Morphologic and Aerodynamic Considerations Regarding the Plumed Seeds of Tragopogon pratensis and Their Implications for Seed Dispersal
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{"title"=>"Morphologic and aerodynamic considerations regarding the plumed seeds of Tragopogon pratensis and their implications for seed dispersal", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vincent", "last_name"=>"Casseau", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193932330"}, {"first_name"=>"Guido", "last_name"=>"De Croon", "scopus_author_id"=>"55885806600"}, {"first_name"=>"Dario", "last_name"=>"Izzo", "scopus_author_id"=>"16021918800"}, {"first_name"=>"Camilla", "last_name"=>"Pandolfi", "scopus_author_id"=>"23983029300"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"604276541", "sgr"=>"84929120466", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929120466", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0125040"}, "id"=>"44e8c3ac-cde2-32d0-ac91-2aec6183ec59", "abstract"=>"Tragopogon pratensis is a small herbaceous plant that uses wind as the dispersal vector for its seeds. The seeds are attached to parachutes that increase the aerodynamic drag force and increase the total distance travelled. Our hypothesis is that evolution has carefully tuned the air permeability of the seeds to operate in the most convenient fluid dynamic regime. To achieve final permeability, the primary and secondary fibres of the pappus have evolved with complex weaving; this maximises the drag force (i.e., the drag coefficient), and the pappus operates in an “optimal” state. We used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to compute the seed drag coefficient and compare it with data obtained from drop experiments. The permeability of the parachute was estimated from microscope images. Our simulations reveal three flow regimes in which the parachute can operate according to its permeability. These flow regimes impact the stability of the parachute and its drag coefficient. From the permeability measurements and drop experiments, we show how the seeds operate very close to the optimal case. The porosity of the textile appears to be an appropriate solution to achieve a lightweight structure that allows a low terminal velocity, a stable flight and a very efficient parachute for the velocity at which it operates.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/morphologic-aerodynamic-considerations-regarding-plumed-seeds-tragopogon-pratensis-implications-seed", "reader_count"=>12, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051118"], "description"=>"<p>(a-c) Streamlines for the three flow fields observed in the reference case. By controlling the rate of airflow passing through the parachute, the permeability greatly influences the flow dynamics in the wake region. (d-f) The stream-wise component of the velocity vector is reported for the three case scenarios in 3D computations. The cone is represented in black, and the airflow moves from left to right. Case A—An unsteady vortex flow, for <i>K</i> = 1.0 x 10<sup>–9</sup> m<sup>2</sup>, is shown at three time steps. The vortex shedding phenomenon is clearly visible (a, d); Case B—A steady vortex flow for two distinct time-steps (b, e). The negative values for the stream-wise velocity component just downstream the body (blue region) represent the recirculation area; Case C—Laminar shear flow for <i>K</i> = 6.0 x 10<sup>–9</sup> m<sup>2</sup> (c, f).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403332, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mathematical_modelling_/1403332", "title"=>"Mathematical modelling.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051121"], "description"=>"<p>Computations are run with steady (circles) or unsteady (triangles) flow hypotheses. Filled symbols represent tri-dimensional computations and are associated with the solid line. Unfilled symbols represent simulations run under axisymmetric assumptions and are connected with a dashed line. Both the solid and dashed lines show that the trend of the drag coefficient is a function of the permeability; the dashed line is constant along the radius of the cone and 22 degrees in angle. The free stream velocity is set to 0.3 m∙s<sup>-1</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403335, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CFD_simulations_for_2D_axisymmetric_and_3D_cones_a_reference_case_/1403335", "title"=>"CFD simulations for 2D axisymmetric and 3D cones, a reference case.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051123"], "description"=>"<p>Influence of the angle of the cone on drag coefficient as a function of permeability.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403337, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CFD_simulations_for_2D_axisymmetric_cone_/1403337", "title"=>"CFD simulations for 2D axisymmetric cone.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051124"], "description"=>"<p>The higher the permeability of the medium, the more pronounced the decreasing trend of the drag coefficient. For permeability equal to 2.0 x 10<sup>–9</sup> m<sup>2</sup>, the curve is almost a straight line (the dashed line is a linear extrapolation of the results).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403338, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_influence_of_the_free_stream_velocity_and_the_Reynolds_number_on_the_drag_coefficient_for_different_permeability_values_/1403338", "title"=>"The influence of the free stream velocity (and the Reynolds number) on the drag coefficient for different permeability values.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051126"], "description"=>"<p>Fruit mass and terminal velocities of <i>Tragopogon</i> spp. and <i>Taraxacum officinale</i> reported in the literature.</p><p><i>Tragopogon</i> spp. and <i>Taraxacum officinale</i>, a comparison table.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403340, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tragopogon_spp_and_Taraxacum_officinale_a_comparison_table_/1403340", "title"=>"<i>Tragopogon</i> spp. and <i>Taraxacum officinale</i>, a comparison table.