> RK13 cells were infected with a MOI of 0.01 with the viral strains WT, M138L Del, M138L STOP and M138L Rev. Infected cells and their supernatants were harvested together at different times post-infection and the quantity of infectious virus was determined by titration on RK13 cells. The data presented are the average +/- SEMs for 3 independent experiments. The data were analyzed by 2way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-tests. No significant difference was observed between the different viral strains.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316347, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_of_the_Myxoma_virus_WT_M138L_Del_M138L_STOP_and_M138L_Rev_strains_/1316347", "title"=>"Growth of the Myxoma virus WT, M138L Del, M138L STOP and M138L Rev strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922021"], "description"=>"<p>NZW rabbits were inoculated with 100 PFUs of Myxoma virus WT, M138L Del, M138L STOP or M138L Rev strains in the left flank. <b>A.</b> Haematoxylin-eosin staining at day 4 p.i. <b>B.</b> Haematoxylin-eosin staining at day 9 p.i. These pictures are representative of observations done at least on 4 rabbits. E: epidermis, D: dermis. Black arrows show neutrophils, black arrowheads show mononuclear cells and white arrowheads show ballooning degeneration.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316358, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histological_differences_at_the_primary_myxoma_site_from_rabbits_infected_by_the_Myxoma_virus_strains_/1316358", "title"=>"Histological differences at the primary myxoma site from rabbits infected by the Myxoma virus strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922032"], "description"=>"<p>Mock infected rabbits and rabbits previously infected with the M138L Del strain 100 days before were infected with the WT strain. The primary myxoma were stained with haematoxylin-eosin staining at day 9 post-challenge. These pictures are representative of observations done at least on 2 rabbits. E: epidermis, D: dermis. Black arrows show neutrophils.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316369, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histological_differences_after_a_challenge_with_100_PFUs_of_the_WT_Myxoma_virus_strain_/1316369", "title"=>"Histological differences after a challenge with 100 PFUs of the WT Myxoma virus strain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922029"], "description"=>"<p>NZW rabbits were inoculated with 100 PFUs of Myxoma virus (MYXV) WT, M138L Del, M138L STOP or M138L Rev strains in the left flank or mock infected. <b>A.</b> Sera collected at day 9 p.i. were compared for their capacity to neutralize MYXV WT virions. Briefly, MYXV WT virions were incubated with various amounts of sera from the different rabbits infected by the different strains. After incubation (2h, 37°C) the viruses were plaque assayed for infectivity on RK13 cells. MYXV titers are expressed relative to virus without antibody. The data presented are the average +/- SEMs for 3 independent replicates and were analyzed by 2way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-tests, * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001. <b>B.</b> The titer of anti-MYXV antibodies was estimated by ELISA as described in the Materials and Methods. Each value represents the mean +/- SEMs of the data obtained for the rabbits of each group. The sera of mock infected rabbits were taken as controls. Only samples until day 9 p.i. are shown for the rabbits infected by WT and M138L Rev strains as they had to be euthanized at day 9 post-infection.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316366, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Antibody_response_against_the_M138L_deficient_strains_in_NZW_rabbits_/1316366", "title"=>"Antibody response against the M138L deficient strains in NZW rabbits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922026"], "description"=>"<p>Rabbits (minimum 4 per strain) were infected with 100 PFUs of WT, M138L Del, M138L STOP or M138L Rev strains. DNA was extracted from PBMCs (collected by blood sample) of infected rabbits at different times post-inoculation (days 0, 4 and 9). Data are expressed as the number of MYXV genome copies per 100 copies of beta-globin cellular gene. The data presented are the average +/- SEMs for 3 independent replicates and were analyzed by 2way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-tests, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316363, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dissemination_of_Myxoma_virus_in_PBMCs_during_in_vivo_infection_/1316363", "title"=>"Dissemination of Myxoma virus in PBMCs during <i>in vivo</i> infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922005"], "description"=>"<p>The M138L Deleted (M138L Del), M138L Revertant (M138L Rev) and M138L STOP strains of MYXV were constructed from the hypervirulent strain Lausanne (WT). <b>A.</b> In the M138L Del strain, most of the M138L coding sequence was replaced by an eGFP-Neo cassette where eGFP is expressed as a fusion protein with the neomycin resistance protein under a synthetic early/late promoter of vaccinia virus (this cassette also contains the LacZ gene). The revertant strain was constructed by replacing the eGFP-Neo cassette in the M138L Del strain by WT sequence. The M138L STOP strain was constructed by introducing a SbfI restriction site in order to create a shift in the reading frame of the M138L gene leading to several STOP codons and to identify this mutant strain. <b>B.</b> Verification of the molecular structure of the mutant viruses by electrophoresis and Southern blotting. Viral DNA was digested with HindIII, resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis, transferred on a nitrocellulose membrane, hybridized with 32P-labeled probes, corresponding to either a fragment of M138L or eGFP and finally submitted to autoradiography. For the M138L probe, the 33,703-bp WT band becomes 22,801-bp for the M138L Del mutant and 33,714-bp for the M138L STOP strain. For the eGFP probe, the band for the M138L Del mutant is 15,242-bp. Marker sizes in Kbp are indicated on the left.