Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species
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{"title"=>"Morphological differences between larvae of the Ciona intestinalis species complex: Hints for a valid taxonomic definition of distinct species", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Roberta", "last_name"=>"Pennati", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602396024"}, {"first_name"=>"Gentile Francesco", "last_name"=>"Ficetola", "scopus_author_id"=>"8284288500"}, {"first_name"=>"Riccardo", "last_name"=>"Brunetti", "scopus_author_id"=>"35351861300"}, {"first_name"=>"Federico", "last_name"=>"Caicci", "scopus_author_id"=>"8734744600"}, {"first_name"=>"Fabio", "last_name"=>"Gasparini", "scopus_author_id"=>"35743049200"}, {"first_name"=>"Francesca", "last_name"=>"Griggio", "scopus_author_id"=>"23484765600"}, {"first_name"=>"Atsuko", "last_name"=>"Sato", "scopus_author_id"=>"35491425200"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Stach", "scopus_author_id"=>"22136566500"}, {"first_name"=>"Sabrina", "last_name"=>"Kaul-Strehlow", "scopus_author_id"=>"37118960000"}, {"first_name"=>"Carmela", "last_name"=>"Gissi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602089034"}, {"first_name"=>"Lucia", "last_name"=>"Manni", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003468296"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84933587051", "sgr"=>"84933587051", "pui"=>"605565624", "pmid"=>"25955391", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0122879"}, "id"=>"05114980-acef-3f47-a0ad-6402c2fe9687", "abstract"=>"The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/morphological-differences-between-larvae-ciona-intestinalis-species-complex-hints-valid-taxonomic-de", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333075"], "description"=>"<p>Homo-type crosses and resulting larvae analysed in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670145, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Homo_type_crosses_and_resulting_larvae_analysed_in_this_study_/2670145", "title"=>"Homo-type crosses and resulting larvae analysed in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333045"], "description"=>"<p>The analyzed dataset is indicated as SV in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879#pone.0122879.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. Type A larvae are indicated in sky blue, type B larvae in yellow. Symbols: *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01; ***, p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670115, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Morphometric_data_of_larvae_obtained_from_adults_collected_in_Plymouth_and_Roscoff_in_two_different_seasons_/2670115", "title"=>"Morphometric data of larvae obtained from adults collected in Plymouth and Roscoff in two different seasons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333078"], "description"=>"<p>Results of mixed models testing differences between type A and type B larvae for the five analyzed morphological parameters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670148, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Results_of_mixed_models_testing_differences_between_type_A_and_type_B_larvae_for_the_five_analyzed_morphological_parameters_/2670148", "title"=>"Results of mixed models testing differences between type A and type B larvae for the five analyzed morphological parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333081"], "description"=>"<p>Results of mixed models testing differences between type A and type B larvae for five morphological parameters between seasons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670151, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Results_of_mixed_models_testing_differences_between_type_A_and_type_B_larvae_for_five_morphological_parameters_between_seasons_/2670151", "title"=>"Results of mixed models testing differences between type A and type B larvae for five morphological parameters between seasons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333051"], "description"=>"<p>The analyses were carried out on the whole larval dataset of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879#pone.0122879.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. Symbols: *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01; ***, p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670121, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Representative_pictures_of_type_A_and_type_B_larvae_coming_from_different_localities_and_results_of_the_Discriminant_Analyses_DA_/2670121", "title"=>"Representative pictures of type A and type B larvae coming from different localities, and results of the Discriminant Analyses (DA).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333054"], "description"=>"<p>The sections were selected from two complete series of sections and show the relationships among stomodeum, pharynx, nervous system and atria. Toluidine blue. la, left atrium; nc, notochord; oc, ocellus; ot, otolith; p, papilla; ph, pharynx; pol, pre-oral lobe; ra, right atrium; st, stomodeum; sv, sensory vesicle; tc, test cell; vg, visceral ganglion. Scale bars A and A’: 50 μm; all figures have the same enlargement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670124, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Frontal_sections_from_ventral_A_and_A_to_dorsal_D_and_D_side_of_late_larvae_of_type_A_A_D_and_type_B_A_D_/2670124", "title"=>"Frontal sections, from ventral (A and A’) to dorsal (D and D’) side of late larvae of type A (A-D) and type B (A’-D’).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333057"], "description"=>"<p>The sections were selected from two complete series of sections and show the relationships among stomodeum, pharynx, nervous system and atria. Toluidine blue. I, intestine; la, left atrium; n, nerve cord; nc, notochord; nd, neurohypophyseal duct; oc, ocellus; ot, otolith; ph, pharynx; ra, right atrium; st, stomodeum; sv, sensory vesicle; tc, test cell. Scale bars A and A’: 50 μm; all figures have same enlargement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670127, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Transverse_sections_from_anterior_A_and_A_to_posterior_E_and_E_of_late_larvae_of_type_A_A_E_and_type_B_A_E_/2670127", "title"=>"Transverse sections, from anterior (A and A’) to posterior (E and E’) of late larvae of type A (A-E) and type B (A’-E’).