The Determinants of Traditional Medicine Use in Northern Tanzania: A Mixed-Methods Study
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{"title"=>"The determinants of traditional medicine use in northern Tanzania: A mixed-methods study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John W.", "last_name"=>"Stanifer", "scopus_author_id"=>"36129692200"}, {"first_name"=>"Uptal D.", "last_name"=>"Patel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102263429"}, {"first_name"=>"Francis", "last_name"=>"Karia", "scopus_author_id"=>"56580197700"}, {"first_name"=>"Nathan", "last_name"=>"Thielman", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603575694"}, {"first_name"=>"Venance", "last_name"=>"Maro", "scopus_author_id"=>"8881770300"}, {"first_name"=>"Dionis", "last_name"=>"Shimbi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56580282200"}, {"first_name"=>"Humphrey", "last_name"=>"Kilaweh", "scopus_author_id"=>"56648020800"}, {"first_name"=>"Matayo", "last_name"=>"Lazaro", "scopus_author_id"=>"56579865800"}, {"first_name"=>"Oliver", "last_name"=>"Matemu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56648137500"}, {"first_name"=>"Justin", "last_name"=>"Omolo", "scopus_author_id"=>"54403614900"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Boyd", "scopus_author_id"=>"56646740000"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25848762", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0122638", "sgr"=>"84929464950", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929464950", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"604108658"}, "id"=>"b933768b-1466-3f57-8243-7c13fe3d1383", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region.\\n\\nMETHODS: Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes.\\n\\nRESULTS: Most structured survey participants (68%) reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56%) reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%), chronic diseases (15%), reproductive problems (11%), and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%). We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments, chronic diseases were reported as the most common reason for TM use which may be particularly important in Northern Tanzania where non-communicable diseases are a rapidly growing burden.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/determinants-traditional-medicine-northern-tanzania-mixedmethods-study-1", "reader_count"=>57, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>26, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Computer Science"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>26}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"South Africa"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2009011"], "description"=>"<p>Baseline characteristics of the structured survey respondents.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disease management programs", "TM use", "Northern Tanzania", "practice", "inductive framework method", "disease treatment programs", "5 focus group discussions", "disease understanding.ConclusionsIn order", "medicine use", "region.MethodsBetween December 2013"], "article_id"=>1370477, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John W. Stanifer", "Uptal D. Patel", "Francis Karia", "Nathan Thielman", "Venance Maro", "Dionis Shimbi", "Humphrey Kilaweh", "Matayo Lazaro", "Oliver Matemu", "Justin Omolo", "David Boyd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122638.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_characteristics_of_the_structured_survey_respondents_/1370477", "title"=>"Baseline characteristics of the structured survey respondents.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-07 05:21:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2009010"], "description"=>"<p>Baseline characteristics of the traditional healers and herbal vendors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disease management programs", "TM use", "Northern Tanzania", "practice", "inductive framework method", "disease treatment programs", "5 focus group discussions", "disease understanding.ConclusionsIn order", "medicine use", "region.MethodsBetween December 2013"], "article_id"=>1370476, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John W. Stanifer", "Uptal D. Patel", "Francis Karia", "Nathan Thielman", "Venance Maro", "Dionis Shimbi", "Humphrey Kilaweh", "Matayo Lazaro", "Oliver Matemu", "Justin Omolo", "David Boyd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122638.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_characteristics_of_the_traditional_healers_and_herbal_vendors_/1370476", "title"=>"Baseline characteristics of the traditional healers and herbal vendors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-07 05:21:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2009007"], "description"=>"<p>The diagram illustrates the five major determinantsand their relationship to each other.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disease management programs", "TM use", "Northern Tanzania", "practice", "inductive framework method", "disease treatment programs", "5 focus group discussions", "disease understanding.ConclusionsIn order", "medicine use", "region.MethodsBetween December 2013"], "article_id"=>1370473, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John W. Stanifer", "Uptal D. Patel", "Francis Karia", "Nathan Thielman", "Venance Maro", "Dionis Shimbi", "Humphrey Kilaweh", "Matayo Lazaro", "Oliver Matemu", "Justin Omolo", "David Boyd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122638.