Molecular and Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships of Stingrays Focusing on the Family Dasyatidae (Myliobatiformes)
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{"title"=>"Molecular and morphological analyses reveal phylogenetic relationships of stingrays focusing on the family dasyatidae (myliobatiformes)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kean Chong", "last_name"=>"Lim", "scopus_author_id"=>"56394927200"}, {"first_name"=>"Phaik Eem", "last_name"=>"Lim", "scopus_author_id"=>"36097585100"}, {"first_name"=>"Ving Ching", "last_name"=>"Chong", "scopus_author_id"=>"55948442800"}, {"first_name"=>"Kar Hoe", "last_name"=>"Loh", "scopus_author_id"=>"18042491600"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25867639", "sgr"=>"84929485430", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0120518", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929485430", "pui"=>"604108032", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"e5b2736a-dfcd-31f5-86bb-c44d72419782", "abstract"=>"Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of the current but problematic Dasyatidae (Order Myliobatiformes) was the first priority of the current study. Here, we studied three molecular gene markers of 43 species (COI gene), 33 species (ND2 gene) and 34 species (RAG1 gene) of stingrays to draft out the phylogenetic tree of the order. Nine character states were identified and used to confirm the molecularly constructed phylogenetic trees. Eight or more clades (at different hierarchical level) were identified for COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes in the Myliobatiformes including four clades containing members of the present Dasyatidae, thus rendering the latter non-monophyletic. The uncorrected p-distance between these four 'Dasytidae' clades when compared to the distance between formally known families confirmed that these four clades should be elevated to four separate families. We suggest a revision of the present classification, retaining the Dasyatidae (Dasyatis and Taeniurops species) but adding three new families namely, Neotrygonidae (Neotrygon and Taeniura species), Himanturidae (Himantura species) and Pastinachidae (Pastinachus species). Our result indicated the need to further review the classification of Dasyatis microps. By resolving the non-monophyletic problem, the suite of nine character states enables the natural classification of the Myliobatiformes into at least thirteen families based on morphology.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/molecular-morphological-analyses-reveal-phylogenetic-relationships-stingrays-focusing-family-dasyati", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Australia"=>2, "Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015379"], "description"=>"<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518#pone.0120518.t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> for detailed explanation on the differentiation of the morphological characters used.</p><p>Character matrix for species within the four proposed families that were not included in the representative species list.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classification", "coi", "character states", "Myliobatiforme", "clade", "RAG 1 gene", "RAG 1 genes", "ND 2 gene", "phylogenetic", "Dasyatidae", "species", "Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships"], "article_id"=>1375866, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kean Chong Lim", "Phaik-Eem Lim", "Ving Ching Chong", "Kar-Hoe Loh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Character_matrix_for_species_within_the_four_proposed_families_that_were_not_included_in_the_representative_species_list_/1375866", "title"=>"Character matrix for species within the four proposed families that were not included in the representative species list.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:42:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015374"], "description"=>"<p>Wing-like body shape of Mobulidae (A) and Gymnuridae (B), Head of Myliobatidae (C), Head of Rhinopteridae (D), Gill openings of Hexatrigonidae (E), Plesiobatidae with long preorbital length (F), Short tail with caudal fin (G), Whip-like tail with low ventral skin fold (H), Whip-like tail with large ventral skin fold (I), Body thorns without denticles (J), and Body with thorns and denticles (K). Drawings adapted from photos and figures in Carpenter & Niem [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518#pone.0120518.ref001\" target=\"_blank\">1</a>] and Last <i>et al</i>. