The Injured Liver Induces Hyperimmunoglobulinemia by Failing to Dispose of Antigens and Endotoxins in the Portal System
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{"title"=>"The injured liver induces hyperimmunoglobulinemia by failing to dispose of antigens and endotoxins in the portal system", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Wen Ting", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56197473400"}, {"first_name"=>"Ying Ying", "last_name"=>"Jing", "scopus_author_id"=>"35336641700"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhi Peng", "last_name"=>"Han", "scopus_author_id"=>"17134901700"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiao Ning", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"56532976200"}, {"first_name"=>"Yan", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56586277600"}, {"first_name"=>"Fo Bao", "last_name"=>"Lai", "scopus_author_id"=>"56585356100"}, {"first_name"=>"Rong", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"57026623800"}, {"first_name"=>"Qiu Dong", "last_name"=>"Zhao", "scopus_author_id"=>"55861728200"}, {"first_name"=>"Meng Chao", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405593399"}, {"first_name"=>"Li Xin", "last_name"=>"Wei", "scopus_author_id"=>"55567351700"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84926661417", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84926661417", "pui"=>"603554863", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0122739", "pmid"=>"25826264"}, "id"=>"88ba49a4-6632-31ba-9400-4c777f8554cf", "abstract"=>"Hyperimmunoglobulinemia is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver diseases. However, the exact mechanism underlying the high level of antibody formation is not fully understood. In our study, we provide evidence for the functional role of the liver and the stimulation of plasma cell proliferation in hyperimmunoglobulinemia. We collected sera from patients with chronic liver diseases, and the level of serum immunoglobulins in patients was examined; this was also investigated in animal models of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. An end-to-side microsurgical portacaval shunt was used to mimic liver dysfunction in rats. We used portal vein serum and inferior vena cava serum to immunize healthy rats and mice in order to confirm the function of the healthy liver in disposing of antigens and endotoxins from the gut. For the analysis of the state of plasma cell activation, plasma cells from mice were stained with PE-conjugated anti-CD138 and FITC-conjugated anti-BrdU for flow cytometry analysis. Hyperimmunoglobulinemia was observed both in patients with chronic liver diseases and in related animal models, and high plasma LPS levels were also observed. There was a significant increase in the activation and proliferation of plasma cell in mice immunized with antigens or LPS-positive serum compared with controls that were immunized with antigens and LPS-negative serum. We confirmed that the healthy liver plays an important role in disposing of antigens and endotoxins derived from the gut. Hyperimmunoglobulinemia in chronic liver diseases mainly arises due to the collateral circulation secondary to portal hypertension, gut antigens and endotoxins that bypass the liver and reach the antibody-producing cells.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/injured-liver-induces-hyperimmunoglobulinemia-failing-dispose-antigens-endotoxins-portal-system", "reader_count"=>5, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2000588"], "description"=>"<p>Mean ± SD, Student’s t test</p><p>*P<0.05</p><p>**P<0.01, comparison between patients with normal.</p><p>Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with chronic liver diseases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plasma cell proliferation", "Animal models", "portal vein serum", "plasma LPS levels", "antigen", "plasma cell activation", "Injured Liver Induces Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "flow cytometry analysis", "Liver diseases", "Portal System Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "vena cava serum"], "article_id"=>1363514, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wen Ting Liu", "Ying Ying Jing", "Zhi Peng Han", "Xiao Ning Li", "Yan Liu", "Fo Bao Lai", "Rong Li", "Qiu-Dong Zhao", "Meng-chao Wu", "Li-Xin Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122739.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_and_biochemical_characteristics_of_patients_with_chronic_liver_diseases_/1363514", "title"=>"Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with chronic liver diseases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-31 04:07:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2000583"], "description"=>"<p>Total immunoglobulin, IgG and IgE were evaluated in healthy rats that were immunized with serum from the portal vein and inferior vena cava from normal rats and rats treated with DEN, CCl4 and BDL, respectively. *p< 0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plasma cell proliferation", "Animal models", "portal vein serum", "plasma LPS levels", "antigen", "plasma cell activation", "Injured Liver Induces Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "flow cytometry analysis", "Liver diseases", "Portal System Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "vena cava serum"], "article_id"=>1363509, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wen Ting Liu", "Ying Ying Jing", "Zhi Peng Han", "Xiao Ning Li", "Yan Liu", "Fo Bao Lai", "Rong Li", "Qiu-Dong Zhao", "Meng-chao Wu", "Li-Xin Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122739.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inferior_vena_cava_serum_from_rats_with_injured_livers_increased_the_production_of_immunoglobulin_/1363509", "title"=>"Inferior vena cava serum from rats with injured livers increased the production of immunoglobulin.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-31 04:07:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2000582"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Total immunoglobulin was evaluated in control rats, DEN-challenged rats, and rats treated with CCl4 and bile duct ligation; (B, C, D) Total immunoglobulin, IgG and IgE were evaluated in control rats and those undergoing a sham operation or end-to-side portacaval shunt. PS, portacaval shunt. BDL, bile duct ligation. *p< 0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plasma cell proliferation", "Animal models", "portal vein serum", "plasma LPS levels", "antigen", "plasma cell activation", "Injured Liver Induces Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "flow cytometry analysis", "Liver diseases", "Portal System Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "vena cava serum"], "article_id"=>1363508, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wen Ting Liu", "Ying Ying Jing", "Zhi Peng Han", "Xiao Ning Li", "Yan Liu", "Fo Bao Lai", "Rong Li", "Qiu-Dong Zhao", "Meng-chao Wu", "Li-Xin Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122739.