Oleic Acid Metabolism via a Conserved Cytochrome P450 System-Mediated ω-Hydroxylation in the Bark Beetle-Associated Fungus Grosmannia clavigera
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{"title"=>"Oleic acid metabolism via a conserved cytochrome P450 system-mediated ω- Hydroxylation in the bark beetle-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Metka", "last_name"=>"Novak", "scopus_author_id"=>"57201537124"}, {"first_name"=>"Ljerka", "last_name"=>"Lah", "scopus_author_id"=>"23667818000"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Šala", "scopus_author_id"=>"8875277600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jure", "last_name"=>"Stojan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003683609"}, {"first_name"=>"Joerg", "last_name"=>"Bohlmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006410064"}, {"first_name"=>"Radovan", "last_name"=>"Komel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005579712"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"603270658", "pmid"=>"25794012", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0120119", "sgr"=>"84925868900", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84925868900"}, "id"=>"5b358142-1a4a-3b11-9c4b-fe4eabb1f25c", "abstract"=>"The bark beetle-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera participates in the large-scale destruction of pine forests. In the tree, it must tolerate saturating levels of toxic conifer defense chemicals (e.g. monoterpenes). The fungus can metabolize some of these compounds through the ß-oxidation pathway and use them as a source of carbon. It also uses carbon from pine triglycerides, where oleic acid is the most common fatty acid. High levels of free fatty acids, however, are toxic and can cause additional stress during host colonization. Fatty acids induce expression of neighboring genes encoding a cytochrome P450 (CYP630B18) and its redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR2). The aim of this work was to study the function of this novel P450 system. Using LC/MS, we biochemically characterized CYP630 as a highly specific oleic acid ω-hydroxylase. We explain oleic acid specificity using protein interaction modeling. Our results underscore the importance of ω-oxidation when the main ß-oxidation pathway may be overwhelmed by other substrates such as host terpenoid compounds. Because this CYP-CPR gene cluster is evolutionarily conserved, our work has implications for metabolism studies in other fungi.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/oleic-acid-metabolism-via-conserved-cytochrome-p450-systemmediated-%CF%89-hydroxylation-bark-beetleassoci", "reader_count"=>22, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Belarus"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963564"], "description"=>"<p>Extracted ion chromatograms (297.2–297.4 m/z, run in negative-ion ESI-MS) for oleic acid conversion by GsCYP630B18 in combination with GsCPR1 or GsCPR2 with the highest peak (m/z 297.3) identified as 18-hydroxyoleic acid. Darkened lines indicate where the peaks were integrated for relative ion intensity comparison. Samples GsCYP630 with GsCPR1 (top left panel) and GsCYP630 with GsCPR2 (top right panel) are shown in red. Controls (empty E. coli membrane fractions with GsCPR1or GsCPR2) are shown in black. Significant differences for the major product peak between controls and samples were indicated by P-value (P < 0.05, n = 3). Additional data for each analysis are shown below the LC/MS traces as m/z value, retention time, fold change as ratio of mean intensities between samples and controls, P-value, and peak intensity as average feature intensity within sample/control class.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344965, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oleic_acid_oxidation_by_Gs_CYP630B18_in_combination_with_Gs_CPR1_or_Gs_CPR2_/1344965", "title"=>"Oleic acid oxidation by <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18 in combination with <i>Gs</i>CPR1 or <i>Gs</i>CPR2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963566"], "description"=>"<p>Extracted ion chromatograms (297.2–297.6 <i>m/z</i> run in negative-ion ESI) from LC/MS analyses for <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18 activity in RS1 and RS2 with oleic acid as substrate. Empty <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> membrane fractions were used as control. Mass spectra representing hydroxyoleic acid peaks with RT 15.04 and 14.99 min are shown on the right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344967, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Single_extracted_ion_chromatograms_of_RS1_and_RS2_products_/1344967", "title"=>"Single extracted ion chromatograms of RS1 and RS2 products.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963567"], "description"=>"<p>The CPR-catalyzed reduction of ferricyanide in concentrations between 2 μM and 500 μM at 420 nm in the presence of saturating 100 mM NADPH in 100 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.6). Different concentrations of ferricyanide are represented in shades of grey and dashed lines. Decreasing absorbance at 420 nm, quantifying the reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide, was plotted by normalizing all points relative to the point zero baseline.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344968, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Standard_plots_for_determining_ferricyanide_reduction_kinetics_catalyzed_by_Gs_CPR1_or_Gs_CPR2_in_the_presence_of_NADPH_/1344968", "title"=>"Standard plots for determining ferricyanide reduction kinetics catalyzed by <i>Gs</i>CPR1 or <i>Gs</i>CPR2 in the presence of NADPH.