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518#pone.0120518.ref005\" target=\"_blank\">5</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classification", "coi", "character states", "Myliobatiforme", "clade", "RAG 1 gene", "RAG 1 genes", "ND 2 gene", "phylogenetic", "Dasyatidae", "species", "Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships"], "article_id"=>1375861, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kean Chong Lim", "Phaik-Eem Lim", "Ving Ching Chong", "Kar-Hoe Loh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphological_characters_used_in_key_to_the_families_of_Order_Myliobatiformes_/1375861", "title"=>"Morphological characters used in key to the families of Order Myliobatiformes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:42:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015373"], "description"=>"<p>Squares = Dasyatidae; triangles = Neotrygonidae; crosses = Himanturidae; circles = Pastinachidae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classification", "coi", "character states", "Myliobatiforme", "clade", "RAG 1 gene", "RAG 1 genes", "ND 2 gene", "phylogenetic", "Dasyatidae", "species", "Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships"], "article_id"=>1375860, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kean Chong Lim", "Phaik-Eem Lim", "Ving Ching Chong", "Kar-Hoe Loh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plots_of_canonical_scores_derived_from_forward_stepwise_discriminant_analysis_of_morphometric_measurements_of_four_stingray_families_/1375860", "title"=>"Plots of canonical scores derived from forward stepwise discriminant analysis of morphometric measurements of four stingray families.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:42:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015370"], "description"=>"<p>The bootstrap values (ML/Bayesian Inference) are shown at branches.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classification", "coi", "character states", "Myliobatiforme", "clade", "RAG 1 gene", "RAG 1 genes", "ND 2 gene", "phylogenetic", "Dasyatidae", "species", "Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships"], "article_id"=>1375857, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kean Chong Lim", "Phaik-Eem Lim", "Ving Ching Chong", "Kar-Hoe Loh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ND2_gene_phylogenetic_relationships_of_stingrays_phylogram_/1375857", "title"=>"ND2 gene phylogenetic relationships of stingrays (phylogram).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:42:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015369"], "description"=>"<p>The bootstrap values (ML/Bayesian Inference) are shown at branches.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classification", "coi", "character states", "Myliobatiforme", "clade", "RAG 1 gene", "RAG 1 genes", "ND 2 gene", "phylogenetic", "Dasyatidae", "species", "Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships"], "article_id"=>1375856, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kean Chong Lim", "Phaik-Eem Lim", "Ving Ching Chong", "Kar-Hoe Loh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_COI_gene_phylogenetic_relationships_of_stingrays_phylogram_/1375856", "title"=>"COI gene phylogenetic relationships of stingrays (phylogram).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:42:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015378"], "description"=>"<p>* Proposed new families</p><p><b>Character 1</b>: Body disc shape: 0 = wing like; pectoral fin greatly expanded, 1 = rhombus, quadrangular or oval; pectoral fin not greatly expanded. <b>Character 2</b>: Body denticles and thorns: 0 = no distinct denticles and thorns, 1 = no distinct denticles; thorn confined to midline of disc, 2 = granular or flat denticles band very broad; some may have thorns that either confine to center of body or midline, thorns can be blunt or sharp, 3 = with small spiny or star like denticles; no thorns along central disc or tail. <b>Character 3</b>: Head position and elevation: 0 = head extended anterior to pectoral fin; head elevated, 1 = head not extended anterior to pectoral fin; head not elevated. <b>Character 4</b>: Rostrum or cephalic fin: 0 = rostral fin single and convex, 1 = rostral fin bilobate and broadly notched medially 2 = Snout forming bilobate cephalic fin, laterally based on head, 3 = not as stated. <b>Character 5</b>: Gill opening: 0 = six gill opening, 1 = 5 gill opening. <b>Character 6</b>: Tail types: 0 = tail short and stout, not whip like, 1 = tail long, whip like. <b>Character 7</b>: Tail pattern: 0 = plain, 1 = banded or striped. <b>Character 8</b>: Ventral skin fold: 0 = no ventral skin fold, 1 = low ventral skin fold, with or without indistinct dorsal skin fold, 2 = large ventral skin fold, 3 = distinct dorsal and ventral skin fold. <b>Character 9</b>: Caudal fin: 0 = no caudal fin, 1 = with well developed caudal fin.</p><p>Character matrix for thirteen major families (including <i>Dasyatis microps</i>) of the Myliobatiformes (present study) based on nine character states.