Unexpected Interaction with Dispersed Crude Oil Droplets Drives Severe Toxicity in Atlantic Haddock Embryos
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{"title"=>"Unexpected interaction with dispersed crude oil droplets drives severe toxicity in atlantic haddock embryos", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Elin", "last_name"=>"Sørhus", "scopus_author_id"=>"26024875600"}, {"first_name"=>"Rolf B.", "last_name"=>"Edvardsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506903081"}, {"first_name"=>"Ørjan", "last_name"=>"Karlsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55941809100"}, {"first_name"=>"Trond", "last_name"=>"Nordtug", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602350585"}, {"first_name"=>"Terje", "last_name"=>"Van Der Meeren", "scopus_author_id"=>"56126857200"}, {"first_name"=>"Anders", "last_name"=>"Thorsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56251008700"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher", "last_name"=>"Harman", "scopus_author_id"=>"35237439600"}, {"first_name"=>"Sissel", "last_name"=>"Jentoft", "scopus_author_id"=>"8543887400"}, {"first_name"=>"Sonnich", "last_name"=>"Meier", "scopus_author_id"=>"14030404300"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84928674979", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0124376", "pui"=>"604050513", "pmid"=>"25923774", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84928674979", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"d46a55a6-615e-3ebd-998c-ebe269105da5", "abstract"=>"<p>The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (<italic>Melanogrammus aeglefinus</italic>). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of <italic>cyp1a</italic>, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/unexpected-interaction-dispersed-crude-oil-droplets-drives-severe-toxicity-atlantic-haddock-embryos", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>16, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>16}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045711", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045712", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045713", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045714", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045715", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045716", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045717", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045718", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045719"], "description"=>"<div><p>The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (<i>Melanogrammus aeglefinus</i>). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of <i>cyp1a</i>, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "petroleum compounds", "Oil Droplets Drives", "yolk sac edema", "crude oil cardiotoxicity", "water marine speices", "waterborne PAH concentrations", "waf", "Crude oil", "oil droplets", "marine fish embryos", "exposure", "lack bulk oil droplets"], "article_id"=>1398982, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elin Sørhus", "Rolf B. Edvardsen", "Ørjan Karlsen", "Trond Nordtug", "Terje van der Meeren", "Anders Thorsen", "Christopher Harman", "Sissel Jentoft", "Sonnich Meier"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>19, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unexpected_Interaction_with_Dispersed_Crude_Oil_Droplets_Drives_Severe_Toxicity_in_Atlantic_Haddock_Embryos_/1398982", "title"=>"Unexpected Interaction with Dispersed Crude Oil Droplets Drives Severe Toxicity in Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:51:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045669"], "description"=>"<p>(sum of 19 PAHs and C1–C3 alkylated isomers of naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and chrysene) at the exposure start and the exposure end. A detailed list of the PAHs included in the analysis are given in the supplementary information. The results are presented as average numbers (± SD) from one analysis from each of the 3 tanks from all treatments. The concentration in the pulse dose treatment was measured at the maximum of the pulse dose after 2.4 hours oil exposure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "petroleum compounds", "Oil Droplets Drives", "yolk sac edema", "crude oil cardiotoxicity", "water marine speices", "waterborne PAH concentrations", "waf", "Crude oil", "oil droplets", "marine fish embryos", "exposure", "lack bulk oil droplets"], "article_id"=>1398953, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elin Sørhus", "Rolf B. Edvardsen", "Ørjan Karlsen", "Trond Nordtug", "Terje van der Meeren", "Anders Thorsen", "Christopher Harman", "Sissel Jentoft", "Sonnich Meier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Water_analysis_of_total_hydrocarbon_THC_and_total_polyaromatic_hydrocarbons_/1398953", "title"=>"Water analysis of total hydrocarbon (THC) and total polyaromatic