Who Bites the Bullet First? The Susceptibility of Leopards Panthera pardus to Trophy Hunting
Publication Date
April 10, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Alex Richard Braczkowski, Guy Andrew Balme, Amy Dickman, David Whyte Macdonald, et al
Volume
10
Issue
4
Pages
e0123100
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0123100
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25860139
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393264
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25860139
Web of Science
000352590300077
Scopus
84928923319
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/bites-bullet-first-susceptibility-leopards-panthera-pardus-trophy-hunting
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014167"], "description"=>"<p>Private game ranches (black) and cattle farms (hatched) are also provided for reference.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Trophy Hunting Reliable data", "African leopards Panthera pardus", "hunter", "susceptibility", "harvest composition scheme", "monitoring population trend", "Leopards Panthera pardus", "hunting quota levels", "trophy hunting", "post mortem information"], "article_id"=>1374752, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Alex Richard Braczkowski", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Amy Dickman", "David Whyte Macdonald", "Julien Fattebert", "Tristan Dickerson", "Paul Johnson", "Luke Hunter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_location_of_the_Phinda_Private_Game_Reserve_Dark_grey_with_camera_trap_stations_black_with_the_adjacent_Mkhuze_game_reserve_light_grey_/1374752", "title"=>"The location of the Phinda Private Game Reserve (Dark grey) with camera-trap stations (black) with the adjacent Mkhuze game reserve (light grey).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-10 03:52:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014176", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014177", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014178", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014179", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014180", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014181", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014182"], "description"=>"<div><p>Reliable data is fundamentally important for managing large carnivore populations, and vital for informing hunting quota levels if those populations are subject to trophy hunting. Camera-trapping and spoor counts can provide reliable population estimates for many carnivores, but governments typically lack the resources to implement such surveys over the spatial scales required to inform robust quota setting. It may therefore be prudent to shift focus away from estimating population size and instead focus on monitoring population trend. In this paper we assess the susceptibility of African leopards <i>Panthera pardus</i> to trophy hunting. This has management ramifications, particularly if the use of harvest composition is to be explored as a metric of population trend. We explore the susceptibility of different leopard age and sex cohorts to trophy hunting; first by examining their intrinsic susceptibility to encountering trophy hunters using camera-traps as surrogates, and second by assessing their extrinsic susceptibility using photographic questionnaire surveys to determine their attractiveness to hunters. We show that adult male and female leopards share similar incident rates to encountering hunters but adult males are the most susceptible to hunting due to hunter preference for large trophies. In contrast, sub-adult leopards rarely encounter hunters and are the least attractive trophies. We suggest that our findings be used as a foundation for the exploration of a harvest composition scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo provinces where post mortem information is collected from hunted leopards and submitted to the local provincial authorities.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Trophy Hunting Reliable data", "African leopards Panthera pardus", "hunter", "susceptibility", "harvest composition scheme", "monitoring population trend", "Leopards Panthera pardus", "hunting quota levels", "trophy hunting", "post mortem information"], "article_id"=>1374761, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Alex Richard Braczkowski", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Amy Dickman", "David Whyte Macdonald", "Julien Fattebert", "Tristan Dickerson", "Paul Johnson", "Luke Hunter"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>19, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Who_Bites_the_Bullet_First_The_Susceptibility_of_Leopards_Panthera_pardus_to_Trophy_Hunting/1374761", "title"=>"Who Bites the Bullet First? The Susceptibility of Leopards <i>Panthera pardus</i> to Trophy Hunting", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-04-10 03:52:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014173"], "description"=>"<p>Residual deviance: 8.96 on 22 d.f</p><p>Parameter estimates from a General Linear Model (GLM) examining the extrinsic susceptibility of leopard cohorts to trophy hunting, derived from scores of the willingness of hunters to shoot leopards presented in photographic questionnaire survey.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Trophy Hunting Reliable data", "African leopards Panthera pardus", "hunter", "susceptibility", "harvest composition scheme", "monitoring population trend", "Leopards Panthera pardus", "hunting quota levels", "trophy hunting", "post mortem information"], "article_id"=>1374758, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Alex Richard Braczkowski", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Amy Dickman", "David Whyte Macdonald", "Julien Fattebert", "Tristan Dickerson", "Paul Johnson", "Luke Hunter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameter_estimates_from_a_General_Linear_Model_GLM_examining_the_extrinsic_susceptibility_of_leopard_cohorts_to_trophy_hunting_derived_from_scores_of_the_willingness_of_hunters_to_shoot_leopards_presented_in_photographic_questionnaire_survey_/1374758", "title"=>"Parameter estimates from a General Linear Model (GLM) examining the extrinsic susceptibility of leopard cohorts to trophy hunting, derived from scores of the willingness of hunters to shoot leopards presented in photographic questionnaire survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-10 03:52:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014170"], "description"=>"<p>Number of daily telemetry locations, photographic events and the relative time spent in the study area by radio-collared leopards in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa (2005–2011).