Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti
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{"title"=>"Ascaris and Escherichia coli inactivation in an ecological sanitation system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Berendes", "scopus_author_id"=>"24449065600"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen", "last_name"=>"Levy", "scopus_author_id"=>"35576075400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jackie", "last_name"=>"Knee", "scopus_author_id"=>"56461162300"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Handzel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603189759"}, {"first_name"=>"Vincent R.", "last_name"=>"Hill", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006940086"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"604058388", "sgr"=>"84928797805", "pmid"=>"25932948", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84928797805", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0125336", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"1cc6a05b-f013-3d63-9db7-fa95a4329a37", "abstract"=>"The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0 - 12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 degrees C, while corner temperatures were 10 - 20 degrees C lower. Moisture content was 67 +/- 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g-1 dry weight). In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ascaris-escherichia-coli-inactivation-ecological-sanitation-system-portauprince-haiti", "reader_count"=>33, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>6, "Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2048757"], "description"=>"<p>Example of a SOIL compost bin, showing sampling locations and depths. Samples were collected in all bins from the a) center and b) northwest corner. Samples were also collected from the c) northeast and southeast corners in the bin with newly added latrine waste (Bin 1). The southwest corner was not sampled due to a lack of compost at the opening.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["142 MPN g", "corner", "Escherichia coli Inactivation", "latrine waste composting system", "compost bin centers", "viability", "content", "Ecological Sanitation System", "lod", "sample", "Haitian EcoSan composting process", "Ascaris spp", "depth"], "article_id"=>1401376, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["David Berendes", "Karen Levy", "Jackie Knee", "Thomas Handzel", "Vincent R. Hill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125336.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Compost_bin_sampling_locations_/1401376", "title"=>"Compost bin sampling locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-01 03:47:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2048758"], "description"=>"<p>Temperature measurements are presented for two locations—the center (dashed line) and the corner (solid line)—of each compost bin. a) Longitudinal temperature measurements over the first 14 days of filling of Bin 1; b) Cross-sectional temperature measurements of bins filled 15–330 days prior to sampling (Bins 2–10).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["142 MPN g", "corner", "Escherichia coli Inactivation", "latrine waste composting system", "compost bin centers", "viability", "content", "Ecological Sanitation System", "lod", "sample", "Haitian EcoSan composting process", "Ascaris spp", "depth"], "article_id"=>1401377, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["David Berendes", "Karen Levy", "Jackie Knee", "Thomas Handzel", "Vincent R. Hill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125336.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Compost_temperatures_by_time_since_end_of_bin_filling_/1401377", "title"=>"Compost temperatures by time since end of bin filling.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-01 03:47:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2048759"], "description"=>"<p>Concentration of <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> in compost was measured as the geometric mean of multiple dilutions (MPN g<sup>-1</sup> dry weight, log-transformed). Concentrations were measured in compost samples taken at depths of 20 cm (dashed lines) and 45 cm (solid lines) in center (black, squares) and corner (gray, diamonds) locations. (a) Baseline and Longitudinal Samples: Baseline <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> concentration at Day 0 is an average of five untreated latrine waste samples. Additionally, Bin 1 was sampled 5 times longitudinally over the first 14 days of filling. (b) Cross-sectional samples were taken from Bins 2–10, which represented different ages of compost. ‘Final’ compost (represented as 360 days) was sampled twice and averaged.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["142 MPN g", "corner", "Escherichia coli Inactivation", "latrine waste composting system", "compost bin centers", "viability", "content", "Ecological Sanitation System", "lod", "sample", "Haitian EcoSan composting process", "Ascaris spp", "depth"], "article_id"=>1401378, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["David Berendes", "Karen Levy", "Jackie Knee", "Thomas Handzel", "Vincent R. Hill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125336.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentration_of_E_coli_in_compost_/1401378", "title"=>"Concentration of <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> in compost.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-01 03:47:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2048760"], "description"=>"<p>*Untreated samples were taken directly from latrine waste collection containers prior to filling compost bin</p><p>**Final compost samples were collected directly from bags prior to sale</p><p>Sampling Frequencies and Locations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["142 MPN g", "corner", "Escherichia coli Inactivation", "latrine waste composting system", "compost bin centers", "viability", "content", "Ecological Sanitation System", "lod", "sample", "Haitian EcoSan composting process", "Ascaris spp", "depth"], "article_id"=>1401379, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["David Berendes", "Karen Levy", "Jackie Knee", "Thomas Handzel", "Vincent R. Hill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125336.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sampling_Frequencies_and_Locations_/1401379", "title"=>"Sampling Frequencies and Locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-01 03:47:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2048761"], "description"=>"<p>Note: Intermediate samples are abbreviated “Int.”</p><p><sup>†</sup>One sample excluded due to TFTC;</p><p><sup>‡</sup>Two samples excluded due to TFTC</p><p><i>Ascaris</i> spp. viability profile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["142 MPN g", "corner", "Escherichia coli Inactivation", "latrine waste composting system", "compost bin centers", "viability", "content", "Ecological Sanitation System", "lod", "sample", "Haitian EcoSan composting process", "Ascaris spp", "depth"], "article_id"=>1401380, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["David Berendes", "Karen Levy", "Jackie Knee", "Thomas Handzel", "Vincent R. Hill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125336.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ascaris_spp_viability_profile_/1401380", "title"=>"<i>Ascaris</i> spp. viability profile.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-01 03:47:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2048763", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2048764"], "description"=>"<div><p>The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0 – 12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> concentration, and <i>Ascaris</i> spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 – 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g<sup>-1</sup> dry weight). In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of <i>Ascaris</i> eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating <i>E</i>. <i>coli </i>and <i>Ascaris</i> spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["142 MPN g", "corner", "Escherichia coli Inactivation", "latrine waste composting system", "compost bin centers", "viability", "content", "Ecological Sanitation System", "lod", "sample", "Haitian EcoSan composting process", "Ascaris spp", "depth"], "article_id"=>1401382, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["David Berendes", "Karen Levy", "Jackie Knee", "Thomas Handzel", "Vincent R. Hill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125336.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125336.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ascaris_and_Escherichia_coli_Inactivation_in_an_Ecological_Sanitation_System_in_Port_au_Prince_Haiti/1401382", "title"=>"<i>Ascaris</i> and <i>Escherichia coli</i> Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-05-01 03:47:06"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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