Opposing Activity Changes in AMP Deaminase and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in the Hibernating Ground Squirrel
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{"title"=>"Opposing activity changes in AMP deaminase and AMP-activated protein kinase in the hibernating ground squirrel", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Miguel A.", "last_name"=>"Lanaspa", "scopus_author_id"=>"15765604800"}, {"first_name"=>"L. Elaine", "last_name"=>"Epperson", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602888852"}, {"first_name"=>"Nanxing", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"35094049300"}, {"first_name"=>"Christina", "last_name"=>"Cicerchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"36631760400"}, {"first_name"=>"Gabriela E.", "last_name"=>"Garcia", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202754878"}, {"first_name"=>"Carlos A.", "last_name"=>"Roncal-Jimenez", "scopus_author_id"=>"36632895200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jessica", "last_name"=>"Trostel", "scopus_author_id"=>"56590056300"}, {"first_name"=>"Swati", "last_name"=>"Jain", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199045836"}, {"first_name"=>"Colin T.", "last_name"=>"Mant", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003390246"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher J.", "last_name"=>"Rivard", "scopus_author_id"=>"36027114800"}, {"first_name"=>"Takuji", "last_name"=>"Ishimoto", "scopus_author_id"=>"41861830400"}, {"first_name"=>"Michiko", "last_name"=>"Shimada", "scopus_author_id"=>"56589401300"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura Gabriela", "last_name"=>"Sanchez-Lozada", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602492637"}, {"first_name"=>"Takahiko", "last_name"=>"Nakagawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404044335"}, {"first_name"=>"Alkesh", "last_name"=>"Jani", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005789087"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Stenvinkel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006825933"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandra L.", "last_name"=>"Martin", "scopus_author_id"=>"35499060400"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard J.", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35398596600"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25856396", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0123509", "sgr"=>"84927555906", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84927555906", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"603691356"}, "id"=>"9e31659d-ce0c-3644-971c-c8dffcefc3f3", "abstract"=>"Hibernating animals develop fatty liver when active in summertime and undergo a switch to a fat oxidation state in the winter. We hypothesized that this switch might be determined by AMP and the dominance of opposing effects: metabolism through AMP deaminase (AMPD2) (summer) and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (winter). Liver samples were obtained from 13-lined ground squirrels at different times during the year, in- cluding summer and multiples stages of winter hibernation, and fat synthesis and β-fatty acid oxidation were evaluated. Changes in fat metabolism were correlated with changes in AMPD2 activity and intrahepatic uric acid (downstream product of AMPD2), as well as changes in AMPK and intrahepatic β-hydroxybutyrate (a marker of fat oxidation). Hepatic fat accumulation occurred during the summer with relatively increased enzymes associated with fat synthesis (FAS, ACL and ACC) and decreased enoyl CoA hydratase (ECH1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), rate limiting enzymes of fat oxidation. In sum- mer, AMPD2 activity and intrahepatic uric acid levels were high and hepatic AMPK activity was low. In contrast, the active phosphorylated form of AMPK and β-hydroxybutyrate both increased during winter hibernation. Therefore, changes in AMPD2 and AMPK activity were paralleled with changes in fat synthesis and fat oxidation rates during the summer-winter cycle. These data illuminate the opposing forces of metabolism of AMP by AMPD2 and its availability to activate AMPK as a switch that governs fat metabolism in the liver of hibernat- ing ground squirrel", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/opposing-activity-changes-amp-deaminase-ampactivated-protein-kinase-hibernating-ground-squirrel", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2012424"], "description"=>"<p>Fat oxidation markers acetoacetate and hydroxybutyrate (3hydroxybutyrate) (stimulated by activated AMPK) are elevated as animals enter into torpor and levels remain high until spring (A-B). In contrast, uric acid and allantoin levels, markers of AMP catabolism through AMPD2, are elevated in summer with lower levels in torpor. Within the torpor cycle, uric acid levels are being build up during torpor, with lower levels during IBA and entering torpor, probably due to higher uricase activity. P<0.05 (n≥6 animals per physiological stage, small letters indicate significantly different groups).