A Novel Method to Analyze Social Transmission in Chronologically Sequenced Assemblages, Implemented on Cultural Inheritance of the Art of Cooking
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{"title"=>"A novel method to analyze social transmission in chronologically sequenced assemblages, implemented on cultural inheritance of the art of cooking", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sven", "last_name"=>"Isaksson", "scopus_author_id"=>"24824630700"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander", "last_name"=>"Funcke", "scopus_author_id"=>"54948463300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ida", "last_name"=>"Envall", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508151285"}, {"first_name"=>"Magnus", "last_name"=>"Enquist", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003387391"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrik", "last_name"=>"Lindenfors", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602950835"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84929379775", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929379775", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0122092", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"604377758", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25970578"}, "id"=>"d1cb4e73-488f-3d05-a5c2-c6d3f70955cd", "abstract"=>"Here we present an analytical technique for the measurement and evaluation of changes in chronologically sequenced assemblages. To illustrate the method, we studied the cultural evolution of European cooking as revealed in seven cook books dispersed over the past 800 years. We investigated if changes in the set of commonly used ingredients were mainly gradual or subject to fashion fluctuations. Applying our method to the data from the cook books revealed that overall, there is a clear continuity in cooking over the ages - cooking is knowledge that is passed down through generations, not something (re-) invented by each generation on its own. Looking at three main categories of ingredients separately (spices, animal products and vegetables), however, disclosed that all ingredients do not change according to the same pattern. While choice of animal products was very conservative, changing completely sequentially, changes in the choices of spices, but also of vegetables, were more unbounded. We hypothesize that this may be due a combination of fashion fluctuations and changes in availability due to contact with the Americas during our study time period. The presented method is also usable on other assemblage type data, and can thus be of utility for analyzing sequential archaeological data from the same area or other similarly organized material.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/novel-method-analyze-social-transmission-chronologically-sequenced-assemblages-implemented-cultural", "reader_count"=>7, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065474"], "description"=>"<p>The tables show distances for All ingredients (n = 22), Spices (n = 20), Animal products (n = 21) and Vegetables (n = 21) present in at least 35% (All ingredients) or 10% (Spices, Animal products & Vegetables) of recipes of any cookery book. Distances are expressed as a percentage of the maximum distance, making the matrices comparable. The distance from each cook book to the one it is most similar to is marked per row with <b>bold text</b>, and the distance from each cook book it is least similar to is marked with <u>underlined text</u>. The shorter the distance (the lower the value), the more similar the cook books with regards to the ingredients specified in the top left corner of each table.</p><p>Chronologically ordered matrices of normalized relative Euclidean distances between cookery books based on the distributions of ingredients (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0122092#pone.0122092.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fashion fluctuations", "generation", "Analyze Social Transmission", "Animal products", "study time period", "Chronologically Sequenced Assemblages", "cook books", "method", "ingredient", "choice", "assemblage type data", "spice"], "article_id"=>1412888, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sven Isaksson", "Alexander Funcke", "Ida Envall", "Magnus Enquist", "Patrik Lindenfors"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122092.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chronologically_ordered_matrices_of_normalized_relative_Euclidean_distances_between_cookery_books_based_on_the_distributions_of_ingredients_Fig_1_/1412888", "title"=>"Chronologically ordered matrices of normalized relative Euclidean distances between cookery books based on the distributions of ingredients (Fig 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 02:42:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065472"], "description"=>"<p>The distribution of ingredients that are present in at least 35% of the recipes in the different cookery books (here indicated by their date, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0122092#pone.0122092.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>), sorted from left to right in order of how common they are in different cookery books—ingredients more common in earlier books are on the left, ingredients more common later are on the right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fashion fluctuations", "generation", "Analyze Social Transmission", "Animal products", "study time period", "Chronologically Sequenced Assemblages", "cook books", "method", "ingredient", "choice", "assemblage type data", "spice"], "article_id"=>1412886, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sven Isaksson", "Alexander Funcke", "Ida Envall", "Magnus Enquist", "Patrik Lindenfors"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122092.