Combinations of Ashwagandha Leaf Extracts Protect Brain-Derived Cells against Oxidative Stress and Induce Differentiation
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{"title"=>"Combinations of Ashwagandha leaf extracts protect brain-derived cells against oxidative stress and induce differentiation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Navjot", "last_name"=>"Shah", "scopus_author_id"=>"26026425100"}, {"first_name"=>"Rumani", "last_name"=>"Singh", "scopus_author_id"=>"54682336800"}, {"first_name"=>"Upasana", "last_name"=>"Sarangi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55328779900"}, {"first_name"=>"Nishant", "last_name"=>"Saxena", "scopus_author_id"=>"51562445300"}, {"first_name"=>"Anupama", "last_name"=>"Chaudhary", "scopus_author_id"=>"56572169200"}, {"first_name"=>"Gurcharan", "last_name"=>"Kaur", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103023716"}, {"first_name"=>"Sunil C.", "last_name"=>"Kaul", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403092602"}, {"first_name"=>"Renu", "last_name"=>"Wadhwa", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006876025"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25789768", "sgr"=>"84925596678", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0120554", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84925596678", "pui"=>"603271382", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"6d031832-7736-3c1e-b489-1d4f384a8dc3", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water) as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach. CONCLUSION: Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/combinations-ashwagandha-leaf-extracts-protect-brainderived-cells-against-oxidative-stress-induce-di", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1961668"], "description"=>"<p>Morphology of control and treated cells is shown in E. Values are presented as mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. Statistical significance (P values) between the control and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-treated group recovered either in i-Extract, (1 μg/ml for C6 and 0.4 μg/ml for IMR32), withaferin A (0.3 μg/ml for C6 and 0.2 μg/ml for IMR32), withanone (5 μg/ml for C6 and 2 μg/ml for IMR32) and WEX 1% supplemented medium for 24 h are shown. Statistical significance with P<0.05 was considered significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dose", "neuroprotective activities", "extract", "Induce Differentiation BackgroundAshwagandha", "tumor suppressor functions", "component", "combinational approach.ConclusionAshwagandha leaf", "bioactive", "oxidative stress", "glial"], "article_id"=>1343360, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Navjot Shah", "Rumani Singh", "Upasana Sarangi", "Nishant Saxena", "Anupama Chaudhary", "Gurcharan Kaur", "Sunil C. Kaul", "Renu Wadhwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120554.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_viability_A_and_B_and_cell_death_C_and_D_as_determined_by_MTT_and_LDH_assays_respectively_in_human_neuroblastoma_IMR32_and_rat_glioblastoma_C6_cells_treated_with_H_2_O_2_and_recovered_either_in_the_absence_control_or_presence_of_Ashwagandha_reagents/1343360", "title"=>"Cell viability (A and B) and cell death (C and D) as determined by MTT and LDH assays, respectively, in human neuroblastoma (IMR32) and rat glioblastoma (C6) cells treated with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and recovered either in the absence (control) or presence of Ashwagandha reagents-supplemented medium is shown.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-19 03:25:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1961671"], "description"=>"<p>Quantitation of the protein levels as determined by three independent experiments is shown in C. Statistical significance with P<0.05 was considered significant. NS denotes not significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dose", "neuroprotective activities", "extract", "Induce Differentiation BackgroundAshwagandha", "tumor suppressor functions", "component", "combinational approach.ConclusionAshwagandha leaf", "bioactive", "oxidative stress", "glial"], "article_id"=>1343363, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Navjot Shah", "Rumani Singh", "Upasana Sarangi", "Nishant Saxena", "Anupama Chaudhary", "Gurcharan Kaur", "Sunil C. Kaul", "Renu Wadhwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120554.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_and_immunofluorescence_of_NF_200_and_MAP2_A_and_expression_level_of_these_proteins_B_in_IMR32_neuroblastoma_cells_treated_with_H_2_O_2_and_recovered_in_the_absence_control_or_presence_of_Ashwagandha_reagents_in_the_medium_/1343363", "title"=>"Morphology and immunofluorescence of NF-200 and MAP2 (A) and expression level of these proteins (B) in IMR32 neuroblastoma cells treated with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and recovered in the absence (control) or presence of Ashwagandha reagents in the medium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-19 03:25:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1961670"], "description"=>"<p>Whereas the level of GFAP expression decreased in cells stressed with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treatment, it increased in cells recovered in the presence of i-Extract, withanone and WEX. Quantitation of the Western blot is shown on the right. Statistical significance with P<0.05 was considered significant. NS denotes not significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dose", "neuroprotective activities", "extract", "Induce Differentiation BackgroundAshwagandha", "tumor suppressor functions", "component", "combinational approach.ConclusionAshwagandha leaf", "bioactive", "oxidative stress", "glial"], "article_id"=>1343362, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Navjot Shah", "Rumani Singh", "Upasana Sarangi", "Nishant Saxena", "Anupama Chaudhary", "Gurcharan Kaur", "Sunil C. Kaul", "Renu Wadhwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120554.