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hibernating Ground Squirrel Hibernating animals", "carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1", "oxidation", "AMPD 2 activity", "CPT 1A rate", "winter hibernation", "acc", "acl", "ech", "metabolism", "synthesis", "Opposing Activity Changes", "intrahepatic uric acid", "hibernating ground squirrel", "AMPD 2", "fas", "hepatic AMPK activity", "intrahepatic uric acid levels", "enoyl CoA hydratase"], "article_id"=>1373312, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Miguel A. Lanaspa", "L. Elaine Epperson", "Nanxing Li", "Christina Cicerchi", "Gabriela E. Garcia", "Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez", "Jessica Trostel", "Swati Jain", "Colin T. Mant", "Christopher J. Rivard", "Takuji Ishimoto", "Michiko Shimada", "Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada", "Takahiko Nakagawa", "Alkesh Jani", "Peter Stenvinkel", "Sandra L. Martin", "Richard J. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plasma_metabolites_acetoacetate_hydroxybutyrate_uric_acid_and_allantoin_during_hibernation_/1373312", "title"=>"Plasma metabolites acetoacetate, hydroxybutyrate, uric acid and allantoin during hibernation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-09 03:51:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2012416"], "description"=>"<p>A) Intrahepatic uric acid) levels in summer active (SA), fall transition (FT), interbout arousal (IBA), entering torpor (Ent), early torpor (ET), late torpor (LT), arousing from torpor (Ar), and Spring (Sp). B) Intrahepatic phosphate (an inhibitor of AMPD2 activity) levels in livers from ground squirrels in summer active (SA), fall transition (FT), interbout arousal (IBA), entering torpor (Ent), early torpor (ET), late torpor (LT) and Spring (Sp). C) Intrahepatic inosine levels in summer active (SA), fall transition (FT), interbout arousal (IBA), entering torpor (Ent), early torpor (ET), late torpor (LT), arousing from torpor (Ar), and Spring (Sp). n≥6 animals per physiological stage, small letters indicate significantly different groups). D) Intrahepatic IMP levels in summer active (SA), fall transition (FT), interbout arousal (IBA), entering torpor (Ent), early torpor (ET), late torpor (LT), arousing from torpor (Ar), and Spring (Sp). n = 3</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hibernating Ground Squirrel Hibernating animals", "carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1", "oxidation", "AMPD 2 activity", "CPT 1A rate", "winter hibernation", "acc", "acl", "ech", "metabolism", "synthesis", "Opposing Activity Changes", "intrahepatic uric acid", "hibernating ground squirrel", "AMPD 2", "fas", "hepatic AMPK activity", "intrahepatic uric acid levels", "enoyl CoA hydratase"], "article_id"=>1373310, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Miguel A. Lanaspa", "L. Elaine Epperson", "Nanxing Li", "Christina Cicerchi", "Gabriela E. Garcia", "Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez", "Jessica Trostel", "Swati Jain", "Colin T. Mant", "Christopher J. Rivard", "Takuji Ishimoto", "Michiko Shimada", "Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada", "Takahiko Nakagawa", "Alkesh Jani", "Peter Stenvinkel", "Sandra L. Martin", "Richard J. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>44, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lower_intrahepatic_phosphate_and_higher_uric_acid_levels_mirror_summer_activation_of_AMPK_/1373310", "title"=>"Lower intrahepatic phosphate and higher uric acid levels mirror summer activation of AMPK", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-09 03:51:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2012412"], "description"=>"<p>A) Representative western blot of activated and total AMP-activated protein kinase (P-AMPK, AMPK), inactivated and total ACC (P-ACC, ACC), phosphorylated and total LKB1 (P-LKB1 and LKB1), alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), and enoyl-CoA hydratase 1 (ECH1) in livers from animals in eight circannual stages (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509#pone.0123509.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2</a> legend). B-F) Western blot densitometry and P-AMPK/AMPK, P-ACC/ACC ratios from all ground squirrels analyzed. G) Intrahepatic β-hydroxybutyrate (a marker of fat oxidation) levels from all ground squirrels analyzed, n≥6 animals per physiological stage, small letters indicate significantly different groups).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hibernating Ground Squirrel Hibernating animals", "carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1", "oxidation", "AMPD 2 activity", "CPT 1A rate", "winter hibernation", "acc", "acl", "ech", "metabolism", "synthesis", "Opposing Activity Changes", "intrahepatic uric acid", "hibernating ground squirrel", "AMPD 2", "fas", "hepatic AMPK activity", "intrahepatic uric acid levels", "enoyl CoA hydratase"], "article_id"=>1373306, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Miguel A. Lanaspa", "L. Elaine Epperson", "Nanxing Li", "Christina Cicerchi", "Gabriela E. Garcia", "Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez", "Jessica Trostel", "Swati Jain", "Colin T. Mant", "Christopher J. Rivard", "Takuji Ishimoto", "Michiko Shimada", "Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada", "Takahiko Nakagawa", "Alkesh Jani", "Peter Stenvinkel", "Sandra L. Martin", "Richard J. