Morphological Variations within the Ontogeny of Deinonychus antirrhopus (Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae)
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{"title"=>"Morphological variations within the ontogeny of Deinonychus antirrhopus (Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"William L.", "last_name"=>"Parsons", "scopus_author_id"=>"35180043600"}, {"first_name"=>"Kristen M.", "last_name"=>"Parsons", "scopus_author_id"=>"35213649500"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84928914653", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0121476", "pui"=>"604107386", "pmid"=>"25875499", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84928914653", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0121476"}, "id"=>"f4a9f3f4-4d92-37ba-9803-598f91b24e4e", "abstract"=>"This research resulted from the determination that MCZ 8791 is a specimen of Deinonychus antirrhopus between one and two years of age and that the morphological variations within particular growth stages of this taxon have yet to be described. The primary goal of the re-search is to identify ontogenetic variations in this taxon. Histological analyses determined that the Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015 and MOR 1178 were adults. Comparisons are made between MCZ 8791 and these adult specimens. The holotype, YPM 5205, and the other associated specimens of this taxon within the YPM collection are similar in size and morphology to AMNH 3015. Further comparisons were made with the three partial specimens OMNH 50268, MCZ 4371, and MOR 1182. Although these specimens represent only a partial ontogenetic series, a number of morphological variations can be described. One secondary goal of this research is to compare the known pattern of variable, informa-tive, ontogenetic characters in MCZ 8791 to a similar pattern of morphological characters in the sub-adult dromaeosaurid specimen Bambiraptor feinbergorum, AMNH FR: 30556. If the characters that have been determined to represent variable juvenile morphology in the ontogeny of Deinonychus are exhibited in Bambiraptor, this study will begin the process of determining whether a similar, conservative, ontogenetic pattern exists throughout the rest of Dromaeosauridae. If defensible, it may reduce the number of sympatric taxa within this clade. The other secondary goal relates to the forelimb function. The approximate body size, forelimb length, wrist development, and the presence of a more prominent olecranon on the ulna of MCZ 8791 support the hypothesis that juveniles of this taxon possessed some form of flight capability.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/morphological-variations-within-ontogeny-deinonychus-antirrhopus-theropoda-dromaeosauridae", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>14, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022500"], "description"=>"<p>*Measurements from Ostrom [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref001\" target=\"_blank\">1</a>].</p><p>Abbreviations: cra/cau, cranial/caudal; dors/vent, dorsal/ventral; flex tub, flexor tubercle; max, maximum; med/lat, medial/lateral; ped, pedal phalanx/ungual.</p><p>Comparative measurements (mm) of hind limb elements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381088, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_measurements_mm_of_hind_limb_elements_/1381088", "title"=>"Comparative measurements (mm) of hind limb elements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022498"], "description"=>"<p>* Measurement taken from Ostrom [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref001\" target=\"_blank\">1</a>].</p><p>Abbreviations: acrocora, acrocoracoidal process; dia, diameter; dist, distal; dors, dorsal; glen, glenoid; lat, lateral; lst, least; lt, left; med, medial; phal, phalanx; proc, process; rt, right; scap, scapula; sut, suture; trans, transverse; vent, ventral.</p><p>Comparative measurements (mm) of shoulder girdle and forelimb elements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381086, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_measurements_mm_of_shoulder_girdle_and_forelimb_elements_/1381086", "title"=>"Comparative measurements (mm) of shoulder girdle and forelimb elements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022495"], "description"=>"<p><b>Abbreviation</b>: <b>dp</b>, descending process of the tibia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381083, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descending_process_on_the_distal_end_of_the_tibia_in_D_antirrhopus_/1381083", "title"=>"Descending process on the distal end of the tibia in <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022476"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, histology from within a thin section of the radius of <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> specimen MOR 1178; <b>B</b>, histology from within a polished cross-section of the radius of <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> specimen MCZ 8791. All photographs of MOR <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> specimens within this article are published with permission of Museum of the Rockies. All photographs of MCZ <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> specimens within this article are published with permission of Museum of Comparative Zoology. <b>Abbreviations</b>: <b>cs</b>, cortical surface; <b>EFS</b>, External Fundamental System; <b>LAG</b>, Line of Arrested Growth; <b>lwft</b>, ‘loosely woven’ fibrolamellar tissue; <b>mc</b>, medullary cavity; <b>pl</b>, polish line; <b>pml</b>, perimedullary layer; <b>prl</b>, periosteal rest layers; <b>sor</b>, secondary osteon replacement layer.