hydrocarbons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:51:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045670"], "description"=>"<p>Embryos after 4 days of exposure: (A) Control. (B) Low dose. (C) Pulse dose. (D) High dose. Arrows indicate examples where attraction of micro-droplets appears to be more pronounced. (E) Oil droplets seen on the chorion. (F) Oil droplets in oil dispersion stock solution. The stock solution was diluted 39 and 265 times to obtain high and low dose, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "petroleum compounds", "Oil Droplets Drives", "yolk sac edema", "crude oil cardiotoxicity", "water marine speices", "waterborne PAH concentrations", "waf", "Crude oil", "oil droplets", "marine fish embryos", "exposure", "lack bulk oil droplets"], "article_id"=>1398954, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elin Sørhus", "Rolf B. Edvardsen", "Ørjan Karlsen", "Trond Nordtug", "Terje van der Meeren", "Anders Thorsen", "Christopher Harman", "Sissel Jentoft", "Sonnich Meier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Attraction_of_micro_droplets_to_chorion_/1398954", "title"=>"Attraction of micro-droplets to chorion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:51:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045671"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Average number of hatching larvae after 7 days exposure at embryo stages (start incubation of 6000 embryo in each tank) and (B) Number of surviving larvae after 10 days of exogenous feeding (14 dph, total 18 days of exposure). The numbers in brackets indicate A. average hatching success in percent (±SD) and B. average larvae survival in percent after exogenous feeding (±SD). Asterisks indicate statistical significance difference to the control fish, p<0.01 = **.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "petroleum compounds", "Oil Droplets Drives", "yolk sac edema", "crude oil cardiotoxicity", "water marine speices", "waterborne PAH concentrations", "waf", "Crude oil", "oil droplets", "marine fish embryos", "exposure", "lack bulk oil droplets"], "article_id"=>1398955, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elin Sørhus", "Rolf B. Edvardsen", "Ørjan Karlsen", "Trond Nordtug", "Terje van der Meeren", "Anders Thorsen", "Christopher Harman", "Sissel Jentoft", "Sonnich Meier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fitness_observations_/1398955", "title"=>"Fitness observations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:51:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045672"], "description"=>"<p>Points shown as average (±SD). Asterisks indicate statistical significance difference to the control fish, p<0.05 = *, p<0.01 = **.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "petroleum compounds", "Oil Droplets Drives", "yolk sac edema", "crude oil cardiotoxicity", "water marine speices", "waterborne PAH concentrations", "waf", "Crude oil", "oil droplets", "marine fish embryos", "exposure", "lack bulk oil droplets"], "article_id"=>1398956, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elin Sørhus", "Rolf B. Edvardsen", "Ørjan Karlsen", "Trond Nordtug", "Terje van der Meeren", "Anders Thorsen", "Christopher Harman", "Sissel Jentoft", "Sonnich Meier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Length_curve_of_larvae_from_hatching_until_end_of_experiment_/1398956", "title"=>"Length curve of larvae from hatching until end of experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:51:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045673"], "description"=>"<p>One day post hatch, 7 days of exposure. (A) Control. (B) and (C) Low dose group. Abnormalities are indicated: Pericardial edema (P), yolk sac edema (Y), spinal curvature (S), craniofacial deformities (CD), jaw deformities (JD).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "petroleum compounds", "Oil Droplets Drives", "yolk sac edema", "crude oil cardiotoxicity", "water marine speices", "waterborne PAH concentrations", "waf", "Crude oil", "oil droplets", "marine fish embryos", "exposure", "lack bulk oil droplets"], "article_id"=>1398957, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elin Sørhus", "Rolf B. Edvardsen", "Ørjan Karlsen", "Trond Nordtug", "Terje van der Meeren", "Anders Thorsen", "Christopher Harman", "Sissel Jentoft", "Sonnich Meier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Abnormalities_resulting_from_embryonic_oil_exposure_/1398957", "title"=>"Abnormalities resulting from embryonic oil exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:51:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045674"], "description"=>"<p>0: No deformity, 1: Some deformity, 2: Significant deformity and 3: Severe deformity. The figure shows the combined score for all six deformity parameters. Statistical difference between the treatment groups and control were analysed using chi-square test and statistical difference is indicated