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_A_and_GFAP_protein_level_B_of_C6_glioblastoma_cells_treated_with_H_2_O_2_and_recovered_in_either_control_or_Ashwagandha_reagents_as_indicated_supplemented_medium_/1343362", "title"=>"Morphology (A) and GFAP protein level (B) of C6 glioblastoma cells treated with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and recovered in either control or Ashwagandha reagents (as indicated) supplemented medium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-19 03:25:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1961673"], "description"=>"<p>IMR32 cells treated with withanone showed differentiated morphology (B) and molecular markers of differentiation including increase in NF-200 (C) and nuclear translocation of mortalin (C, D and E). (C) RA-induced neuronal differentiation was used as a control. Along with the increase in NF-200, RA-treated cells showed presence of mortalin in the nucleus (also indicated by yellow arrows). (D) High-resolution confocal images showing mortalin staining (red). In the i-Extract- and Withanone-treated cells mortalin is prominent in the nucleus. Nuclei were stained with Hoechst (blue). (E) Detection of mortalin in the nuclear fractions by Western blotting. Decrease in the cytoplasmic, and increase in the nuclear fractions were observed in cells treated with i-Extract, Withanone and WEX. Actin was used as a loading control. Quantitation and statistical significance are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dose", "neuroprotective activities", "extract", "Induce Differentiation BackgroundAshwagandha", "tumor suppressor functions", "component", "combinational approach.ConclusionAshwagandha leaf", "bioactive", "oxidative stress", "glial"], "article_id"=>1343365, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Navjot Shah", "Rumani Singh", "Upasana Sarangi", "Nishant Saxena", "Anupama Chaudhary", "Gurcharan Kaur", "Sunil C. Kaul", "Renu Wadhwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120554.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Induction_of_oxidative_stress_ROS_staining_and_DNA_damage_response_947_H2AX_in_cells_challenged_with_glutamate_followed_by_their_recovery_in_medium_supplemented_with_Ashwagandha_reagents_A_are_shown_/1343365", "title"=>"Induction of oxidative stress (ROS staining) and DNA damage response (γH2AX) in cells challenged with glutamate followed by their recovery in medium supplemented with Ashwagandha reagents (A) are shown.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-19 03:25:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1961672"], "description"=>"<p>Morphology of control and treated C6 and IMR32 cells is shown in C. Immunostaining of control and treated IMR32 cells for NF-200 and immunoblotting showing its level of expression are shown in D and E, respectively. Quantitation is shown on the right. Statistical significance with P<0.05 was considered significant. NS denotes not significant. Immunostaining of cells for MAP2 showing protection of the differentiation state in cells in the presence of Ashwagandha reagents is shown in F.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dose", "neuroprotective activities", "extract", "Induce Differentiation BackgroundAshwagandha", "tumor suppressor functions", "component", "combinational approach.ConclusionAshwagandha leaf", "bioactive", "oxidative stress", "glial"], "article_id"=>1343364, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Navjot Shah", "Rumani Singh", "Upasana Sarangi", "Nishant Saxena", "Anupama Chaudhary", "Gurcharan Kaur", "Sunil C. Kaul", "Renu Wadhwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120554.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_viability_A_and_cell_death_B_as_determined_by_MTT_and_LDH_assays_respectively_in_C6_glioblastoma_treated_with_glutamate_and_recovered_either_in_the_absence_control_or_presence_of_Ashwagandha_reagents_supplemented_medium_is_shown_/1343364", "title"=>"Cell viability (A) and cell death (B) as determined by MTT and LDH assays, respectively in C6 glioblastoma treated with glutamate and recovered either in the absence (control) or presence of Ashwagandha reagents-supplemented medium is shown.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-19 03:25:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1961669"], "description"=>"<p>Whereas H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treated cells showed increase in ROS and γH2AX, cells recovered either in the presence of i-Extract, withanone, WEX or combination of i-Extract and WEX showed decrease.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dose", "neuroprotective activities", "extract", "Induce Differentiation BackgroundAshwagandha", "tumor suppressor functions", "component", "combinational approach.ConclusionAshwagandha leaf", "bioactive", "oxidative stress", "glial"], "article_id"=>1343361, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Navjot Shah", "Rumani Singh", "Upasana Sarangi", "Nishant Saxena", "Anupama Chaudhary", "Gurcharan Kaur", "Sunil C. Kaul", "Renu Wadhwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120554.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oxidative_stress_and_DNA_damage_response_as_determined_by_staining_of_Reactive_Oxygen_Species_A_and_H2AX_B_in_control_and_H_2_O_2_treated_C6_cells_/1343361", "title"=>"Oxidative stress and DNA damage response as determined by staining of Reactive Oxygen Species (A) and γH2AX (B) in control and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treated C6 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-19 03:25:58"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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