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381065, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histology_of_the_radius_of_D_antirrhopus_/1381065", "title"=>"Histology of the radius of <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022470"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Detail of the dromaeosaurid portion of the paravian section of the strict consensus cladogram generated by the cladistic analysis and Bremer support resampling of the entire Turner et al. (2012) data matrix with the addition of MCZ 8791; <b>B</b>, Detail of the dromaeosaurid portion of the paravian section of the strict consensus cladogram generated by the cladistic analysis and Bremer support resampling of the entire Turner et al. (2012) data matrix without MCZ 8791. Values indicate Bremer support. Both analyses used TNT version 1.0 software [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref006\" target=\"_blank\">6</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381059, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detailed_portions_of_two_consensus_tree_cladograms_/1381059", "title"=>"Detailed portions of two consensus tree cladograms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022485"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, medial, right articular, MCZ 8791; <b>B</b>, lateral, right articular, MCZ 8791; <b>C</b>, dorsal, right articular, MCZ 8791; <b>D</b>, ventral, right articular, MCZ 8791; <b>E</b>, image horizontally flipped, ventral, left articular, YPM 5210. <b>Abbreviations</b>: <b>dm</b>, area of insertion of M. depressor mandibulae; <b>gl</b>, glenoid; <b>par</b>, area of contact with prearticular; <b>ptd</b>, probable insertion point of M. pterygoideus dorsalis; <b>ptv</b>, probable insertion point of M. pterygoideus ventralis; <b>sa</b>, area overlain by the surangular; <b>ucs</b>, undeveloped cortical surface.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381073, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_articulars_of_D_antirrhopus_/1381073", "title"=>"Two articulars of <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022483"], "description"=>"<p>Fragment of left maxilla on <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> specimen MCZ 8791: <b>A</b>, MCZ 8791 lateral view; <b>B</b>, MCZ 8791 medial view; <b>C</b>, angle of tooth orientation in MCZ 8791; <b>D</b>, angle of tooth orientation in left maxilla of YPM 5232. <b>Abbreviations</b>: <b>ga</b>, gap between alveoli; <b>idp</b>, interdental plates; <b>ifb</b>, interfenestral bar; <b>mf</b>, maxillary fenestra; <b>pmf</b>, promaxillary fenestra; <b>raf</b>, rim of internal antorbital fenestra; <b>sac</b>, rostral and caudal ends of supra-alveolar canal. Photographs of MCZ 8791 courtesy of Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. All photographs and illustrations of YPM <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> material within this article are published with permission of Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381071, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maxilla_of_D_antirrhopus_/1381071", "title"=>"Maxilla of <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022497"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: mm, millimeter; prox, proximal; rat, ratio.</p><p>Comparative measurements (mm) of vertebrae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381085, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_measurements_mm_of_vertebrae_/1381085", "title"=>"Comparative measurements (mm) of vertebrae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022496"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. Composite adult skeleton modified from Ostrom [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref001\" target=\"_blank\">1</a>]. <b>B</b>. Reconstruction of MCZ 8791. Red tinting on bones illustrates the identification and distribution of the preserved, fragmentary bones of MCZ 8791. The positions of the thoracic and caudal vertebrae are approximated. Drawing of MCZ 8791 William Parsons 2014.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381084, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skeletal_reconstructions_/1381084", "title"=>"Skeletal reconstructions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022493"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, mid-shaft cross-section, MCZ 8791; <b>B</b>, mid-shaft cross-section, MOR 1178.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381081, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mid_shaft_cross_section_of_fibulae_on_D_antirrhopus_specimens_MCZ_8791_and_MOR_1178_/1381081", "title"=>"Mid-shaft cross-section of fibulae on <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> specimens MCZ 8791 and MOR 1178.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022492"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, medial view of proximal end of left ulna and radius of <i>B</i>. <i>feinbergorum</i>, AMNH FR 30554; <b>B</b>, cranial view of proximal end of left ulna and radius of <i>B</i>. <i>feinbergorum</i>, AMNH FR 30554; <b>C</b>, lateral view of proximal end of right ulna of <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i>, MCZ 8791; <b>D</b>, cranial view of proximal end of right ulna of <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i>, MCZ 8791; <b>E</b>, cranial view of proximal end of adult <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> ulna YPM 5230. <b>Abbreviations</b>: <b>ar</b>, articulating facets; <b>br + hr (?)</b>, possible insertion areas of the M. brachialis and M. humeroradialis from Ostrom [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref001\" target=\"_blank\">1</a>]; <b>mf</b>, minute foramina; <b>o</b>, olecranon; <b>R</b>, radius; <b>scas</b>, smooth cortical articular surface; <b>U</b>, ulna.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381080, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proximal_end_of_ulna_/1381080", "title"=>"Proximal end of ulna.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022490"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, rugose, ventral sagittal ridge on dorsal vertebra of MCZ 8791; <b>B</b>, smooth ventral sagittal ridge on dorsal vertebra of MOR 1178. <b>C</b>, lateral view of mid-caudal vertebra, MCZ 8791; <b>D</b>, highly vascularized tissue layer on top of cortical bone of mid-caudal vertebra, MCZ 8791; <b>E</b>, seventh (?) cervical vertebra, YPM 5210; <b>F</b>, fragmentary seventh (?) cervical vertebral centrum, MCZ 8791; <b>G</b>, third (?) cervical vertebra, <i>B</i>. <i>feinbergorum</i>, AMNH FR 30554. <b>Abbreviations</b>: <b>hvtl</b>, highly vascularized tissue layer; <b>pf</b>, pneumatic foramen; <b>pp</b>, parapophysis; <b>rvsr</b>, rugose ventral sagittal ridge; <b>tp</b>, transverse process; <b>vsr</b>, ventral sagittal ridge; <b>se</b>, sharp edge on the posterior articulating surface.