Associations of Cannabis and Cigarette Use with Depression and Anxiety at Age 18: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children
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{"title"=>"Associations of cannabis and cigarette use with depression and anxiety at age 18: Findings from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Suzanne H.", "last_name"=>"Gage", "scopus_author_id"=>"34167825400"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew", "last_name"=>"Hickman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101974395"}, {"first_name"=>"Jon", "last_name"=>"Heron", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006836112"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcus R.", "last_name"=>"Munafò", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004859481"}, {"first_name"=>"Glyn", "last_name"=>"Lewis", "scopus_author_id"=>"56427435100"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Macleod", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102828944"}, {"first_name"=>"Stanley", "last_name"=>"Zammit", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603745740"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929484768", "sgr"=>"84929484768", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0122896", "pmid"=>"25875443", "isbn"=>"0033-2917", "pui"=>"604108250"}, "id"=>"8c9acb8a-6ced-32c0-91f4-983582a06f30", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: Substance use is associated with common mental health disorders, but the causal effect of specific substances is uncertain. We investigate whether adolescent cannabis and cigarette use is associated with incident depression and anxiety, while attempting to account for confounding and reverse causation.\\n\\nMETHODS: We used data from ALSPAC, a UK birth cohort study, to investigate associations between cannabis or cigarettes (measured at age 16) and depression or anxiety (measured at age 18), before and after adjustment for pre-birth, childhood and adolescent confounders. Our imputed sample size was 4561 participants.\\n\\nRESULTS: Both cannabis (unadjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.26, 1.80) and cigarette use (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16, 1.61) increased the odds of developing depression. Adjustment for pre-birth and childhood confounders partly attenuated these relationships though strong evidence of association persisted for cannabis use. There was weak evidence of association for cannabis (fully adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.98, 1.72) and insufficient evidence for association for cigarette use (fully adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.75, 1.24) after mutually adjusting for each other, or for alcohol or other substance use. Neither cannabis nor cigarette use were associated with anxiety after adjustment for pre-birth and childhood confounders.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Whilst evidence of association between cannabis use and depression persisted after adjusting for pre-term and childhood confounders, our results highlight the difficulties in trying to estimate and interpret independent effects of cannabis and tobacco on psychopathology. Complementary methods are required to robustly examine effects of cannabis and tobacco on psychopathology.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/associations-cannabis-cigarette-depression-anxiety-age-18-findings-avon-longitudinal-study-parents-c-2", "reader_count"=>50, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Psychology"=>19, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>19}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015832"], "description"=>"<p><sup>1</sup>No higher education. Categorised like this for purposes of presentation in this table only.</p><p><sup>2</sup>Defined as score of 4 or over, for the purposes of presentation in this table only.</p><p><sup>3</sup>Early onset persistent group membership. Categorised like this for purposes of presentation in this table only.</p><p><sup>4</sup>Ever used cannabis. Categorised like this for purposes of presentation in this table only.</p><p><sup>5</sup>Hazardous alcohol use. Categorised like this for purposes of presentation in this table only.</p><p>Descriptives of confounders by frequency of cigarette use at age 16% (N).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "depression", "cigarette use", "cannabis use", "ci", "alspac", "Children IntroductionSubstance use", "childhood confounders", "UK birth cohort study", "childhood confounders.ConclusionsWhilst evidence", "4561 participants.ResultsBoth cannabis", "Avon Longitudinal Study"], "article_id"=>1376189, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Suzanne H. Gage", "Matthew Hickman", "Jon Heron", "Marcus R. Munafò", "Glyn Lewis", "John Macleod", "Stanley Zammit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122896.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptives_of_confounders_by_frequency_of_cigarette_use_at_age_16_N_/1376189", "title"=>"Descriptives of confounders by frequency of cigarette use at age 16% (N).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 03:09:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015833", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015834", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015835", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015836"], "description"=>"<div><p>Introduction</p><p>Substance use is associated with common mental health disorders, but the causal effect of specific substances is uncertain. We investigate whether adolescent cannabis and cigarette use is associated with incident depression and anxiety, while attempting to account for confounding and reverse causation.