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>47, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fat_oxidation_is_activated_in_liver_during_hibernation_/1373306", "title"=>"Fat oxidation is activated in liver during hibernation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-09 03:51:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2012426"], "description"=>"<p>AMPD2 activity was measured in all samples at 37°C and at other physiologically relevant temperatures as indicated (25°C for Ent and Ar, 4°C for ET and LT). The ratio of AMPD2 to activated AMPK was also calculated for both the physiologically relevant temperature and for 37°C</p><p>Hepatic AMPD2 activity at different temperatures of hibernation and relationship to activated AMPK.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hibernating Ground Squirrel Hibernating animals", "carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1", "oxidation", "AMPD 2 activity", "CPT 1A rate", "winter hibernation", "acc", "acl", "ech", "metabolism", "synthesis", "Opposing Activity Changes", "intrahepatic uric acid", "hibernating ground squirrel", "AMPD 2", "fas", "hepatic AMPK activity", "intrahepatic uric acid levels", "enoyl CoA hydratase"], "article_id"=>1373314, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Miguel A. Lanaspa", "L. Elaine Epperson", "Nanxing Li", "Christina Cicerchi", "Gabriela E. Garcia", "Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez", "Jessica Trostel", "Swati Jain", "Colin T. Mant", "Christopher J. Rivard", "Takuji Ishimoto", "Michiko Shimada", "Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada", "Takahiko Nakagawa", "Alkesh Jani", "Peter Stenvinkel", "Sandra L. Martin", "Richard J. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hepatic_AMPD2_activity_at_different_temperatures_of_hibernation_and_relationship_to_activated_AMPK_/1373314", "title"=>"Hepatic AMPD2 activity at different temperatures of hibernation and relationship to activated AMPK.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-09 03:51:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2012414"], "description"=>"<p>A) Representative western blot and densitometry of total hepatic AMPD2. B) Plot emphasizing reciprocal relationship between AMPD2 activity and activated P-AMPK (form with phosphorylation at Thr172)/AMPK ratio. AMPD2 activity as measured at the relevant physiological temperature for that state (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509#pone.0123509.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>, e.g., 4°C for ET and LT, 25°C for Ent and Ar and 37°C for SA, FT, IBA and Sp). Groups are as defined in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509#pone.0123509.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hibernating Ground Squirrel Hibernating animals", "carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1", "oxidation", "AMPD 2 activity", "CPT 1A rate", "winter hibernation", "acc", "acl", "ech", "metabolism", "synthesis", "Opposing Activity Changes", "intrahepatic uric acid", "hibernating ground squirrel", "AMPD 2", "fas", "hepatic AMPK activity", "intrahepatic uric acid levels", "enoyl CoA hydratase"], "article_id"=>1373308, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Miguel A. Lanaspa", "L. Elaine Epperson", "Nanxing Li", "Christina Cicerchi", "Gabriela E. Garcia", "Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez", "Jessica Trostel", "Swati Jain", "Colin T. Mant", "Christopher J. Rivard", "Takuji Ishimoto", "Michiko Shimada", "Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada", "Takahiko Nakagawa", "Alkesh Jani", "Peter Stenvinkel", "Sandra L. Martin", "Richard J. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hepatic_abundance_and_activity_of_AMPD2_2_AMPD2_is_reduced_during_hibernation_/1373308", "title"=>"Hepatic abundance and activity of AMPD2 2 (AMPD2) is reduced during hibernation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-09 03:51:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2012411"], "description"=>"<p>A) Representative western blot of lipogenic genes fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) in livers from summer active (SA), fall transition (FT), interbout arousal (IBA), entering torpor (Ent), early torpor (ET), late torpor (LT), arousing from torpor (Ar), and Spring (Sp) animals. B-D) Western blot densitometry from all ground squirrels analyzed, n≥6 animals per physiological stage, small letters indicate significantly different groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hibernating Ground Squirrel Hibernating animals", "carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1", "oxidation", "AMPD 2 activity", "CPT 1A rate", "winter hibernation", "acc", "acl", "ech", "metabolism", "synthesis", "Opposing Activity Changes", "intrahepatic uric acid", "hibernating ground squirrel", "AMPD 2", "fas", "hepatic AMPK activity", "intrahepatic uric acid levels", "enoyl CoA hydratase"], "article_id"=>1373305, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Miguel A. Lanaspa", "L. Elaine Epperson", "Nanxing Li", "Christina Cicerchi", "Gabriela E. Garcia", "Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez", "Jessica Trostel", "Swati Jain", "Colin T. Mant", "Christopher J. Rivard", "Takuji Ishimoto", "Michiko Shimada", "Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada", "Takahiko Nakagawa", "Alkesh Jani", "Peter Stenvinkel", "Sandra L. Martin", "Richard J. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hepatic_lipogenic_enzymes_are_significantly_down_regulated_as_ground_squirrels_enter_into_hibernation_/1373305", "title"=>"Hepatic lipogenic enzymes are significantly down-regulated as ground squirrels enter into hibernation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-09 03:51:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2012409"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Representative images of neutral lipid staining (oil red-O) in livers from animals in spring, summer, early torpor and fall transition. B) Oil red-O quantitation from livers from spring, summer, fall transition, and early torpor animals demonstrate significant increase in hepatic lipid accumulation in summer time that remains high until torpor. C) Hepatic TG quantitation from livers of ground squirrels in summer active (SA), fall transition (FT), interbout arousal (IBA), entering torpor (Ent), early torpor (ET), late torpor (LT), arousing from torpor (Ar), and Spring (Sp) (n≥6 animals per physiological stage, small letters indicate significantly different groups).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hibernating Ground Squirrel Hibernating animals", "carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1", "oxidation", "AMPD 2 activity", "CPT 1A rate", "winter hibernation", "acc", "acl", "ech", "metabolism", "synthesis", "Opposing Activity Changes", "intrahepatic uric acid", "hibernating ground squirrel", "AMPD 2", "fas", "hepatic AMPK activity", "intrahepatic uric acid levels", "enoyl CoA hydratase"], "article_id"=>1373303, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Miguel A. Lanaspa", "L. Elaine Epperson", "Nanxing Li", "Christina Cicerchi", "Gabriela E. Garcia", "Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez", "Jessica Trostel", "Swati Jain", "Colin T. Mant", "Christopher J. Rivard", "Takuji Ishimoto", "Michiko Shimada", "Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada", "Takahiko Nakagawa", "Alkesh Jani", "Peter Stenvinkel", "Sandra L. Martin", "Richard J. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_13_lined_ground_squirrels_develop_hepatic_steatosis_when_active_in_summer_/1373303", "title"=>"13-lined ground squirrels develop hepatic steatosis when active in summer.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-09 03:51:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2012425"], "description"=>"<p>When active in summer, hepatic activity of AMPD2 is elevated along with normal or slightly high uric acid levels and high lipogenic enzymes (FAS, ACC, ACL). In contrast, AMPK activity and ECH1 abundance remain low indicating little or no fat oxidation as reflected by low levels of β-hydroxybutyrate. During fall transition, lipogenic enzyme levels begin to decrease. During hibernation, there is a relative increase in P-AMPK activity to AMPD2 activity during interbout arousals, resulting in the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation that persists during the torpor period despite falling P-AMPK activity. AMPD2 activity is also low during torpor and is associated with a general reduction in intrahepatic uric acid level throughout the hibernation cycle compared to summer. In spring hepatic fat stores are low and fat synthesis returns, in association with a continued inhibition of AMPK activity and a return in AMPD2 activity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hibernating Ground Squirrel Hibernating animals", "carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1", "oxidation", "AMPD 2 activity", "CPT 1A rate", "winter hibernation", "acc", "acl", "ech", "metabolism", "synthesis", "Opposing Activity Changes", "intrahepatic uric acid", "hibernating ground squirrel", "AMPD 2", "fas", "hepatic AMPK activity", "intrahepatic uric acid levels", "enoyl CoA hydratase"], "article_id"=>1373313, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Miguel A. Lanaspa", "L. Elaine Epperson", "Nanxing Li", "Christina Cicerchi", "Gabriela E. Garcia", "Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez", "Jessica Trostel", "Swati Jain", "Colin T. Mant", "Christopher J. Rivard", "Takuji Ishimoto", "Michiko Shimada", "Laura Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada", "Takahiko Nakagawa", "Alkesh Jani", "Peter Stenvinkel", "Sandra L. Martin", "Richard J. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123509.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_AMPD2_AMPK_switch_in_the_liver_of_a_circannual_hibernator_/1373313", "title"=>"Schematic representation of AMPD2/AMPK switch in the liver of a circannual hibernator.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-09 03:51:36"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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