by asterisk, p<0.01 = ** (Detailed distribution of the single deformities are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376#pone.0124376.s008\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Table</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "petroleum compounds", "Oil Droplets Drives", "yolk sac edema", "crude oil cardiotoxicity", "water marine speices", "waterborne PAH concentrations", "waf", "Crude oil", "oil droplets", "marine fish embryos", "exposure", "lack bulk oil droplets"], "article_id"=>1398958, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elin Sørhus", "Rolf B. Edvardsen", "Ørjan Karlsen", "Trond Nordtug", "Terje van der Meeren", "Anders Thorsen", "Christopher Harman", "Sissel Jentoft", "Sonnich Meier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_deformities_after_hatch_until_end_of_exposure_/1398958", "title"=>"Distribution of deformities after hatch until end of exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:51:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045682"], "description"=>"<p>The expression is relative to the 0-sample (10 dpf). Fourteen dpf was set as 50% hatching, however only embryos were analysed at this time point. Oil exposure ended at 14 dph. Points are shown as average <i>cyp1a</i> expression (±SD). There are statistical differences between all treatment groups and control at all time points, except between control and pulse dose groups at 15 dph (1 day post exposure stop), and control and both low dose and pulse dose at 17 dph. Asterisks indicate statistical significance difference to the control fish, p<0.05 = *, p<0.01 = **.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "petroleum compounds", "Oil Droplets Drives", "yolk sac edema", "crude oil cardiotoxicity", "water marine speices", "waterborne PAH concentrations", "waf", "Crude oil", "oil droplets", "marine fish embryos", "exposure", "lack bulk oil droplets"], "article_id"=>1398960, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elin Sørhus", "Rolf B. Edvardsen", "Ørjan Karlsen", "Trond Nordtug", "Terje van der Meeren", "Anders Thorsen", "Christopher Harman", "Sissel Jentoft", "Sonnich Meier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_relative_expression_of_cyp1a_in_control_low_dose_pulse_dose_and_high_dose_groups_at_various_sampling_points_/1398960", "title"=>"The relative expression of <i>cyp1a</i> in control, low dose, pulse dose and high dose groups at various sampling points.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:51:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045691"], "description"=>"<p>Only antisense hybridizations are shown. <b>A</b>: Control, <b>B</b>: Low dose, <b>C</b>: Pulse dose <b>D</b>: High dose. Organs indicated: gills (g), liver (l), intestine (i), vascular endothelial cells (n), kidney (k) and pancreas (p).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "petroleum compounds", "Oil Droplets Drives", "yolk sac edema", "crude oil cardiotoxicity", "water marine speices", "waterborne PAH concentrations", "waf", "Crude oil", "oil droplets", "marine fish embryos", "exposure", "lack bulk oil droplets"], "article_id"=>1398969, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elin Sørhus", "Rolf B. Edvardsen", "Ørjan Karlsen", "Trond Nordtug", "Terje van der Meeren", "Anders Thorsen", "Christopher Harman", "Sissel Jentoft", "Sonnich Meier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_situ_hybridization_of_larvae_for_cyp1a_at_8_dph_12_days_of_exposure_/1398969", "title"=>"<i>In situ</i> hybridization of larvae for <i>cyp1a</i> at 8 dph, 12 days of exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:51:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045692"], "description"=>"<p>A-D show an overview of larvae from the various treatment groups and control, with the liver boxed in and magnified. <b>A</b>: Control. <b>B</b>: Low dose. <b>C</b>: Pulse dose. <b>D</b>: High dose. The extended white areas in the livers of the exposed animals indicate lesions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atlantic Haddock Embryos", "petroleum compounds", "Oil Droplets Drives", "yolk sac edema", "crude oil cardiotoxicity", "water marine speices", "waterborne PAH concentrations", "waf", "Crude oil", "oil droplets", "marine fish embryos", "exposure", "lack bulk oil droplets"], "article_id"=>1398970, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elin Sørhus", "Rolf B. Edvardsen", "Ørjan Karlsen", "Trond Nordtug", "Terje van der Meeren", "Anders Thorsen", "Christopher Harman", "Sissel Jentoft", "Sonnich Meier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124376.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HES_staining_of_larvae_at_8_dph_12_days_of_exposure_/1398970", "title"=>"HES staining of larvae at 8 dph, 12 days of exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:51:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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