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381078, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vertebrae_of_D_antirrhopus_/1381078", "title"=>"Vertebrae of <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022487"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, detail of right articular foramina in <i>B</i>. <i>feinbergorum</i>, AMNH FR 30554; <b>B</b>, ventral view of right articular of <i>B</i>. <i>feinbergorum</i>, AMNH FR 30554; <b>C</b>, detail of right articular foramina in <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> MCZ 8791; <b>D</b>, ventral view of right articular of <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> MCZ 8791.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381075, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Articular_foramina_/1381075", "title"=>"Articular foramina.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022471"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, outline of <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> second pedal ungual YPM 5205 with designated landmark points and simplified internal representation of the morphology; <b>B</b>, <i>B</i>. <i>feinbergorum</i> AMNH FR 30554 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref010\" target=\"_blank\">10</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref011\" target=\"_blank\">11</a>]; <b>C</b>, <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> specimen YPM 5205 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref001\" target=\"_blank\">1</a>]; <b>D</b>, <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> specimen MCZ 8791; <b>E</b>, <i>D</i>. <i>antirrhopus</i> specimen OMNH 50268 (from cast YPM 55845); <b>F</b>, <i>N</i>. <i>argentinus</i> MCF PUPH 77 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref012\" target=\"_blank\">12</a>]; <b>G</b>, <i>H</i>. <i>elizabethae</i> UALVP 48778 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref013\" target=\"_blank\">13</a>]; <b>H</b>, <i>R</i>. <i>ostromi</i> UA 8656 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref014\" target=\"_blank\">14</a>]; <b>I</b>, <i>U</i>. <i>ostrommaysorum</i> CEU 184v.86 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref015\" target=\"_blank\">15</a>]; <b>J</b>, <i>V</i>. <i>mongoliensis</i> IGM 100/985 (pers. obs.); <b>K</b>, <i>B</i>. <i>bondoc</i> EME PV.313 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476#pone.0121476.ref016\" target=\"_blank\">16</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381060, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Shape_graphing_of_dromaeosaurid_second_pedal_unguals_/1381060", "title"=>"Shape-graphing of dromaeosaurid second pedal unguals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022501"], "description"=>"<div><p>This research resulted from the determination that MCZ 8791 is a specimen of <i>Deinonychus antirrhopus</i> between one and two years of age and that the morphological variations within particular growth stages of this taxon have yet to be described. The primary goal of the research is to identify ontogenetic variations in this taxon. Histological analyses determined that the <i>Deinonychus</i> specimens AMNH 3015 and MOR 1178 were adults. Comparisons are made between MCZ 8791 and these adult specimens. The holotype, YPM 5205, and the other associated specimens of this taxon within the YPM collection are similar in size and morphology to AMNH 3015. Further comparisons were made with the three partial specimens OMNH 50268, MCZ 4371, and MOR 1182. Although these specimens represent only a partial ontogenetic series, a number of morphological variations can be described. One secondary goal of this research is to compare the known pattern of variable, informative, ontogenetic characters in MCZ 8791 to a similar pattern of morphological characters in the sub-adult dromaeosaurid specimen <i>Bambiraptor feinbergorum</i>, AMNH FR: 30556. If the characters that have been determined to represent variable juvenile morphology in the ontogeny of <i>Deinonychus</i> are exhibited in <i>Bambiraptor</i>, this study will begin the process of determining whether a similar, conservative, ontogenetic pattern exists throughout the rest of Dromaeosauridae. If defensible, it may reduce the number of sympatric taxa within this clade. The other secondary goal relates to the forelimb function. The approximate body size, forelimb length, wrist development, and the presence of a more prominent olecranon on the ulna of MCZ 8791 support the hypothesis that juveniles of this taxon possessed some form of flight capability.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381089, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Morphological_Variations_within_the_Ontogeny_of_Deinonychus_antirrhopus_Theropoda_Dromaeosauridae_/1381089", "title"=>"Morphological Variations within the Ontogeny of <i>Deinonychus antirrhopus</i> (Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2022499"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: mdsft, midshaft transverse width; lgth, length; dswth, distal end width; prxwth, proximal width; rt man II-2, right manual II-2 phalanx.</p><p>Ratios within right manual II-2 phalanges.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Deinonychus specimens AMNH 3015", "Deinonychus antirrhopus", "MCZ 8791", "pattern", "research", "ontogenetic", "mor", "taxon", "fr", "OMNH", "variation", "MCZ 8791 support", "ypm"], "article_id"=>1381087, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["William L. Parsons", "Kristen M. Parsons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121476.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratios_within_right_manual_II_2_phalanges_/1381087", "title"=>"Ratios within right manual II-2 phalanges.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-15 03:38:29"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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