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051127"], "description"=>"<p>The measured parameters for the central and peripheral seeds are reported in the table.</p><p><sup>(a)</sup> As there were no significant differences between the values for the central and peripheral parachutes, the data presented in this table are the means calculated for the data pulled from both types of parachute. These mean values were then used for the model.</p><p>Morphological and aerodynamical parameters of the collected seeds from <i>Tragopogon pratensis</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403341, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphological_and_aerodynamical_parameters_of_the_collected_seeds_from_Tragopogon_pratensis_/1403341", "title"=>"Morphological and aerodynamical parameters of the collected seeds from <i>Tragopogon pratensis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051129"], "description"=>"<p><sup>(a)</sup> n = 15 sections from 3 parachutes <i>p<0</i>.<i>05</i>.</p><p>Porosity and permeability values for the total area and for the three concentric regions of the parachutes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403343, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Porosity_and_permeability_values_for_the_total_area_and_for_the_three_concentric_regions_of_the_parachutes_/1403343", "title"=>"Porosity and permeability values for the total area and for the three concentric regions of the parachutes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051215", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051216", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051217", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051218", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051219", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051220", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051221", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051222", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051223", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051224"], "description"=>"<div><p><i>Tragopogon pratensis</i> is a small herbaceous plant that uses wind as the dispersal vector for its seeds. The seeds are attached to parachutes that increase the aerodynamic drag force and increase the total distance travelled. Our hypothesis is that evolution has carefully tuned the air permeability of the seeds to operate in the most convenient fluid dynamic regime. To achieve final permeability, the primary and secondary fibres of the pappus have evolved with complex weaving; this maximises the drag force (i.e., the drag coefficient), and the pappus operates in an “optimal” state. We used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to compute the seed drag coefficient and compare it with data obtained from drop experiments. The permeability of the parachute was estimated from microscope images. Our simulations reveal three flow regimes in which the parachute can operate according to its permeability. These flow regimes impact the stability of the parachute and its drag coefficient. From the permeability measurements and drop experiments, we show how the seeds operate very close to the optimal case. The porosity of the textile appears to be an appropriate solution to achieve a lightweight structure that allows a low terminal velocity, a stable flight and a very efficient parachute for the velocity at which it operates.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403409, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>21, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Morphologic_and_Aerodynamic_Considerations_Regarding_the_Plumed_Seeds_of_Tragopogon_pratensis_and_Their_Implications_for_Seed_Dispersal/1403409", "title"=>"Morphologic and Aerodynamic Considerations Regarding the Plumed Seeds of <i>Tragopogon pratensis</i> and Their Implications for Seed Dispersal", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051107"], "description"=>"<p>(a) A collected <i>capitulum</i>; the white arrows point at the central and peripheral achenes, whose difference in size is evident. (b) A parachute unfolded between two glass slides. The black lines in the background indicate the three concentric regions analysed (0–5 mm; 5–10 mm; 10–15 mm). (c-d) Inverted microscope image of a portion of the parachute before (c) and after (d) the transformation to a binary image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403321, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_the_capitulum_and_the_single_parachutes_of_Tragopogon_pratensis_/1403321", "title"=>"Details of the <i>capitulum</i> and the single parachutes of <i>Tragopogon pratensis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051111"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Hierarchical arrangement of the fibres; (b) Cross-section of a primary rib showing its internal hollow structure; (c-e) Details of the complex weaving of the secondary fibres; (f) Hook at the end of the rib that may serve as a means of secondary dispersal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403325, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scanning_electron_images_of_the_parachute_/1403325", "title"=>"Scanning electron images of the parachute.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2051113"], "description"=>"<p>When a drop of water is placed at the centre of the parachute, it rapidly closes; the parachute resumes its original status when it is dry again.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parachute", "permeability", "simulation", "flow regimes impact", "Seed Dispersal Tragopogon pratensis", "fluid", "pappu", "drop experiments", "cfd", "seed drag coefficient", "drag force", "velocity"], "article_id"=>1403327, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vincent Casseau", "Guido De Croon", "Dario Izzo", "Camilla Pandolfi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125040.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parachute_closure_due_to_changes_in_humidity_/1403327", "title"=>"Parachute closure due to changes in humidity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 04:01:21"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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