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963568"], "description"=>"<p>The presence of the gene cluster found in seven Pezizomycotina classes is given as a fraction of the species that the gene cluster was identified in relative to all the species of a given class whose genomes were searched. Homologs of either gene were not identified outside of Pezizomycotina. The relative orientation of both genes is given (< >—divergent; > <—convergent, << or >>—co-oriented) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref047\" target=\"_blank\">47</a>]. The phylogeny was modeled after [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref048\" target=\"_blank\">48</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344969, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_selective_conservation_of_the_CYP630_CPR2_gene_cluster_in_Pezizomycotina_/1344969", "title"=>"Schematic representation of selective conservation of the CYP630-CPR2 gene cluster in Pezizomycotina.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963571"], "description"=>"<p>The putative involvement of <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18 is indicated by grey arrows. Triglycerides from the host plant in the lipoprotein are broken down to free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol by the action of the lipoprotein lipase (LpL) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref057\" target=\"_blank\">57</a>]. Glycerol is further phosphorylated by glycerol kinase (GK) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref058\" target=\"_blank\">58</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref059\" target=\"_blank\">59</a>] and enters glycolysis. On the cytosolic site, FFAs are activated and coupled to coenzyme A (CoA) by the catalysis of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref060\" target=\"_blank\">60</a>] or by different fatty acid transporter proteins (FATPs) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref061\" target=\"_blank\">61</a>]. The transfer through the plasma membrane occurs by a protein-mediated mechanism. In the cell, FFAs can act at different sub-cellular localizations and have functions in energy generation and storage, membrane synthesis, protein modification, and activation of nuclear transcription factors [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref062\" target=\"_blank\">62</a>]. Oxidation of FFA in fungi occurs mainly through β-oxidation in the mitochondrial matrix or peroxisomes, or through the ω-oxidation pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum. Several acyl-CoA ligases (ACLs) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref063\" target=\"_blank\">63</a>], involved in fatty acid metabolism, then attach CoA to the ends of fatty acids to form fatty-acyl-CoA. Fatty-acyl-CoA can pass through the outer mitochondrial membrane, but requires carnitine acetyl transferase (CT) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref064\" target=\"_blank\">64</a>] to cross the inner membrane. The multifunctional β-oxidation enzyme FOX2[<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref065\" target=\"_blank\">65</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref066\" target=\"_blank\">66</a>] was induced in <i>Gs</i> mycelia grown on fatty acids, indicating possible peroxisomal oxidation. In ω-oxidation, the hydroxylase reaction is catalyzed by CYP630 (red bubble) and its redox partner CPR 2. Dicarboxylic acids are then subject to further β-oxidation. Gene IDs and respective changes in transcript abundance in <i>Gs</i> grown on fatty acids are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref014\" target=\"_blank\">14</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref067\" target=\"_blank\">67</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344972, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proposed_model_for_the_role_of_Gs_CYP630B18_in_fatty_acid_oxidation_/1344972", "title"=>"Proposed model for the role of <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18 in fatty acid oxidation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963578"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The FMN-binding domain of <i>Gs</i>CPR2 in open conformation interacts with the <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18 that brings the FMN cofactor in close proximity to the CYP heme cofactor and thus facilitates electron transfer. The <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18 transmembrane region is inserted into the lipid bilayer. (B) Docking of oleic acid (red) versus the stearic acid (yellow) in the active site of <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18. Arginine 224 (green) holds both compounds in the active site channel.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344975, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_model_of_RS2_reconstitution_system_of_the_FMN_domain_red_of_Gs_CPR2_and_Gs_CYP630B18_orange_its_substrate_oleic_acid_red_and_the_non_substrate_stearic_acid_yellow_/1344975", "title"=>"The model of RS2 reconstitution system of the FMN domain (red) of <i>Gs</i>CPR2 and <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18 (orange), its substrate oleic acid (red) and the non-substrate stearic acid (yellow).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963579"], "description"=>"<p>The protein was constrained for the first 100 ps.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344976, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_course_of_the_root_mean_square_RMS_changes_of_the_heme_moiety_in_Gs_CYP630B18_with_oleic_acid_left_and_stearic_acid_right_as_a_substrate_/1344976", "title"=>"Time course of the root mean square (RMS) changes of the heme moiety in <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18 with oleic acid (left) and stearic acid (right) as a substrate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963581"], "description"=>"<p>Loops are underlined and in bold. Lys 322 in loop 4 is marked in red.