Understanding Fossil Phytolith Preservation: The Role of Partial Dissolution in Paleoecology and Archaeology
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{"title"=>"Understanding fossil phytolith preservation: The role of partial dissolution in paleoecology and archaeology", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dan", "last_name"=>"Cabanes", "scopus_author_id"=>"12772850500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ruth", "last_name"=>"Shahack-Gross", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602936767"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"604612751", "sgr"=>"84930666099", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25993338", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84930666099", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0125532", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"49253712-0c97-3a44-b7c7-1fad6d9821ff", "abstract"=>"Opaline phytoliths are important microfossils used for paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions that are primarily based on relative ratios of specific morphotypes. Recent studies have shown that phytolith assemblages are prone to post-depositional alteration involving partial dissolution, however, the manner in which partial dissolution affects morphotype composition is poorly understood. Here we show that morphotype assemblages from four different plant species subjected to controlled partial dissolution are significantly different from the original assemblages, indicating that the stability of various morphotypes differs, mainly depending on their surface area to bulk ratios. This underlying mechanism produces distorted morphotype compositions in partially dissolved phytolith assemblages, bearing vast implications for morphotype-based paleoecological and archaeological interpretation. Together with analyses of phytolith assemblages from a variety of archaeological sites, our results establish criteria by which well-preserved phytolith assemblages can be selected for accurate paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/understanding-fossil-phytolith-preservation-role-partial-dissolution-paleoecology-archaeology", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Arts and Humanities"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>9, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076707"], "description"=>"<p>Changes in the absolute contenctrations (left axis) and relative proportions (right axis) in two examples of plant phytoliths studied: most abundant morphotypes in two examples from the phytolith assemblages studied: <b>a,</b> Rice inflorescence. <b>b,</b> Date palm leaf. Light grey bars: initial phytolith concentration (number in 1mg opal powder); dark grey bars: final phytolith concentration (number in 1mg opal powder); circles: initial relative abundance (%); squares: final relative abundance (%). Error bars indicate 1σ standard deviation between duplicates. Note that the absolute concentration of phytoliths, as well as the relative abundance of morphotypes may either decrease, increase or stay unchanged, with all combinations possible. This attests for differential stability of morphotypes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dissolution", "paleoecological", "Fossil Phytolith Preservation", "Archaeology Opaline phytoliths", "morphotype", "phytolith assemblages"], "article_id"=>1421424, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dan Cabanes", "Ruth Shahack-Gross"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_absolute_concentrations_and_relative_proportions_of_the_most_abundant_phytolith_morphotypes_/1421424", "title"=>"Changes in absolute concentrations and relative proportions of the most abundant phytolith morphotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-20 04:00:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076708"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars indicate 1σ standard deviation among several measured individual phytoliths of the same morphotype (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532#pone.0125532.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>). The relatively large variation reflects the natural variability in phytolith sizes. Values above 1 indicate relatively unstable morphotypes while values below 1 indicate relatively stable morphotypes. Note that the same morphotype (e.g., psilate parallelpipedal elongated, here denoted as P.E. psilate) may have very different SA/V ratio in different plant parts (or in different plant species, e.g., bilobate short cells from rice leaves vs. reed leaves), depending on their overall size—the larger the morphotype the lower its SA/V value and the higher its stability. This observation indicates that bulkiness, as affected by size, are important factors determining the stability of phytolith morphotypes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dissolution", "paleoecological", "Fossil Phytolith Preservation", "Archaeology Opaline phytoliths", "morphotype", "phytolith assemblages"], "article_id"=>1421425, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dan Cabanes", "Ruth Shahack-Gross"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Calculated_surface_area_to_bulk_SA_V_ratios_for_selected_morphotypes_in_the_various_modern_plant_assemblages_/1421425", "title"=>"Calculated surface area to bulk (SA/V) ratios for selected morphotypes in the various modern plant assemblages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-20 04:00:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076703"], "description"=>"<p>Solubility was determined at pH 10 after the solutions reached saturation with respect to Si. The percentage of weight loss shows that the experimental conditions resulted in partial dissolution of the phytolith assemblages. Error bars indicate 1σ standard deviation between duplicates. Cross: sedge inflorescence; triangle: reed leaf; diamond: rice inflorescence; circle: palm leaf; square: rice leaf.