Increased Vertical Impact Forces and Altered Running Mechanics with Softer Midsole Shoes
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{"title"=>"Increased vertical impact forces and altered running mechanics with softer midsole shoes", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jennifer", "last_name"=>"Baltich", "scopus_author_id"=>"36242889300"}, {"first_name"=>"Christian", "last_name"=>"Maurer", "scopus_author_id"=>"14024558200"}, {"first_name"=>"Benno M.", "last_name"=>"Nigg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004977485"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929493571", "pui"=>"604107318", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0125196", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84929493571", "pmid"=>"25897963"}, "id"=>"b03c1e8b-758e-31e5-9fc7-148ccd4a11d4", "abstract"=>"To date it has been thought that shoe midsole hardness does not affect vertical impact peak forces during running. This conclusion is based partially on results from experimental data using homogeneous samples of participants that found no difference in vertical impact peaks when running in shoes with different midsole properties. However, it is currently unknown how apparent joint stiffness is affected by shoe midsole hardness. An increase in apparent joint stiffness could result in a harder landing, which should result in increased vertical impact peaks during running. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of shoe midsole hardness on apparent ankle and knee joint stiffness and the associated vertical ground reaction force for age and sex subgroups during heel-toe running. 93 runners (male and female) aged 16-75 years ran at 3.33 ± 0.15 m/s on a 30 m-long runway with soft, medium and hard midsole shoes. The vertical impact peak increased as the shoe midsole hardness decreased (mean(SE); soft: 1.70BW(0.03), medium: 1.64BW(0.03), hard: 1.54BW(0.03)). Similar results were found for the apparent ankle joint stiffness where apparent stiffness increased as the shoe midsole hardness decreased (soft: 2.08BWm/º x 100 (0.05), medium: 1.92 BWm/º x 100 (0.05), hard: 1.85 BWm/º x 100 (0.05)). Apparent knee joint stiffness increased for soft (1.06BWm/º x 100 (0.04)) midsole compared to the medium (0.95BWm/º x 100 (0.04)) and hard (0.96BWm/º x 100 (0.04)) midsoles for female participants. The results from this study confirm that shoe midsole hardness can have an effect on vertical impact force peaks and that this may be connected to the hardness of the landing. The results from this study may provide useful information regarding the development of cushioning guidelines for running shoes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/increased-vertical-impact-forces-altered-running-mechanics-softer-midsole-shoes", "reader_count"=>92, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>19, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>19, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Engineering"=>5, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>46, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>16}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>46}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "China"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2031449"], "description"=>"<p>Frontal view of retro-reflective marker placement on the shoe, shank, thigh and pelvis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact peak forces", "bw", "bwm", "shoe midsole hardness", "Vertical Impact Forces", "stiffness", "medium", "ground reaction force", "impact peaks", "impact force peaks"], "article_id"=>1387573, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jennifer Baltich", "Christian Maurer", "Benno M. Nigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125196.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Marker_Set_Up_/1387573", "title"=>"Marker Set Up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-21 03:27:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2031451"], "description"=>"<p>A) Illustration of apparent ankle joint stiffness (stiffness = slope), and B) vertical force during running highlighting the impact peak during the first part of stance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact peak forces", "bw", "bwm", "shoe midsole hardness", "Vertical Impact Forces", "stiffness", "medium", "ground reaction force", "impact peaks", "impact force peaks"], "article_id"=>1387575, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jennifer Baltich", "Christian Maurer", "Benno M. Nigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125196.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Methods_/1387575", "title"=>"Methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-21 03:27:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2031452"], "description"=>"<p>Average vertical impact peak force (mean ± SEM) for the soft (blue), medium (red) and hard (green) midsole shoes for the female participants (left) and male participants (right). Significant differences were found between soft, medium and hard midsole shoes. Covariates were evaluated at the following values: weight = 66.7kg, Height = 170.9cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact peak forces", "bw", "bwm", "shoe midsole hardness", "Vertical Impact Forces", "stiffness", "medium", "ground reaction force", "impact peaks", "impact force peaks"], "article_id"=>1387576, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jennifer Baltich", "Christian Maurer", "Benno M. Nigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125196.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vertical_Impact_Peak_/1387576", "title"=>"Vertical Impact Peak.