Characterizing Aeroallergens by Infrared Spectroscopy of Fungal Spores and Pollen
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{"title"=>"Characterizing aeroallergens by infrared spectroscopy of fungal spores and pollen", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Boris", "last_name"=>"Zimmermann", "scopus_author_id"=>"56382056900"}, {"first_name"=>"Zdenko", "last_name"=>"Tkalčec", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506805890"}, {"first_name"=>"Armin", "last_name"=>"Mešić", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801327503"}, {"first_name"=>"Achim", "last_name"=>"Kohler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103129722"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25867755", "sgr"=>"84930002108", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0124240", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84930002108", "pui"=>"604107424", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"c21c661f-143c-3bd1-8cbe-23935241b55d", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Fungal spores and plant pollen cause respiratory diseases in susceptible individuals, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aeroallergen monitoring networks are an important part of treatment strategies, but unfortunately traditional analysis is time consuming and expensive. We have explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen and spores for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of aeroallergens. METHODOLOGY The study is based on measurement of spore and pollen samples by single reflectance attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-ATR FTIR). The experimental set includes 71 spore (Basidiomycota) and 121 pollen (Pinales, Fagales and Poales) samples. Along with fresh basidiospores, the study has been conducted on the archived samples collected within the last 50 years. RESULTS The spectroscopic-based methodology enables clear spectral differentiation between pollen and spores, as well as the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. In addition, the analysis of the scattering signals inherent in the infrared spectra indicates that the FTIR methodology offers indirect estimation of morphology of pollen and spores. The analysis of fresh and archived spores shows that chemical composition of spores is well preserved even after decades of storage, including the characteristic taxonomy-related signals. Therefore, biochemical analysis of fungal spores by FTIR could provide economical, reliable and timely methodologies for improving fungal taxonomy, as well as for fungal identification and monitoring. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using FTIR as a rapid tool in aeroallergen studies. In addition, the presented method is ready to be immediately implemented in biological and ecological studies for direct measurement of pollen and spores from flowers and sporocarps.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/characterizing-aeroallergens-infrared-spectroscopy-fungal-spores-pollen", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015497"], "description"=>"<p>PCA plot of IR spectral data set of fresh spores and Pinales pollen (three spectra per sample; MSC corrected spectra), with depiction of plant families and fungal genera. The percent variances for the first five PCs are 67.57, 26.50, 1.77, 1.26 and 0.65. (B) Loadings plot on the first two principal component of the PCA; the marked signals (S) are associated with vibrational bands of sporopollenins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375968, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_spectra_belonging_to_fresh_spores_and_Pinales_pollen_/1375968", "title"=>"Analysis of spectra belonging to fresh spores and Pinales pollen.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015495"], "description"=>"<p>FTIR spectra of lipid (tristearin), protein (gluten) and polysaccharides (chitin, arabinoxylan, β-D-glucan, amylose); for better viewing the spectra are offset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375966, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>69, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Infrared_spectra_of_biochemicals_/1375966", "title"=>"Infrared spectra of biochemicals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015509"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Fungal spores and plant pollen cause respiratory diseases in susceptible individuals, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aeroallergen monitoring networks are an important part of treatment strategies, but unfortunately traditional analysis is time consuming and expensive. We have explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen and spores for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of aeroallergens.</p><p>Methodology</p><p>The study is based on measurement of spore and pollen samples by single reflectance attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-ATR FTIR). The experimental set includes 71 spore (Basidiomycota) and 121 pollen (Pinales, Fagales and Poales) samples. Along with fresh basidiospores, the study has been conducted on the archived samples collected within the last 50 years.</p><p>Results</p><p>The spectroscopic-based methodology enables clear spectral differentiation between pollen and spores, as well as the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. In addition, the analysis of the scattering signals inherent in the infrared spectra indicates that the FTIR methodology offers indirect estimation of morphology of pollen and spores. The analysis of fresh and archived spores shows that chemical composition of spores is well preserved even after decades of storage, including the characteristic taxonomy-related signals. Therefore, biochemical analysis of fungal spores by FTIR could provide economical, reliable and timely methodologies for improving fungal taxonomy, as well as for fungal identification and monitoring. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using FTIR as a rapid tool in aeroallergen studies. In addition, the presented method is ready to be immediately implemented in biological and ecological studies for direct measurement of pollen and spores from flowers and sporocarps.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375980, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterizing_Aeroallergens_by_Infrared_Spectroscopy_of_Fungal_Spores_and_Pollen_/1375980", "title"=>"Characterizing Aeroallergens by Infrared Spectroscopy of Fungal Spores and Pollen", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015505"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) FTIR spectra of <i>Poa pratensis</i>: recorded spectrum (green), scatter estimate with constant, linear, quadratic, and cubic terms (blue), and EMSC corrected spectrum (red) (multiplicative parameter <i>b</i> for <i>Poa pratensis</i> is 1.65); Savitzky–Golay smoothing (quadratic polynomial with window size 11) was obtained prior to EMSC correction with weighting vector. (<b>B</b>) EMSC parameters, and (<b>C</b>) scatter estimates for 10 <i>Poaceae</i> (blue) and 10 <i>Cyperaceae</i> spectra (red). (<b>D</b>) plot for linear and quadratic EMSC parameters for measured samples: Cyperaceae (Cyp), Poaceae (Poa), Cupressaceae (Cup), Pinaceae (Pin), Fagaceae (Fag), Betulaceae (Bet), <i>Geastrum</i> (Gea), <i>Lycoperdon</i> (Lyc), and <i>Scleroderma</i> (Scl).