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344978, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Amino_acid_alignment_of_4_FMN_binding_domains_of_Gs_CPR2_and_Gs_CPR1_which_interact_with_Gs_CYP630B18_/1344978", "title"=>"Amino acid alignment of 4 FMN-binding domains of <i>Gs</i>CPR2 and <i>Gs</i>CPR1, which interact with <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963582"], "description"=>"<p>EU—one enzyme unit of CPR reduces 1.0 μmol oxidized cytochrome c per minute in the presence of 100 mM NADPH at pH 7.8 and 25°C.</p><p>m—membrane-bound</p><p>Positive control—rabbit liver CPR</p><p>Negative control—membrane fraction of yeast strain expressing empty plasmid pYEDP60U</p><p>Enzyme activity of <i>Gs</i>CPR1 and <i>Gs</i>CPR2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344979, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Enzyme_activity_of_Gs_CPR1_and_Gs_CPR2_/1344979", "title"=>"Enzyme activity of <i>Gs</i>CPR1 and <i>Gs</i>CPR2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963586"], "description"=>"<p>Calculated kinetic parameters for <i>Gs</i>CPR1 and <i>Gs</i>CPR2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344981, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Calculated_kinetic_parameters_for_Gs_CPR1_and_Gs_CPR2_/1344981", "title"=>"Calculated kinetic parameters for <i>Gs</i>CPR1 and <i>Gs</i>CPR2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963587"], "description"=>"<p>RNA-Seq data for selected genes from mycelia grown for 10 days on YNB minimal medium with a mixture of monoterpenes (YNB+MT) (monoterpenes: (+)-limonene, (+)-3-carene, racemic α-pinene and (−)-β-pinene at a ratio of 5:3:1:1), for 5 days with triglycerides (YNB+TG), or oleic acid (YNB+OA) as the sole carbon source, relative to controls grown on mannose [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref014\" target=\"_blank\">14</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119#pone.0120119.ref067\" target=\"_blank\">67</a>].</p><p>*<i>P-</i>values are not significant.</p><p>LpL—lipoprotein lipase, GK—glycerol kinase, ACSL—long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, FATPs—fatty acid transporter proteins, ACLs—acyl-CoA coenzymes, CT—carnitine acetyl transferase, FOX2—multifunctional β-oxidation enzyme, CYP630B18—cytochrome P450, CPR2—cytochrome P450 reductase 2.</p><p>Changes in transcript abundance of genes involved in the <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18 putative fatty acid oxidation pathway following growth on monoterpenes, triglycerides or oleic acid as the sole carbon sources.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344982, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_transcript_abundance_of_genes_involved_in_the_Gs_CYP630B18_putative_fatty_acid_oxidation_pathway_following_growth_on_monoterpenes_triglycerides_or_oleic_acid_as_the_sole_carbon_sources_/1344982", "title"=>"Changes in transcript abundance of genes involved in the <i>Gs</i>CYP630B18 putative fatty acid oxidation pathway following growth on monoterpenes, triglycerides or oleic acid as the sole carbon sources.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963594", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963595", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963596", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963597", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963598", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963599", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1963600"], "description"=>"<div><p>The bark beetle-associated fungus <i>Grosmannia clavigera</i> participates in the large-scale destruction of pine forests. In the tree, it must tolerate saturating levels of toxic conifer defense chemicals (e.g. monoterpenes). The fungus can metabolize some of these compounds through the ß-oxidation pathway and use them as a source of carbon. It also uses carbon from pine triglycerides, where oleic acid is the most common fatty acid. High levels of free fatty acids, however, are toxic and can cause additional stress during host colonization. Fatty acids induce expression of neighboring genes encoding a cytochrome P450 (CYP630B18) and its redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR2). The aim of this work was to study the function of this novel P450 system. Using LC/MS, we biochemically characterized CYP630 as a highly specific oleic acid ω-hydroxylase. We explain oleic acid specificity using protein interaction modeling. Our results underscore the importance of ω-oxidation when the main ß-oxidation pathway may be overwhelmed by other substrates such as host terpenoid compounds. Because this CYP-CPR gene cluster is evolutionarily conserved, our work has implications for metabolism studies in other fungi.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CYP 630B", "cpr", "Fatty acids", "pine forests", "host colonization", "metabolism studies", "CYP 630", "host terpenoid compounds", "cytochrome P 450 reductase", "oxidation", "protein interaction modeling", "saturating levels", "Genes encoding", "redox partner", "oleic acid specificity", "conifer defense chemicals", "High Levels", "pine triglycerides", "novel P 450 system", "lc", "cytochrome P 450", "oleic acid"], "article_id"=>1344989, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Metka Novak", "Ljerka Lah", "Martin Šala", "Jure Stojan", "Joerg Bohlmann", "Radovan Komel"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120119.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Oleic_Acid_Metabolism_via_a_Conserved_Cytochrome_P450_System_Mediated_Hydroxylation_in_the_Bark_Beetle_Associated_Fungus_Grosmannia_clavigera_/1344989", "title"=>"Oleic Acid Metabolism <i>via</i> a Conserved Cytochrome P450 System-Mediated ω-Hydroxylation in the Bark Beetle-Associated Fungus <i>Grosmannia clavigera</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 02:50:35"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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