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333063"], "description"=>"<p>The reconstructions are viewed from dorsal (A-C, and A’-C’), ventral (D-F and D’-F’), right (G-I and G’-I’) and left (J-L and J’-L’) sides. (See also the 3D-PDF of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879#pone.0122879.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879#pone.0122879.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4</a> Files; requires Acrobat Reader version 7.0 or higher). Reconstructions A-A’, D-D’, G-G’ an J-J’ represent the main larval structures: the epidermis (green), the stomodeum (shocking pink), the pharynx (yellow) with its lumen (pale yellow), the nervous system (red), the sensory vesicle lumen (pink) with the otolith (brown) and the ocellus (pale brown) and the notochord (blue). Reconstructions B-B’, E-E’, H-H’ and K-K’ show only the epidermis, the pharynx (with its lumen) and the stomodeum; reconstructions C-C’, F-F’, I-I’ and L-L’ show only the epidermis, the complete nervous system and the notochord. es: endodermal strand; nd: neurohypophyseal duct lumen; p: papilla; stl: stomodeum lumen. All pictures have the same enlargement (see the scale bar in A).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670133, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/3D_reconstructions_of_whole_larvae_of_type_A_A_L_and_type_B_A_L_/2670133", "title"=>"3D reconstructions of whole larvae of type A (A-L) and type B (A’-L’).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333021", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333024", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333027", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333030", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333033"], "description"=>"<div><p>The cosmopolitan ascidian <i>Ciona intestinalis</i> is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the <i>C</i>. <i>intestinalis</i> species, namely <i>C</i>. <i>intestinalis</i> type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670103, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Morphological_Differences_between_Larvae_of_the_i_Ciona_intestinalis_i_Species_Complex_Hints_for_a_Valid_Taxonomic_Definition_of_Distinct_Species/2670103", "title"=>"Morphological Differences between Larvae of the <i>Ciona intestinalis</i> Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333066"], "description"=>"<p>A-C’. Detail of the stomodeum (shocking pink) and its relationships with the pharynx (yellow) and the neurohypophyseal duct in larvae of type A (A-C) and type B (A’-C’), viewed from dorsal (A, A’), right (B, B’) and left (C, C’) sides. nd: neurohypophyseal duct; stl: stomodeum lumen; green: epidermis, pale yellow: pharynx lumen, red: nervous system, pink: sensory vesicle lumen; brown: otolith; pale brown: ocellus. D-F’. Detail of posterior region of cephalenteron to compare the position of the two atria (arrowheads) and the anterior end of the notochord (white dotted line) in larvae of type A (D-F) and type B (D’-F’), viewed from dorsal (D, D’), right (E, E’) and left (F, F’) sides. The epidermis (green) has been intensely colored to allow visualization of atria; internal structures are semi-hidden. Enlargements are the same in each row of pictures (see the scale bars in the first column).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670136, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Details_of_3D_reconstructions_of_larvae_/2670136", "title"=>"Details of 3D reconstructions of larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333036"], "description"=>"<p>Morphometric measurements performed on late-swimming larvae of <i>Ciona intestinalis</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670106, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Morphometric_measurements_performed_on_late_swimming_larvae_of_i_Ciona_intestinalis_i_/2670106", "title"=>"Morphometric measurements performed on late-swimming larvae of <i>Ciona intestinalis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333069"], "description"=>"<p>A,B confocal laser microscope imagines of whole larvae. Asterisk indicate dorsal caudal epidermal neurons, arrows indicate ventral caudal epidermal neurons. C,E. Magnifications of the trunk regions. Circles indicate trunk epidermal neurons. D,F. Superimposition of C and D with transmission microscope images. G. Graph showing the mean number of neurons ± standard deviation. DCEN: dorsal caudal epidermal neurons of the tail; VCEN ventral caudal epidermal neurons of the tail; TEN: trunk epidermal neurons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670139, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Immunolabeling_of_nervous_fibres_in_late_larvae_of_type_A_A_C_D_and_type_B_B_E_F_/2670139", "title"=>"Immunolabeling of nervous fibres in late larvae of type A (A,C,D) and type B (B,E,F).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4333039"], "description"=>"<p>Only larvae derived from the spring crosses listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879#pone.0122879.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> have been considered. Measurements are reported in μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Valid Taxonomic Definition", "type B", "Ciona intestinalis Species Complex", "species", "type B larvae exhibit", "ascidian Ciona intestinalis", "type B adults"], "article_id"=>2670109, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Roberta Pennati", "Gentile Francesco Ficetola", "Riccardo Brunetti", "Federico Caicci", "Fabio Gasparini", "Francesca Griggio", "Atsuko Sato", "Thomas Stach", "Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow", "Carmela Gissi", "Lucia Manni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122879.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Box_plots_of_the_five_analyzed_larval_parameters_/2670109", "title"=>"Box plots of the five analyzed larval parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 13:37:23"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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