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_levels_of_immunoglobulin_in_cirrhosis_and_HCC_rats_were_in_accordance_with_the_clinical_diagnosis_of_patients_/1363508", "title"=>"High levels of immunoglobulin in cirrhosis and HCC rats were in accordance with the clinical diagnosis of patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-31 04:07:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2000578"], "description"=>"<p>The levels of total immunoglobulin, IgG, IgM, IgE were evaluated in healthy controls, HBV- (HBV-negative) and HBV+ (HBV-positive) patients. *p< 0.05, **p<0.01, ns, no significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plasma cell proliferation", "Animal models", "portal vein serum", "plasma LPS levels", "antigen", "plasma cell activation", "Injured Liver Induces Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "flow cytometry analysis", "Liver diseases", "Portal System Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "vena cava serum"], "article_id"=>1363504, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wen Ting Liu", "Ying Ying Jing", "Zhi Peng Han", "Xiao Ning Li", "Yan Liu", "Fo Bao Lai", "Rong Li", "Qiu-Dong Zhao", "Meng-chao Wu", "Li-Xin Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122739.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Increased_levels_of_immunoglobulin_were_present_in_HCC_patients_with_or_without_chronic_hepatitis_B_virus_infection_/1363504", "title"=>"Increased levels of immunoglobulin were present in HCC patients with or without chronic hepatitis B virus infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-31 04:07:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2000587"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Plasma LPS level was measured in serum with different antigen and LPS levels (antigen-/LPS-, antigen+/LPS+, antigen+/LPS-, and antigen-/LPS+ serum). ++++(B) IgG was tested in mice immunized with antigen-/LPS-, antigen+/LPS+, antigen+/LPS-, and antigen-/LPS+ serum. (C and D) FACS analysis shows the proliferation of plasma cells (CD138+BrdU+) in antigen-/LPS-, antigen+/LPS+, antigen+/LPS-, and antigen-/LPS+ serum-challenged BALB/c mice, respectively, three FACS samples were analyzed. Antigen-/LPS-: serum from the inferior vena cava of healthy mice. Antigen+/LPS+: portal venous serum of healthy mice. Antigen+/LPS-: serum was separated from the portal venous blood of mice treated with antibiotics. Antigen-/LPS+: serum was collected from inferior vena cava blood of LPS-challenged mice. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plasma cell proliferation", "Animal models", "portal vein serum", "plasma LPS levels", "antigen", "plasma cell activation", "Injured Liver Induces Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "flow cytometry analysis", "Liver diseases", "Portal System Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "vena cava serum"], "article_id"=>1363513, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wen Ting Liu", "Ying Ying Jing", "Zhi Peng Han", "Xiao Ning Li", "Yan Liu", "Fo Bao Lai", "Rong Li", "Qiu-Dong Zhao", "Meng-chao Wu", "Li-Xin Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122739.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_diseased_liver_cannot_dispose_of_antigens_and_endotoxins_from_the_gut_and_activates_the_proliferation_of_plasma_cells_/1363513", "title"=>"The diseased liver cannot dispose of antigens and endotoxins from the gut and activates the proliferation of plasma cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-31 04:07:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2000585"], "description"=>"<p>Plasma LPS was determined in portal venous blood and inferior vena cava blood from normal rats and rats treated with DEN, CCl4 and bile duct ligation, as well as normal mice and DEN-treated mice. *p<0.05, ***p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plasma cell proliferation", "Animal models", "portal vein serum", "plasma LPS levels", "antigen", "plasma cell activation", "Injured Liver Induces Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "flow cytometry analysis", "Liver diseases", "Portal System Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "vena cava serum"], "article_id"=>1363511, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wen Ting Liu", "Ying Ying Jing", "Zhi Peng Han", "Xiao Ning Li", "Yan Liu", "Fo Bao Lai", "Rong Li", "Qiu-Dong Zhao", "Meng-chao Wu", "Li-Xin Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122739.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>54, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plasma_LPS_levels_in_different_rat_and_mouse_models_/1363511", "title"=>"Plasma LPS levels in different rat and mouse models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-31 04:07:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2000584"], "description"=>"<p>(A) IgG was measured in healthy mice that were immunized with serum from the portal vein and inferior vena cava from mice with normal and injured livers (HCC mice), respectively. IgG was higher among mice immunized with serum from the inferior vena cava from HCC mice compared with normal mice. There were no significantly differences in IgG levels among mice treated with portal vein serum from HCC mice compared to mice treated with serum from normal mice. (B and C) The CD138+/BrdU+ cell population was analyzed by FACS analysis, and mice immunized with serum from the inferior vena cava of mice with injured livers showed a larger number of CD138+/BrdU+ cells (4.9%) than mice immunized with serum from the inferior vena cava of mice with normal livers (2.4%). No significant differences were shown in mice treated with portal vein serum from mice with normal liver and those with injured livers, three FACS samples were analyzed. ns, not significant, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plasma cell proliferation", "Animal models", "portal vein serum", "plasma LPS levels", "antigen", "plasma cell activation", "Injured Liver Induces Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "flow cytometry analysis", "Liver diseases", "Portal System Hyperimmunoglobulinemia", "vena cava serum"], "article_id"=>1363510, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wen Ting Liu", "Ying Ying Jing", "Zhi Peng Han", "Xiao Ning Li", "Yan Liu", "Fo Bao Lai", "Rong Li", "Qiu-Dong Zhao", "Meng-chao Wu", "Li-Xin Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122739.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inferior_vena_cava_serum_from_mice_with_injured_livers_increased_immunoglobulin_synthesis_by_activating_the_plasma_cell_proliferation_/1363510", "title"=>"Inferior vena cava serum from mice with injured livers increased immunoglobulin synthesis by activating the plasma cell proliferation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-31 04:07:11"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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