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We used data from ALSPAC, a UK birth cohort study, to investigate associations between cannabis or cigarettes (measured at age 16) and depression or anxiety (measured at age 18), before and after adjustment for pre-birth, childhood and adolescent confounders. Our imputed sample size was 4561 participants.</p><p>Results</p><p>Both cannabis (unadjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.26, 1.80) and cigarette use (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16, 1.61) increased the odds of developing depression. Adjustment for pre-birth and childhood confounders partly attenuated these relationships though strong evidence of association persisted for cannabis use. There was weak evidence of association for cannabis (fully adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.98, 1.72) and insufficient evidence for association for cigarette use (fully adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.75, 1.24) after mutually adjusting for each other, or for alcohol or other substance use. Neither cannabis nor cigarette use were associated with anxiety after adjustment for pre-birth and childhood confounders.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Whilst evidence of association between cannabis use and depression persisted after adjusting for pre-term and childhood confounders, our results highlight the difficulties in trying to estimate and interpret independent effects of cannabis and tobacco on psychopathology. Complementary methods are required to robustly examine effects of cannabis and tobacco on psychopathology.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "depression", "cigarette use", "cannabis use", "ci", "alspac", "Children IntroductionSubstance use", "childhood confounders", "UK birth cohort study", "childhood confounders.ConclusionsWhilst evidence", "4561 participants.ResultsBoth cannabis", "Avon Longitudinal Study"], "article_id"=>1376190, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Suzanne H. Gage", "Matthew Hickman", "Jon Heron", "Marcus R. Munafò", "Glyn Lewis", "John Macleod", "Stanley Zammit"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122896.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122896.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122896.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122896.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Associations_of_Cannabis_and_Cigarette_Use_with_Depression_and_Anxiety_at_Age_18_Findings_from_the_Avon_Longitudinal_Study_of_Parents_and_Children_/1376190", "title"=>"Associations of Cannabis and Cigarette Use with Depression and Anxiety at Age 18: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 03:09:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015830"], "description"=>"<p>Study Participant Flow Diagram.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "depression", "cigarette use", "cannabis use", "ci", "alspac", "Children IntroductionSubstance use", "childhood confounders", "UK birth cohort study", "childhood confounders.ConclusionsWhilst evidence", "4561 participants.ResultsBoth cannabis", "Avon Longitudinal Study"], "article_id"=>1376187, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Suzanne H. Gage", "Matthew Hickman", "Jon Heron", "Marcus R. Munafò", "Glyn Lewis", "John Macleod", "Stanley Zammit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122896.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_Participant_Flow_Diagram_/1376187", "title"=>"Study Participant Flow Diagram.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 03:09:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015831"], "description"=>"<p>FH- family history; IQ- intelligence quotient.</p><p><sup>1</sup>No higher education. Categorised like this for purposes of presentation in this table only.</p><p><sup>2</sup>Defined as score of 4 or over, for the purposes of presentation in this table only.</p><p><sup>3</sup>Early onset persistent group membership. Categorised like this for purposes of presentation in this table only.</p><p><sup>4</sup>Weekly or daily smoking. Categorised like this for purposes of presentation in this table only.</p><p><sup>5</sup>Hazardous alcohol use. Categorised like this for purposes of presentation in this table only.</p><p>Descriptives of confounders by cumulative cannabis use at age 16% (N).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "depression", "cigarette use", "cannabis use", "ci", "alspac", "Children IntroductionSubstance use", "childhood confounders", "UK birth cohort study", "childhood confounders.ConclusionsWhilst evidence", "4561 participants.ResultsBoth cannabis", "Avon Longitudinal Study"], "article_id"=>1376188, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Suzanne H. Gage", "Matthew Hickman", "Jon Heron", "Marcus R. Munafò", "Glyn Lewis", "John Macleod", "Stanley Zammit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122896.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptives_of_confounders_by_cumulative_cannabis_use_at_age_16_N_/1376188", "title"=>"Descriptives of confounders by cumulative cannabis use at age 16% (N).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 03:09:06"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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