Long-Term Conditioning to Elevated pCO2 and Warming Influences the Fatty and Amino Acid Composition of the Diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis
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{"title"=>"Long-term conditioning to elevated pCO<inf>2</inf> and warming influences the fatty and amino acid composition of the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rafael", "last_name"=>"Bermúdez", "scopus_author_id"=>"55180776800"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuanyuan", "last_name"=>"Feng", "scopus_author_id"=>"55184205700"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael Y.", "last_name"=>"Roleda", "scopus_author_id"=>"56033383200"}, {"first_name"=>"Avery O.", "last_name"=>"Tatters", "scopus_author_id"=>"36191298300"}, {"first_name"=>"David A.", "last_name"=>"Hutchins", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102874618"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Larsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"36990705500"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip W.", "last_name"=>"Boyd", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103109066"}, {"first_name"=>"Catriona L.", "last_name"=>"Hurd", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006737864"}, {"first_name"=>"Ulf", "last_name"=>"Riebesell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004763337"}, {"first_name"=>"Monika", "last_name"=>"Winder", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603887949"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"604377931", "sgr"=>"84929346793", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25970340", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929346793", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0123945", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"17e1b252-09ab-3b9f-b023-f8a9172cd0ee", "abstract"=>"The unabated rise in anthropogenic CO₂ emissions is predicted to strongly influence the ocean's environment, increasing the mean sea-surface temperature by 4°C and causing a pH decline of 0.3 units by the year 2100. These changes are likely to affect the nutritional value of marine food sources since temperature and CO₂ can influence the fatty (FA) and amino acid (AA) composition of marine primary producers. Here, essential amino (EA) and polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) acids are of particular importance due to their nutritional value to higher trophic levels. In order to determine the interactive effects of CO₂ and temperature on the nutritional quality of a primary producer, we analyzed the relative PUFA and EA composition of the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis cultured under a factorial matrix of 2 temperatures (14 and 19°C) and 3 partial pressures of CO₂ (180, 380, 750 μatm) for >250 generations. Our results show a decay of ~3% and ~6% in PUFA and EA content in algae kept at a pCO₂ of 750 μatm (high) compared to the 380 μatm (intermediate) CO₂ treatments at 14°C. Cultures kept at 19°C displayed a ~3% lower PUFA content under high compared to intermediate pCO₂, while EA did not show differences between treatments. Algae grown at a pCO₂ of 180 μatm (low) had a lower PUFA and AA content in relation to those at intermediate and high CO₂ levels at 14°C, but there were no differences in EA at 19°C for any CO₂ treatment. This study is the first to report adverse effects of warming and acidification on the EA of a primary producer, and corroborates previous observations of negative effects of these stressors on PUFA. Considering that only ~20% of essential biomolecules such as PUFA (and possibly EA) are incorporated into new biomass at the next trophic level, the potential impacts of adverse effects of ocean warming and acidification at the base of the food web may be amplified towards higher trophic levels, which rely on them as source of essential biomolecules.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/longterm-conditioning-elevated-pcoinf2inf-warming-influences-fatty-amino-acid-composition-diatom-cyl", "reader_count"=>53, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Peru"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065815"], "description"=>"<p>The algae was cultured under three different CO<sub>2</sub> conditions and two temperatures (19°C in black and 14°C in white) for >250 generations. Only the FA and AA with a concentration above 1% were included in the analysis. a) The abundance of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA] was higher at 19°C (PC1) and intermediate CO<sub>2</sub> level (PC2), however the influence of the former was lower. b) A higher abundance of essential amino acids [EA] was more common at high temperature (PC1) and intermediate CO<sub>2</sub> level (PC2), although the CO<sub>2</sub> influence was comparatively smaller.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["producer", "Elevated pCO 2", "trophic levels", "750 μ atm", "pufa", "CO 2", "CO 2 Levels", "pCO 2", "180 μ atm", "content", "ea", "diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis", "fa", "marine food sources", "aa", "CO ₂ treatment", "380 μ atm", "anthropogenic CO 2 emissions", "CO ₂ treatments"], "article_id"=>1413176, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Rafael Bermúdez", "Yuanyuan Feng", "Michael Y. Roleda", "Avery O. Tatters", "David A. Hutchins", "Thomas Larsen", "Philip W. Boyd", "Catriona L. Hurd", "Ulf Riebesell", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123945.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_component_analysis_PCA_of_the_fatty_acids_FA_and_amino_acids_AA_in_Cylindrotheca_fusiformis_/1413176", "title"=>"Principal component analysis [PCA] of the fatty acids [FA] and amino acids [AA] in <i>Cylindrotheca fusiformis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:06:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065816"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Essential [EA] and (b) Non-essential [NEA] amino acids, cultured under three CO<sub>2</sub> conditions and two temperatures for >250 generations. a) EA showed a significant interaction between CO<sub>2</sub> and temperature. Additionally, temperature alone showed a significant difference, and although CO<sub>2</sub> affected its concentration, it was not significant. b) NEA showed the same effects as observed in EA. Error bars denote ± 1 standard deviation (n = 3, with exception of the 180 CO<sub>2</sub>-19°C treatment, where n = 2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["producer", "Elevated pCO 2", "trophic levels", "750 μ atm", "pufa", "CO 2", "CO 2 Levels", "pCO 2", "180 μ atm", "content", "ea", "diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis", "fa", "marine food sources", "aa", "CO ₂ treatment", "380 μ atm", "anthropogenic CO 2 emissions", "CO ₂ treatments"], "article_id"=>1413177, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Rafael Bermúdez", "Yuanyuan Feng", "Michael Y. Roleda", "Avery O. Tatters", "David A. Hutchins", "Thomas Larsen", "Philip W. Boyd", "Catriona L. Hurd", "Ulf Riebesell", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123945.