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Trophy Hunting Reliable data", "African leopards Panthera pardus", "hunter", "susceptibility", "harvest composition scheme", "monitoring population trend", "Leopards Panthera pardus", "hunting quota levels", "trophy hunting", "post mortem information"], "article_id"=>1374755, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Alex Richard Braczkowski", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Amy Dickman", "David Whyte Macdonald", "Julien Fattebert", "Tristan Dickerson", "Paul Johnson", "Luke Hunter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_daily_telemetry_locations_photographic_events_and_the_relative_time_spent_in_the_study_area_by_radio_collared_leopards_in_Phinda_Private_Game_Reserve_South_Africa_2005_8211_2011_/1374755", "title"=>"Number of daily telemetry locations, photographic events and the relative time spent in the study area by radio-collared leopards in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa (2005–2011).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-10 03:52:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014169"], "description"=>"<p>£ Ethiopia has no records of exports/imports in the CITES database and at present leopards are not hunted there (Hans Bauer, personal.communication).</p><p>$ Kenya allow the export of leopard body parts but trophy hunting was outlawed in 1977.</p><p>*There were no leopard export records found in the CITES database for the 2006–2010 period in Malawi.</p><p>Country size, CITES quota size and mean trophy exports for the 2006–2010 period obtained from the CITES database.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Trophy Hunting Reliable data", "African leopards Panthera pardus", "hunter", "susceptibility", "harvest composition scheme", "monitoring population trend", "Leopards Panthera pardus", "hunting quota levels", "trophy hunting", "post mortem information"], "article_id"=>1374754, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Alex Richard Braczkowski", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Amy Dickman", "David Whyte Macdonald", "Julien Fattebert", "Tristan Dickerson", "Paul Johnson", "Luke Hunter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Country_size_CITES_quota_size_and_mean_trophy_exports_for_the_2006_8211_2010_period_obtained_from_the_CITES_database_/1374754", "title"=>"Country size, CITES quota size and mean trophy exports for the 2006–2010 period obtained from the CITES database.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-10 03:52:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014172"], "description"=>"<p>Residual deviance: 46.24 on 36 d.f</p><p>AIC: 155.63</p><p>Theta: 3.42</p><p>Parameter estimates from a General Linear Model (GLM) examining the intrinsic susceptibility of leopard cohorts to trophy hunting, measured by encounter rates of leopards to camera-traps, which are used as surrogates for hunters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Trophy Hunting Reliable data", "African leopards Panthera pardus", "hunter", "susceptibility", "harvest composition scheme", "monitoring population trend", "Leopards Panthera pardus", "hunting quota levels", "trophy hunting", "post mortem information"], "article_id"=>1374757, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Alex Richard Braczkowski", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Amy Dickman", "David Whyte Macdonald", "Julien Fattebert", "Tristan Dickerson", "Paul Johnson", "Luke Hunter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameter_estimates_from_a_General_Linear_Model_GLM_examining_the_intrinsic_susceptibility_of_leopard_cohorts_to_trophy_hunting_measured_by_encounter_rates_of_leopards_to_camera_traps_which_are_used_as_surrogates_for_hunters_/1374757", "title"=>"Parameter estimates from a General Linear Model (GLM) examining the intrinsic susceptibility of leopard cohorts to trophy hunting, measured by encounter rates of leopards to camera-traps, which are used as surrogates for hunters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-10 03:52:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2014171"], "description"=>"<p>Four candidate models with the number of leopard photographic events as the response variable evaluated using AIC criteria.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Trophy Hunting Reliable data", "African leopards Panthera pardus", "hunter", "susceptibility", "harvest composition scheme", "monitoring population trend", "Leopards Panthera pardus", "hunting quota levels", "trophy hunting", "post mortem information"], "article_id"=>1374756, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Alex Richard Braczkowski", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Amy Dickman", "David Whyte Macdonald", "Julien Fattebert", "Tristan Dickerson", "Paul Johnson", "Luke Hunter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123100.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Four_candidate_models_with_the_number_of_leopard_photographic_events_as_the_response_variable_evaluated_using_AIC_criteria_/1374756", "title"=>"Four candidate models with the number of leopard photographic events as the response variable evaluated using AIC criteria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-10 03:52:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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