Impact of Facial Conformation on Canine Health: Corneal Ulceration
Publication Date
May 13, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Rowena M. A. Packer, Anke Hendricks & Charlotte C. Burn
Volume
10
Issue
5
Pages
e0123827
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0123827
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25969983
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4430292
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25969983
Web of Science
000354544200018
Scopus
84929378782
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066099"], "description"=>"<p>A 2 year old male Pug diagnosed and undergoing treatment for a corneal ulcer in his left eye.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["breed dogs", "risk factors", "700 dogs", "brachycephalic dogs", "ulcer risk", "Facial Conformation", "craniofacial ratio", "Canine Health", "skull shape", "uk", "fluorescein dye", "eye problem", "14 month", "Corneal ulcers", "se", "eyelid aperture width", "eye disorders", "animal referral hospital", "ulceration risk", "Corneal Ulceration Concern"], "article_id"=>1413408, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>215, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_2_year_old_male_Pug_diagnosed_and_undergoing_treatment_for_a_corneal_ulcer_in_his_left_eye_/1413408", "title"=>"A 2 year old male Pug diagnosed and undergoing treatment for a corneal ulcer in his left eye.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:34:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066101"], "description"=>"<p><b>A, left:</b> Muzzle length is defined as the distance (mm) from the dorsal tip of the nasal planum to the stop. Cranial length is defined as the distance (mm) from the stop to the occipital protruberance. <b>B, right:</b> Palpebral fissure width is defined as the straight-line distance (mm) between the medial and lateral canthus. As an example, this Cavalier King Charles Spaniel has a craniofacial ratio of 0.27 (muzzle length 28mm / cranial length 102mm), and a relative palpebral fissure width value of 33.3% ((palpebral fissure width 34mm / cranial length 102mm) *100)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["breed dogs", "risk factors", "700 dogs", "brachycephalic dogs", "ulcer risk", "Facial Conformation", "craniofacial ratio", "Canine Health", "skull shape", "uk", "fluorescein dye", "eye problem", "14 month", "Corneal ulcers", "se", "eyelid aperture width", "eye disorders", "animal referral hospital", "ulceration risk", "Corneal Ulceration Concern"], "article_id"=>1413410, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantifying_muzzle_length_A_B_cranial_length_B_C_and_palpebral_fissure_width_D_E_/1413410", "title"=>"Quantifying muzzle length (A-B), cranial length (B-C) and palpebral fissure width (D-E).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:34:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066102"], "description"=>"<p>A Bulldog with a marked nasal fold obscuring the nasal planum (A), and a relatively longer muzzled American Bulldog lacking this feature (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["breed dogs", "risk factors", "700 dogs", "brachycephalic dogs", "ulcer risk", "Facial Conformation", "craniofacial ratio", "Canine Health", "skull shape", "uk", "fluorescein dye", "eye problem", "14 month", "Corneal ulcers", "se", "eyelid aperture width", "eye disorders", "animal referral hospital", "ulceration risk", "Corneal Ulceration Concern"], "article_id"=>1413411, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_dogs_with_and_without_nasal_folds_/1413411", "title"=>"Example of dogs with and without nasal folds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:34:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066103"], "description"=>"<p>The curves are generated from a generalised linear mixed model that included the presence of a nasal fold, relative palpebral fissure width and craniofacial conformation as predictors for corneal ulceration, and breed as a random effect. Brachycephaly, the presence of a nasal fold, and a relatively wider palpebral fissure all significantly increased the risk of ulceration. Brachycephalic dogs with and without nasal folds, and non brachycephalic dogs without nasal folds are represented, with brachycephalic dogs with skin folds at highest risk throughout the spectrum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["breed dogs", "risk factors", "700 dogs", "brachycephalic dogs", "ulcer risk", "Facial Conformation", "craniofacial ratio", "Canine Health", "skull shape", "uk", "fluorescein dye", "eye problem", "14 month", "Corneal ulcers", "se", "eyelid aperture width", "eye disorders", "animal referral hospital", "ulceration risk", "Corneal Ulceration Concern"], "article_id"=>1413412, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_being_affected_by_a_corneal_ulcer_across_the_relative_palpebral_fissure_width_spectrum_/1413412", "title"=>"Probability of being affected by a corneal ulcer across the relative palpebral fissure width spectrum.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:34:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066104"], "description"=>"<p>The curve is generated from a generalised linear mixed model with craniofacial ratio as a single continuous factor to examine its effect on ulcer risk in isolation. As craniofacial ratio increases (and muzzles become relatively longer), corneal ulcer risk decreases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["breed dogs", "risk factors", "700 dogs", "brachycephalic dogs", "ulcer risk", "Facial Conformation", "craniofacial ratio", "Canine Health", "skull shape", "uk", "fluorescein dye", "eye problem", "14 month", "Corneal ulcers", "se", "eyelid aperture width", "eye disorders", "animal referral hospital", "ulceration risk", "Corneal Ulceration Concern"], "article_id"=>1413413, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_being_affected_by_a_corneal_ulcer_across_the_craniofacial_ratio_spectrum_/1413413", "title"=>"Probability of being affected by a corneal ulcer across the craniofacial ratio spectrum.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:34:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066105"], "description"=>"<p>The Pug in (A) exhibits an extremely high-risk conformation for corneal ulcers, with a relative palpebral fissure width of 35%, compared to the Pug in (B), who exhibits a lower relative palpebral fissure width of 30% and correspondingly lower risk. It should be noted that 30% is still a high risk morphology, and should not be aimed for in most breeding programmes. The amount of visible sclera is easily discernible between these two dogs. Both dogs have a prominent nasal fold and are extremely brachycephalic.