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_amino_acid_content_in_Cylindrotheca_fusiformis_/1413177", "title"=>"Relative amino acid content in <i>Cylindrotheca fusiformis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:06:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065817", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065818", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065819", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065820", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065821", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065822"], "description"=>"<div><p>The unabated rise in anthropogenic CO₂ emissions is predicted to strongly influence the ocean’s environment, increasing the mean sea-surface temperature by 4°C and causing a pH decline of 0.3 units by the year 2100. These changes are likely to affect the nutritional value of marine food sources since temperature and CO₂ can influence the fatty (FA) and amino acid (AA) composition of marine primary producers. Here, essential amino (EA) and polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) acids are of particular importance due to their nutritional value to higher trophic levels. In order to determine the interactive effects of CO₂ and temperature on the nutritional quality of a primary producer, we analyzed the relative PUFA and EA composition of the diatom <i>Cylindrotheca fusiformis</i> cultured under a factorial matrix of 2 temperatures (14 and 19°C) and 3 partial pressures of CO₂ (180, 380, 750 μatm) for >250 generations. Our results show a decay of ~3% and ~6% in PUFA and EA content in algae kept at a pCO₂ of 750 μatm (high) compared to the 380 μatm (intermediate) CO₂ treatments at 14°C. Cultures kept at 19°C displayed a ~3% lower PUFA content under high compared to intermediate pCO₂, while EA did not show differences between treatments. Algae grown at a pCO₂ of 180 μatm (low) had a lower PUFA and AA content in relation to those at intermediate and high CO₂ levels at 14°C, but there were no differences in EA at 19°C for any CO₂ treatment. This study is the first to report adverse effects of warming and acidification on the EA of a primary producer, and corroborates previous observations of negative effects of these stressors on PUFA. Considering that only ~20% of essential biomolecules such as PUFA (and possibly EA) are incorporated into new biomass at the next trophic level, the potential impacts of adverse effects of ocean warming and acidification at the base of the food web may be amplified towards higher trophic levels, which rely on them as source of essential biomolecules.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["producer", "Elevated pCO 2", "trophic levels", "750 μ atm", "pufa", "CO 2", "CO 2 Levels", "pCO 2", "180 μ atm", "content", "ea", "diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis", "fa", "marine food sources", "aa", "CO ₂ treatment", "380 μ atm", "anthropogenic CO 2 emissions", "CO ₂ treatments"], "article_id"=>1413178, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Rafael Bermúdez", "Yuanyuan Feng", "Michael Y. Roleda", "Avery O. Tatters", "David A. Hutchins", "Thomas Larsen", "Philip W. Boyd", "Catriona L. Hurd", "Ulf Riebesell", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123945.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123945.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123945.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123945.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123945.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123945.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Long_Term_Conditioning_to_Elevated_pCO_2_and_Warming_Influences_the_Fatty_and_Amino_Acid_Composition_of_the_Diatom_Cylindrotheca_fusiformis_/1413178", "title"=>"Long-Term Conditioning to Elevated pCO<sub>2</sub> and Warming Influences the Fatty and Amino Acid Composition of the Diatom <i>Cylindrotheca fusiformis</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:06:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2065814"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Polyunsaturated [PUFA], (b) Monounsaturated [MUFA] and (c) Saturated [SFA] fatty acids, cultured under three CO<sub>2</sub> levels and two temperatures conditions for >250 generations. a) PUFA showed a significant CO<sub>2</sub> and temperature effect with a maximum at the intermediate CO<sub>2</sub> treatment and an overall higher concentrations at 19°C. b) MUFA showed no differences between the treatments. c) SFA showed a significant difference related to CO<sub>2</sub> but no temperature effect. Error bars denote ± 1 standard deviation (n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["producer", "Elevated pCO 2", "trophic levels", "750 μ atm", "pufa", "CO 2", "CO 2 Levels", "pCO 2", "180 μ atm", "content", "ea", "diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis", "fa", "marine food sources", "aa", "CO ₂ treatment", "380 μ atm", "anthropogenic CO 2 emissions", "CO ₂ treatments"], "article_id"=>1413175, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Rafael Bermúdez", "Yuanyuan Feng", "Michael Y. Roleda", "Avery O. Tatters", "David A. Hutchins", "Thomas Larsen", "Philip W. Boyd", "Catriona L. Hurd", "Ulf Riebesell", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123945.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_fatty_acid_content_in_Cylindrotheca_fusiformis_/1413175", "title"=>"Relative fatty acid content in <i>Cylindrotheca fusiformis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 03:06:00"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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