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316345, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Construction_of_the_Myxoma_virus_M138L_mutant_strains_/1316345", "title"=>"Construction of the Myxoma virus M138L mutant strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922025"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> Haematoxylin-eosin staining of the draining lymph nodes at days 4 and 9 p.i. <b>B.</b> Haematoxylin-eosin staining of popliteal lymph nodes at day 9 p.i. These pictures are representative of observations done at least on 4 rabbits. Black arrows show neutrophils and transparent arrows show congestion of blood vessels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316362, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histological_differences_of_lymph_nodes_from_rabbits_infected_by_the_Myxoma_virus_strains_/1316362", "title"=>"Histological differences of lymph nodes from rabbits infected by the Myxoma virus strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922034"], "description"=>"<p>Pathogenicity of the M138L knockout strains in the European rabbit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316371, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pathogenicity_of_the_M138L_knockout_strains_in_the_European_rabbit_/1316371", "title"=>"Pathogenicity of the M138L knockout strains in the European rabbit.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1922014"], "description"=>"<p>NZW rabbits were inoculated with 100 PFUs of Myxoma virus WT, M138L Del, M138L STOP or M138L Rev strains in the left flank. <b>A.</b> Daily clinical scores that evaluated the physical condition and clinical signs of primary and systemic infection were obtained. Clinical scores in the WT and M138L Rev groups were recorded until animals reached euthanasia criteria (significant respiratory distress, or no food or water intake for 48 h, or a clinical score of 15 for two consecutive days). <b>B.</b> The results were analyzed for survival rates among the groups. The daily percentage of survival in each group was plotted to generate the survival curve. The data were analyzed by log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test, * p<0.05. <b>C.</b> Size of the primary lesions of NZW rabbits infected with the different Myxoma virus strains. Daily measurements of the lesion area were recorded. The data presented are the average +/- SEMs. <b>D.</b> Evolution of the temperatures of the infected rabbits. The data presented are the average +/- SEMs. <b>E.</b> Pictures of primary myxomas at days 4 and 7 p.i. These pictures are representative of observations done at least on 4 rabbits. The scale bar on the first image refers to all the images.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1316353, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pathogenesis_of_the_M138L_deficient_strains_in_NZW_rabbits_/1316353", "title"=>"Pathogenesis of the M138L deficient strains in NZW rabbits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 04:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1930339"], "description"=>"<div><p>Myxoma virus (MYXV) induces a lethal disease called Myxomatosis in European rabbits. MYXV is one of the rare viruses that encodes an α2,3-sialyltransferase through its M138L gene. In this study, we showed that although the absence of the enzyme was not associated with any <i>in vitro</i> deficit, the M138L deficient strains are highly attenuated <i>in vivo</i>. Indeed, while all rabbits infected with the parental and the revertant strains died within 9 days post-infection from severe myxomatosis, all but one rabbit inoculated with the M138L deficient strains survived the infection. In primary lesions, this resistance to the infection was associated with an increased ability of innate immune cells, mostly neutrophils, to migrate to the site of virus replication at 4 days post-infection. This was followed by the development of a better specific immune response against MYXV. Indeed, at day 9 post-infection, we observed an important proliferation of lymphocytes and an intense congestion of blood vessels in lymph nodes after M138L knockouts infection. Accordingly, in these rabbits, we observed an intense mononuclear cell infiltration throughout the dermis in primary lesions and higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Finally, this adaptive immune response provided protection to these surviving rabbits against a challenge with the MYXV WT strain. Altogether, these results show that expression of the M138L gene contributes directly or indirectly to immune evasion by MYXV. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the pathogenesis of myxomatosis but also the importance of glycans in regulation of immune responses.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["M 138L knockouts infection", "M 138L", "myxomatosi", "MYXV WT strain", "lesion", "response", "Immunosuppression Myxoma virus", "M 138L gene"], "article_id"=>1322431, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bérengère Boutard", "Sophie Vankerckhove", "Nicolas Markine-Goriaynoff", "Mickaël Sarlet", "Daniel Desmecht", "Grant McFadden", "Alain Vanderplasschen", "Laurent Gillet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118806", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_945_2_3_Sialyltransferase_Encoded_by_Myxoma_Virus_Is_a_Virulence_Factor_that_Contributes_to_Immunosuppression_/1322431", "title"=>"The α2,3-Sialyltransferase Encoded by Myxoma Virus Is a Virulence Factor that Contributes to Immunosuppression", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-23 16:57:10"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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