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-21 03:27:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2031453"], "description"=>"<p>Average apparent ankle joint stiffness (mean ± SEM) for the soft (blue), medium (red) and hard (green) midsole shoes for the female participants (left) and male participants (right). Significant differences were found between soft, medium and hard midsole shoes. Covariates were evaluated at the following values: weight = 66.7kg, Height = 170.9cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact peak forces", "bw", "bwm", "shoe midsole hardness", "Vertical Impact Forces", "stiffness", "medium", "ground reaction force", "impact peaks", "impact force peaks"], "article_id"=>1387577, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jennifer Baltich", "Christian Maurer", "Benno M. Nigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125196.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Apparent_Ankle_Stiffness_/1387577", "title"=>"Apparent Ankle Stiffness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-21 03:27:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2031454"], "description"=>"<p>Average apparent knee joint stiffness (mean ± SEM) for the soft (blue), medium (red) and hard (green) midsole shoes for the female participants (left) and male participants (right). Significant differences were found between the soft midsole and the medium and hard midsoles for the female participants and between the soft midsole and the medium midsole for the male participants. Covariates were evaluated at the following values: weight = 66.7kg, Height = 170.9cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact peak forces", "bw", "bwm", "shoe midsole hardness", "Vertical Impact Forces", "stiffness", "medium", "ground reaction force", "impact peaks", "impact force peaks"], "article_id"=>1387578, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jennifer Baltich", "Christian Maurer", "Benno M. Nigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125196.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Apparent_Knee_Stiffness_/1387578", "title"=>"Apparent Knee Stiffness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-21 03:27:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2031455"], "description"=>"<p>Subject characteristics for each sex and age subgroup used in this study.</p><p>Subject characteristics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact peak forces", "bw", "bwm", "shoe midsole hardness", "Vertical Impact Forces", "stiffness", "medium", "ground reaction force", "impact peaks", "impact force peaks"], "article_id"=>1387579, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jennifer Baltich", "Christian Maurer", "Benno M. Nigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125196.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subject_characteristics_/1387579", "title"=>"Subject characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-21 03:27:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2031456"], "description"=>"<p>Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation (SE)) for the variables tested.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact peak forces", "bw", "bwm", "shoe midsole hardness", "Vertical Impact Forces", "stiffness", "medium", "ground reaction force", "impact peaks", "impact force peaks"], "article_id"=>1387580, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jennifer Baltich", "Christian Maurer", "Benno M. Nigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125196.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistics_/1387580", "title"=>"Statistics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-21 03:27:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2031459"], "description"=>"<div><p>To date it has been thought that shoe midsole hardness does not affect vertical impact peak forces during running. This conclusion is based partially on results from experimental data using homogeneous samples of participants that found no difference in vertical impact peaks when running in shoes with different midsole properties. However, it is currently unknown how apparent joint stiffness is affected by shoe midsole hardness. An increase in apparent joint stiffness could result in a harder landing, which should result in increased vertical impact peaks during running. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of shoe midsole hardness on apparent ankle and knee joint stiffness and the associated vertical ground reaction force for age and sex subgroups during heel-toe running. 93 runners (male and female) aged 16-75 years ran at 3.33 ± 0.15 m/s on a 30 m-long runway with soft, medium and hard midsole shoes. The vertical impact peak increased as the shoe midsole hardness decreased (mean(SE); soft: 1.70BW(0.03), medium: 1.64BW(0.03), hard: 1.54BW(0.03)). Similar results were found for the apparent ankle joint stiffness where apparent stiffness increased as the shoe midsole hardness decreased (soft: 2.08BWm/º x 100 (0.05), medium: 1.92 BWm/º x 100 (0.05), hard: 1.85 BWm/º x 100 (0.05)). Apparent knee joint stiffness increased for soft (1.06BWm/º x 100 (0.04)) midsole compared to the medium (0.95BWm/º x 100 (0.04)) and hard (0.96BWm/º x 100 (0.04)) midsoles for female participants. The results from this study confirm that shoe midsole hardness can have an effect on vertical impact force peaks and that this may be connected to the hardness of the landing. The results from this study may provide useful information regarding the development of cushioning guidelines for running shoes.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impact peak forces", "bw", "bwm", "shoe midsole hardness", "Vertical Impact Forces", "stiffness", "medium", "ground reaction force", "impact peaks", "impact force peaks"], "article_id"=>1387582, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jennifer Baltich", "Christian Maurer", "Benno M. Nigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125196", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Increased_Vertical_Impact_Forces_and_Altered_Running_Mechanics_with_Softer_Midsole_Shoes_/1387582", "title"=>"Increased Vertical Impact Forces and Altered Running Mechanics with Softer Midsole Shoes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-21 03:27:55"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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