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classification", "coi", "character states", "Myliobatiforme", "clade", "RAG 1 gene", "RAG 1 genes", "ND 2 gene", "phylogenetic", "Dasyatidae", "species", "Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships"], "article_id"=>1375865, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kean Chong Lim", "Phaik-Eem Lim", "Ving Ching Chong", "Kar-Hoe Loh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Character_matrix_for_thirteen_major_families_including_Dasyatis_microps_of_the_Myliobatiformes_present_study_based_on_nine_character_states_/1375865", "title"=>"Character matrix for thirteen major families (including <i>Dasyatis microps</i>) of the Myliobatiformes (present study) based on nine character states.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:42:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015376"], "description"=>"<p>Range of uncorrected p-distances for COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes among families in the Order Myliobatiformes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classification", "coi", "character states", "Myliobatiforme", "clade", "RAG 1 gene", "RAG 1 genes", "ND 2 gene", "phylogenetic", "Dasyatidae", "species", "Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships"], "article_id"=>1375863, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kean Chong Lim", "Phaik-Eem Lim", "Ving Ching Chong", "Kar-Hoe Loh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Range_of_uncorrected_p_distances_for_COI_ND2_and_RAG1_genes_among_families_in_the_Order_Myliobatiformes_/1375863", "title"=>"Range of uncorrected p-distances for COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes among families in the Order Myliobatiformes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:42:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015377"], "description"=>"<p>Range of uncorrected p-distances among the four clusters in the Dasyatidae (sensu Carpenter & Niem, 1999) based on COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classification", "coi", "character states", "Myliobatiforme", "clade", "RAG 1 gene", "RAG 1 genes", "ND 2 gene", "phylogenetic", "Dasyatidae", "species", "Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships"], "article_id"=>1375864, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kean Chong Lim", "Phaik-Eem Lim", "Ving Ching Chong", "Kar-Hoe Loh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Range_of_uncorrected_p_distances_among_the_four_clusters_in_the_Dasyatidae_sensu_Carpenter_amp_Niem_1999_based_on_COI_ND2_and_RAG1_genes_/1375864", "title"=>"Range of uncorrected p-distances among the four clusters in the Dasyatidae (sensu Carpenter & Niem, 1999) based on COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:42:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015375"], "description"=>"<p>Drawings adapted from photos in Carpenter & Niem [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518#pone.0120518.ref001\" target=\"_blank\">1</a>] and Last <i>et al</i>. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518#pone.0120518.ref005\" target=\"_blank\">5</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classification", "coi", "character states", "Myliobatiforme", "clade", "RAG 1 gene", "RAG 1 genes", "ND 2 gene", "phylogenetic", "Dasyatidae", "species", "Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships"], "article_id"=>1375862, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kean Chong Lim", "Phaik-Eem Lim", "Ving Ching Chong", "Kar-Hoe Loh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dorsal_surface_of_representative_specimens_of_Dasyatidae_A_Neotrygonidae_Neotrygon_species_B_Neotrygonidae_Taeniura_species_C_Himanturidae_D_and_Pastinachidae_E_showing_thorns_and_or_denticle_patterns_on_dorsal_surface_/1375862", "title"=>"Dorsal surface of representative specimens of Dasyatidae (A), Neotrygonidae (<i>Neotrygon</i> species) (B), Neotrygonidae (<i>Taeniura</i> species) (C), Himanturidae (D) and Pastinachidae (E), showing thorns and/or denticle patterns on dorsal surface.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:42:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015372"], "description"=>"<p>The bootstrap values (ML/Bayesian Inference) are shown at branches.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classification", "coi", "character states", "Myliobatiforme", "clade", "RAG 1 gene", "RAG 1 genes", "ND 2 gene", "phylogenetic", "Dasyatidae", "species", "Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships"], "article_id"=>1375859, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kean Chong Lim", "Phaik-Eem Lim", "Ving Ching Chong", "Kar-Hoe Loh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120518.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>84, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RAG1_gene_phylogenetic_relationships_of_stingrays_cladogram_/1375859", "title"=>"RAG1 gene phylogenetic relationships of stingrays (cladogram).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:42:17"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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