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dissolution", "paleoecological", "Fossil Phytolith Preservation", "Archaeology Opaline phytoliths", "morphotype", "phytolith assemblages"], "article_id"=>1421420, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dan Cabanes", "Ruth Shahack-Gross"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_solubility_of_phytolith_assemblages_extracted_by_dry_ashing_from_modern_fresh_plant_samples_/1421420", "title"=>"The solubility of phytolith assemblages extracted by dry ashing from modern fresh plant samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-20 04:00:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076705"], "description"=>"<p>Open diamonds: modern plants (this study and wheat from Cabanes <i>et al</i>.[<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532#pone.0125532.ref027\" target=\"_blank\">27</a>]). Squares: 7<sup>th</sup> century AD assemblages from the shallowly buried site of Wadi el-Mustayer, Negev desert, Israel [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532#pone.0125532.ref040\" target=\"_blank\">40</a>]. Circles: 9<sup>th</sup> century BCE assemblages from the deeply buried site of Tell es-Safi/Gath, southern Shephela, Israel. Triangle: 10<sup>th</sup> century BCE assemblage from the deeply buried site of Tel Dor, northern coast, Israel [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532#pone.0125532.ref027\" target=\"_blank\">27</a>]. Full diamonds: 11<sup>th</sup> century BCE assemblages from the shallowly buried site of Izbet Sartah, western Samarian hills, Israel [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532#pone.0125532.ref037\" target=\"_blank\">37</a>]. Star: 9<sup>th</sup>-mid 8<sup>th</sup> millennia BCE assemblages from the deeply buried site of Aşıklı Höyük, Anatolia, Turkey. Note that high solubility at pH 10 indicates better preservation as solubility is closer to that of modern plant assemblages. The lowest values, indicating poor preservation, were obtained from shallowly buried sites from humid Mediterranean environments. The highest values, indicating good preservation, were obtained from deeply buried sites in various environmental settings with no relation to antiquity. Exceptional good preservation is noticed in shallowly buried sites in arid environments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dissolution", "paleoecological", "Fossil Phytolith Preservation", "Archaeology Opaline phytoliths", "morphotype", "phytolith assemblages"], "article_id"=>1421422, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dan Cabanes", "Ruth Shahack-Gross"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_solubility_at_pH_10_among_modern_and_ancient_phytolith_assemblages_in_relation_to_antiquity_/1421422", "title"=>"Comparison of solubility at pH 10 among modern and ancient phytolith assemblages in relation to antiquity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-20 04:00:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076716", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076717", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076718", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076719", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076720", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076721", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2076722"], "description"=>"<div><p>Opaline phytoliths are important microfossils used for paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions that are primarily based on relative ratios of specific morphotypes. Recent studies have shown that phytolith assemblages are prone to post-depositional alteration involving partial dissolution, however, the manner in which partial dissolution affects morphotype composition is poorly understood. Here we show that morphotype assemblages from four different plant species subjected to controlled partial dissolution are significantly different from the original assemblages, indicating that the stability of various morphotypes differs, mainly depending on their surface area to bulk ratios. This underlying mechanism produces distorted morphotype compositions in partially dissolved phytolith assemblages, bearing vast implications for morphotype-based paleoecological and archaeological interpretation. Together with analyses of phytolith assemblages from a variety of archaeological sites, our results establish criteria by which well-preserved phytolith assemblages can be selected for accurate paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dissolution", "paleoecological", "Fossil Phytolith Preservation", "Archaeology Opaline phytoliths", "morphotype", "phytolith assemblages"], "article_id"=>1421433, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dan Cabanes", "Ruth Shahack-Gross"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125532.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>21, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Understanding_Fossil_Phytolith_Preservation_The_Role_of_Partial_Dissolution_in_Paleoecology_and_Archaeology_/1421433", "title"=>"Understanding Fossil Phytolith Preservation: The Role of Partial Dissolution in Paleoecology and Archaeology", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-05-20 04:00:44"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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