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["breed dogs", "risk factors", "700 dogs", "brachycephalic dogs", "ulcer risk", "Facial Conformation", "craniofacial ratio", "Canine Health", "skull shape", "uk", "fluorescein dye", "eye problem", "14 month", "Corneal ulcers", "se", "eyelid aperture width", "eye disorders", "animal referral hospital", "ulceration risk", "Corneal Ulceration Concern"], "article_id"=>1413414, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differentiating_between_higher_and_lower_risk_eye_morphologies_/1413414", "title"=>"Differentiating between higher and lower risk eye morphologies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:34:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066106"], "description"=>"<p>(UK) Kennel Club breed standards include the recent amendments to avoid exaggerated morphologies, denoted by underlining additions, and square brackets and inverted commas notifying deletions. N.B. Although ‘relatively’ or ‘not too large’ were added as modifiers to ‘large eyes’ in these examples, other breed standards still consider ‘large’ eyes as a desirable feature, including the Shih Tzu [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827#pone.0123827.ref042\" target=\"_blank\">42</a>] and the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827#pone.0123827.ref043\" target=\"_blank\">43</a>] standards.</p><p>Kennel Club and American Kennel Club breed standard references to the visible size of the eye.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["breed dogs", "risk factors", "700 dogs", "brachycephalic dogs", "ulcer risk", "Facial Conformation", "craniofacial ratio", "Canine Health", "skull shape", "uk", "fluorescein dye", "eye problem", "14 month", "Corneal ulcers", "se", "eyelid aperture width", "eye disorders", "animal referral hospital", "ulceration risk", "Corneal Ulceration Concern"], "article_id"=>1413415, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kennel_Club_and_American_Kennel_Club_breed_standard_references_to_the_visible_size_of_the_eye_/1413415", "title"=>"Kennel Club and American Kennel Club breed standard references to the visible size of the eye.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:34:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066107"], "description"=>"<p>Nasal folds in breed standards and nasal fold related statements from The Kennel Club (UK) ‘Breed Watch’ initiative.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["breed dogs", "risk factors", "700 dogs", "brachycephalic dogs", "ulcer risk", "Facial Conformation", "craniofacial ratio", "Canine Health", "skull shape", "uk", "fluorescein dye", "eye problem", "14 month", "Corneal ulcers", "se", "eyelid aperture width", "eye disorders", "animal referral hospital", "ulceration risk", "Corneal Ulceration Concern"], "article_id"=>1413416, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nasal_folds_in_breed_standards_and_nasal_fold_related_statements_from_The_Kennel_Club_UK_8216_Breed_Watch_8217_initiative_/1413416", "title"=>"Nasal folds in breed standards and nasal fold related statements from The Kennel Club (UK) ‘Breed Watch’ initiative.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:34:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066108"], "description"=>"<p>Prevalences are also shown by breed.</p><p>Breeds and relevant conformations of dogs affected by corneal ulcers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["breed dogs", "risk factors", "700 dogs", "brachycephalic dogs", "ulcer risk", "Facial Conformation", "craniofacial ratio", "Canine Health", "skull shape", "uk", "fluorescein dye", "eye problem", "14 month", "Corneal ulcers", "se", "eyelid aperture width", "eye disorders", "animal referral hospital", "ulceration risk", "Corneal Ulceration Concern"], "article_id"=>1413417, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Breeds_and_relevant_conformations_of_dogs_affected_by_corneal_ulcers_/1413417", "title"=>"Breeds and relevant conformations of dogs affected by corneal ulcers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:34:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066109", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066110"], "description"=>"<div><p>Concern has arisen in recent years that selection for extreme facial morphology in the domestic dog may be leading to an increased frequency of eye disorders. Corneal ulcers are a common and painful eye problem in domestic dogs that can lead to scarring and/or perforation of the cornea, potentially causing blindness. Exaggerated juvenile-like craniofacial conformations and wide eyes have been suspected as risk factors for corneal ulceration. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled) skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle), and exposed eye-white. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a large UK based small animal referral hospital for both corneal ulcers and unrelated disorders was carried out. Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer using fluorescein dye while at the hospital (whether referred for this disorder or not), or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s) was documented in the dogs’ histories. Of 700 dogs recruited, measured and clinically examined, 31 were affected by corneal ulcers. Most cases were male (71%), small breed dogs (mean± SE weight: 11.4±1.1 kg), with the most commonly diagnosed breed being the Pug. Dogs with nasal folds were nearly five times more likely to be affected by corneal ulcers than those without, and brachycephalic dogs (craniofacial ratio <0.5) were twenty times more likely to be affected than non-brachycephalic dogs. A 10% increase in relative eyelid aperture width more than tripled the ulcer risk. Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk. The results demonstrate that artificially selecting for these facial characteristics greatly heightens the risk of corneal ulcers, and such selection should thus be discouraged to improve canine welfare.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["breed dogs", "risk factors", "700 dogs", "brachycephalic dogs", "ulcer risk", "Facial Conformation", "craniofacial ratio", "Canine Health", "skull shape", "uk", "fluorescein dye", "eye problem", "14 month", "Corneal ulcers", "se", "eyelid aperture width", "eye disorders", "animal referral hospital", "ulceration risk", "Corneal Ulceration Concern"], "article_id"=>1413418, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123827.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Impact_of_Facial_Conformation_on_Canine_Health_Corneal_Ulceration_/1413418", "title"=>"Impact of Facial Conformation on Canine Health: Corneal Ulceration", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:34:34"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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