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375976, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Separation_of_physical_and_chemical_information_in_spectra_of_pollen_and_spores_/1375976", "title"=>"Separation of physical and chemical information in spectra of pollen and spores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015503"], "description"=>"<p>PCA plot of IR spectral data set of fresh spores (three spectra per sample; MSC corrected spectra), with depiction of fungal genera and species. The percent variances for the first five PCs are 72.53, 17.94, 3.69, 2.56 and 1.16. (B) Loadings plot on the first two principal component of the PCA; the marked signals (L) are associated with vibrational bands of lipids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375974, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_spectra_belonging_to_fresh_spores_/1375974", "title"=>"Analysis of spectra belonging to fresh spores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015500"], "description"=>"<p>FTIR spectra of representative samples of <i>Geastrum triplex</i>, <i>Lycoperdon perlatum</i> and <i>Scleroderma citrinum</i> spores. For better viewing the spectra are offset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375971, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Infrared_spectra_of_fungal_spores_/1375971", "title"=>"Infrared spectra of fungal spores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015494"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) spores of <i>Geastrum fimbriatum</i> and <i>Lycoperdon pyriforme</i>; (<b>B</b>) Pinales pollen of <i>Abies cephalonica</i> (Pinaceae) and <i>Cupressus sempervirens</i> (Cupressaceae); (<b>C</b>) Fagales pollen of <i>Quercus robur</i> (Fagaceae) and <i>Carpinus betulus</i> (Betulaceae); (<b>D</b>) Poales pollen of <i>Bromus erectus</i> (Poaceae) and <i>Carex pendula</i> (Cyperaceae). The spectral set was normalized by MSC (with weighting vector).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375965, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_FTIR_spectra_of_representative_samples_of_spores_and_pollen_/1375965", "title"=>"FTIR spectra of representative samples of spores and pollen.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015493"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) <i>Abies cephalonica</i> (Pinaceae), equatorial view; (<b>B</b>) <i>Cupressus sempervirens</i> (Cupressaceae), polar view; (<b>C</b>) <i>Quercus robur</i> (Fagaceae), polar view; (<b>D</b>) <i>Carpinus betulus</i> (Betulaceae), polar view; (<b>E</b>) <i>Bromus erectus</i> (Poaceae), equatorial view; (<b>F</b>) <i>Carex pendula</i> (Cyperaceae), equatorial view.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375964, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microscope_image_of_pollens_/1375964", "title"=>"Microscope image of pollens.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015507"], "description"=>"<p>PCA plot of IR spectral data set of fresh (2010) and old spores (three spectra per sample; MSC corrected spectra), with depiction of fungal species (● <i>Lycoperdon</i>, ■ <i>Geastrum</i>, ♦ <i>Scleroderma</i>) and year of archiving. The percent variances for the first five PCs are 67.09, 15.22, 6.73, 2.32 and 1.29. (B) Loadings plot on the third principal component of the PCA. (C) IR spectra of oleic acid and phosphatidioleylcholine.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375978, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_spectra_belonging_to_fresh_and_old_spores_/1375978", "title"=>"Analysis of spectra belonging to fresh and old spores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015488"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) <i>Geastrum fimbriatum</i>; (<b>B</b>) <i>Geastrum triplex</i>; (<b>C</b>) <i>Lycoperdon perlatum</i>; (<b>D</b>) <i>Lycoperdon pyriforme</i>; (<b>E</b>) <i>Scleroderma areolatum</i>; (<b>F</b>) <i>Scleroderma citrinum</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375959, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microscope_image_of_fungal_spores_/1375959", "title"=>"Microscope image of fungal spores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015501"], "description"=>"<p>HCA dendrogram of IR spectral data set of fresh spores (three spectra per sample; second derivative and EMSC corrected spectra), with depiction of fungal genera and species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375972, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cluster_analysis_of_spectra_belonging_to_fresh_spores_/1375972", "title"=>"Cluster analysis of spectra belonging to fresh spores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015498"], "description"=>"<p>PCA plot of IR spectral data set of fresh spores and Poales and Fagales pollen (three spectra per sample; MSC corrected spectra), with depiction of plant families and fungal genera. The percent variances for the first five PCs are 78.00, 9.95, 6.07, 1.69 and 0.97. (B) Loadings plot on the first two principal component of the PCA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375969, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_spectra_belonging_to_fresh_spores_and_Fagales_pollen_/1375969", "title"=>"Analysis of spectra belonging to fresh spores and Fagales pollen.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2015496"], "description"=>"<p>HCA dendrogram of IR spectral data set of fresh pollen and spores (three spectra per sample; second derivative and MSC corrected spectra) with depiction of plant families and fungal genera (Gea, <i>Geastrum</i>; Lyc, <i>Lycoperdon</i>; Scl, <i>Scleroderma</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Chemical composition", "aeroallergens.MethodologyThe study", "aeroallergen studies", "treatment strategies", "hypersensitivity pneumonitis", "121 pollen", "reflectance Fourier", "FTIR methodology", "Aeroallergen monitoring networks", "archived samples", "principle study", "71 spore", "Infrared spectroscopy", "reflectance attenuated", "Pollen BackgroundFungal spores", "plant pollen cause", "congeneric species", "archived spores", "Fungal spores", "analysis", "pollen samples"], "article_id"=>1375967, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Boris Zimmermann", "Zdenko Tkalčec", "Armin Mešić", "Achim Kohler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cluster_analysis_of_spectra_belonging_to_fresh_pollen_and_spores_/1375967", "title"=>"Cluster analysis of spectra belonging to fresh pollen and spores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-13 02:47:13"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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