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Determinants_for_the_use_of_Traditional_Medicines_/1370473", "title"=>"Determinants for the use of Traditional Medicines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-07 05:21:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2009018", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2009019", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2009020"], "description"=>"<div><p>Introduction</p><p>Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes.</p><p>Results</p><p>Most structured survey participants (68%) reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56%) reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%), chronic diseases (15%), reproductive problems (11%), and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%). We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments, chronic diseases were reported as the most common reason for TM use which may be particularly important in Northern Tanzania where non-communicable diseases are a rapidly growing burden.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disease management programs", "TM use", "Northern Tanzania", "practice", "inductive framework method", "disease treatment programs", "5 focus group discussions", "disease understanding.ConclusionsIn order", "medicine use", "region.MethodsBetween December 2013"], "article_id"=>1370479, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John W. Stanifer", "Uptal D. Patel", "Francis Karia", "Nathan Thielman", "Venance Maro", "Dionis Shimbi", "Humphrey Kilaweh", "Matayo Lazaro", "Oliver Matemu", "Justin Omolo", "David Boyd"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122638.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122638.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122638.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>150, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Determinants_of_Traditional_Medicine_Use_in_Northern_Tanzania_A_Mixed_Methods_Study_/1370479", "title"=>"The Determinants of Traditional Medicine Use in Northern Tanzania: A Mixed-Methods Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-04-07 05:21:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2009009"], "description"=>"<p>*Other Tribal Ethnicities represented in our groups include Luguru, Kilindi, Kurya, Mziguwa, Mnyisanzu, Rangi, Jita, Nyambo, and Kaguru.</p><p><sup>#</sup> Includes housewives.</p><p><sup>†</sup> Professional includes any salaried position (e.g. nurse, teacher, government employee, etc.) and retired persons.</p><p>Baseline characteristics of the focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disease management programs", "TM use", "Northern Tanzania", "practice", "inductive framework method", "disease treatment programs", "5 focus group discussions", "disease understanding.ConclusionsIn order", "medicine use", "region.MethodsBetween December 2013"], "article_id"=>1370475, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John W. Stanifer", "Uptal D. Patel", "Francis Karia", "Nathan Thielman", "Venance Maro", "Dionis Shimbi", "Humphrey Kilaweh", "Matayo Lazaro", "Oliver Matemu", "Justin Omolo", "David Boyd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122638.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_characteristics_of_the_focus_group_discussions_FGDs_and_in_depth_interviews_/1370475", "title"=>"Baseline characteristics of the focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-07 05:21:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2009008"], "description"=>"<div><p>* Chronic Diseases: Hypertension, Heart problems, Diabetes, and Body Swelling</p>\n<p>Reproductive: Sexual Arousal/Virility, Menstrual Problems, Pregnancy Termination, and Fertility/Impotence</p>\n<p>Neurologic: Epilepsy, Mental Confusion, and Depression</p>\n<p>Spiritual/Traditional: Peace of mind/Ward off curses, Protection from ‘evil eyes’, Unexplained Illnesses, and To Improve Luck</p>\n<p>Symptomatic Ailments: Increase Strength, Constipation, Increase energy, Digestion/Stomach problems, Fatigue, Arthritis/joint pains, Flu/Cold symptoms, Headaches, and Skin problems</p>\n<p>Urogenital: Kidney problems and Urinary problems</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disease management programs", "TM use", "Northern Tanzania", "practice", "inductive framework method", "disease treatment programs", "5 focus group discussions", "disease understanding.ConclusionsIn order", "medicine use", "region.MethodsBetween December 2013"], "article_id"=>1370474, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John W. Stanifer", "Uptal D. Patel", "Francis Karia", "Nathan Thielman", "Venance Maro", "Dionis Shimbi", "Humphrey Kilaweh", "Matayo Lazaro", "Oliver Matemu", "Justin Omolo", "David Boyd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122638.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Most_common_conditions_treated_by_traditional_medicines_a_means_of_accessing_healthcare_b_and_reasons_for_using_traditional_medicines_c_among_the_adult_population_of_Kilimanjaro_Tanzania_/1370474", "title"=>"Most common conditions treated by traditional medicines (a)*, means of accessing healthcare (b), and reasons for using traditional medicines (c) among the adult population of Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-07 05:21:29"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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