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_distribution_of_ingredients_that_are_present_in_at_least_35_of_the_recipes_in_the_different_cookery_books_here_indicated_by_their_date_Table_1_sorted_from_left_to_right_in_order_of_how_common_they_are_in_different_cookery_books_ingredients_more_commo/1412886", "title"=>"The distribution of ingredients that are present in at least 35% of the recipes in the different cookery books (here indicated by their date, Table 1), sorted from left to right in order of how common they are in different cookery books—ingredients more common in earlier books are on the left, ingredients more common later are on the right.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 02:42:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065475"], "description"=>"<p>At λ = 1.0 all the difference is estimated to be due to the time difference and at λ = 0.1 only 10% of the minimal distance (with the least amount of difference between assemblages) between any two cookery books is estimated to be due to the time difference.</p><p>The rate of change (i.e. dissimilarity per time unit, cf. formulas above) in the distribution of ingredients present in 35% of the recipes of any of the included cookery books (All ingredients) or 10% of the recipes (Spices, Animal products and Vegetable products) at different estimates of how much of the difference between cookery books that is due to the time factor (λ).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fashion fluctuations", "generation", "Analyze Social Transmission", "Animal products", "study time period", "Chronologically Sequenced Assemblages", "cook books", "method", "ingredient", "choice", "assemblage type data", "spice"], "article_id"=>1412889, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sven Isaksson", "Alexander Funcke", "Ida Envall", "Magnus Enquist", "Patrik Lindenfors"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122092.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_rate_of_change_i_e_dissimilarity_per_time_unit_cf_formulas_above_in_the_distribution_of_ingredients_present_in_35_of_the_recipes_of_any_of_the_included_cookery_books_All_ingredients_or_10_of_the_recipes_Spices_Animal_products_and_Vegetable_products_a/1412889", "title"=>"The rate of change (i.e. dissimilarity per time unit, cf. formulas above) in the distribution of ingredients present in 35% of the recipes of any of the included cookery books (All ingredients) or 10% of the recipes (Spices, Animal products and Vegetable products) at different estimates of how much of the difference between cookery books that is due to the time factor (λ).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 02:42:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065476"], "description"=>"<div><p>Here we present an analytical technique for the measurement and evaluation of changes in chronologically sequenced assemblages. To illustrate the method, we studied the cultural evolution of European cooking as revealed in seven cook books dispersed over the past 800 years. We investigated if changes in the set of commonly used ingredients were mainly gradual or subject to fashion fluctuations. Applying our method to the data from the cook books revealed that overall, there is a clear continuity in cooking over the ages – cooking is knowledge that is passed down through generations, not something (re-)invented by each generation on its own. Looking at three main categories of ingredients separately (spices, animal products and vegetables), however, disclosed that all ingredients do not change according to the same pattern. While choice of animal products was very conservative, changing completely sequentially, changes in the choices of spices, but also of vegetables, were more unbounded. We hypothesize that this may be due a combination of fashion fluctuations and changes in availability due to contact with the Americas during our study time period. The presented method is also usable on other assemblage type data, and can thus be of utility for analyzing sequential archaeological data from the same area or other similarly organized material.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fashion fluctuations", "generation", "Analyze Social Transmission", "Animal products", "study time period", "Chronologically Sequenced Assemblages", "cook books", "method", "ingredient", "choice", "assemblage type data", "spice"], "article_id"=>1412890, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sven Isaksson", "Alexander Funcke", "Ida Envall", "Magnus Enquist", "Patrik Lindenfors"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122092", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Novel_Method_to_Analyze_Social_Transmission_in_Chronologically_Sequenced_Assemblages_Implemented_on_Cultural_Inheritance_of_the_Art_of_Cooking_/1412890", "title"=>"A Novel Method to Analyze Social Transmission in Chronologically Sequenced Assemblages, Implemented on Cultural Inheritance of the Art of Cooking", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 02:42:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065473"], "description"=>"<p>The cookery books, their date (sometimes approximate), and the number of recipes included from each in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fashion fluctuations", "generation", "Analyze Social Transmission", "Animal products", "study time period", "Chronologically Sequenced Assemblages", "cook books", "method", "ingredient", "choice", "assemblage type data", "spice"], "article_id"=>1412887, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sven Isaksson", "Alexander Funcke", "Ida Envall", "Magnus Enquist", "Patrik Lindenfors"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122092.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_cookery_books_their_date_sometimes_approximate_and_the_number_of_recipes_included_from_each_in_this_study_/1412887", "title"=>"The cookery books, their date (sometimes approximate), and the number of recipes included from each in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 02:42:49"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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