Effects of Airgun Sounds on Bowhead Whale Calling Rates: Evidence for Two Behavioral Thresholds
Publication Date
June 03, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Susanna B. Blackwell, Christopher S. Nations, Trent L. Mc Donald, Aaron M. Thode, et al
Volume
10
Issue
6
Pages
e0125720
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0125720
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26039218
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4454580
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26039218
Web of Science
000355700700011
Scopus
84931281787
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-airgun-sounds-bowhead-whale-calling-rates-evidence-two-behavioral-thresholds
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Effects of airgun sounds on bowhead whale calling rates: Evidence for two behavioral thresholds", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Susanna B.", "last_name"=>"Blackwell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005821072"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher S.", "last_name"=>"Nations", "scopus_author_id"=>"36450899200"}, {"first_name"=>"Trent L.", "last_name"=>"McDonald", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401593479"}, {"first_name"=>"Aaron M.", "last_name"=>"Thode", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701619411"}, {"first_name"=>"Delphine", "last_name"=>"Mathias", "scopus_author_id"=>"26427713500"}, {"first_name"=>"Katherine H.", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"54880344200"}, {"first_name"=>"Charles R.", "last_name"=>"Greene", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202136222"}, {"first_name"=>"A. Michael", "last_name"=>"Macrander", "scopus_author_id"=>"55312625800"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84931281787", "pmid"=>"26039218", "pui"=>"604840473", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1748-7692", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84931281787", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0125720"}, "id"=>"46b5245f-3162-3b14-acb2-3f334f7fae76", "abstract"=>"Abstract In proximity to seismic operations, bowhead whales (Balaenamysticetus) decrease their call- ing rates. Here, we investigate the transition fromnormal calling behavior to decreased call- ing and identify two threshold levels of received sound from airgun pulses at which calling behavior changes. Data were collected in August–October 2007–2010, during the westward autumn migration in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.Up to 40 directional acoustic recorders (DASARs) were deployed at five sites offshore of the Alaskan North Slope. Using triangula- tion, whale calls localized within 2 km of eachDASARwere identified and tallied every 10 minutes each season, so that the detected call rate could be interpreted as the actual call pro- duction rate.Moreover, airgun pulses were identified on eachDASAR, analyzed, and a cu- mulative sound exposure level was computed for each 10-min period each season (CSEL10- min). A Poisson regression model was used to examine the relationship between the received CSEL10-min from airguns and the number of detected bowhead calls. Calling rates increased as soon as airgun pulses were detectable, compared to calling rates in the absence of airgun pulses. After the initial increase, calling rates leveled off at a received CSEL10-min of ~94 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the lower threshold). In contrast, once CSEL10-min exceeded ~127 dB re 1 μPa2- s (the upper threshold), whale calling rates began decreasing, and when CSEL10-min values were above ~160 dB re 1 μPa2-s, the whales were virtually silent.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-airgun-sounds-bowhead-whale-calling-rates-evidence-two-behavioral-thresholds", "reader_count"=>125, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>37, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>12, "Student > Master"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>37, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>12, "Student > Master"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>36, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>36}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>2, "Canada"=>1, "French Guiana"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Iceland"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093971"], "description"=>"<p>The analysis cells are circular areas of radius 2 km centered on the mean DASAR locations, shown with a black triangle. In 2008 records were not obtained at locations 4A and 4D (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>) so those cells are omitted from the figure. In 2010 all deployed DASARs at site 4 locations (A-I) yielded usable records.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435328, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_analysis_cells_for_site_4_in_2008_top_and_2010_bottom_/1435328", "title"=>"Examples of analysis cells for site 4 in 2008 (top) and 2010 (bottom).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093980"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> See Fig 3.19 in [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.ref036\" target=\"_blank\">36</a>]</p><p><sup>b</sup> See Fig 3.21 in [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.ref036\" target=\"_blank\">36</a>]</p><p><sup>c</sup> See Fig 55 in [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.ref031\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>]</p><p><sup>d</sup> See Fig 57 in [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.ref031\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>]</p><p><sup>e</sup> These distances were visually interpolated or extrapolated from the figures listed above. They are very coarse and only intended to provide a rough-order estimate of distances.</p><p>This table uses empirical data collected during sound source characterizations (SSCs) in the same study area in 2007 and 2008 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.ref036\" target=\"_blank\">36</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.ref031\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>]. Note that regressions for sound exposure levels were not included in the reports, so the distances in this table are estimated visually from data plotted in the listed figures. CSEL = cumulative sound exposure level, SEL = sound exposure level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435337, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distances_from_the_M_V_Gilavar_at_which_various_threshold_levels_are_reached_/1435337", "title"=>"Distances from the <i>M/V Gilavar</i> at which various threshold levels are reached.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093978"], "description"=>"<p>(A), (B), and (C) (sites 1, 3, and 4, respectively) show the data for sites with nearby airgun use, while (D) and (E) (sites 2 and 5, respectively) show the data for sites that only received relatively distant airgun pulses (see text). All four years of data are combined. Each point represents a cell-time interval, and shows the number of localized calls detected during that time window as a function of the received CSEL<sub><i>10-min</i></sub>. The two thresholds are shown with black vertical lines and the crosshatched areas are the 95% confidence intervals. The orange and purple numbers in each plot are the numbers of cell-time intervals with zero versus one or more localized calls per 10-min period, respectively. See text for more information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435335, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_effects_of_received_CSEL_10_min_on_call_localization_rate_for_all_five_sites_/1435335", "title"=>"Relative effects of received CSEL<sub><i>10-min</i></sub> on call localization rate, for all five sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093979"], "description"=>"<p>Section A includes all calls localized, regardless of their distance from the DASAR arrays. Section B includes all calls localized inside the 42 analysis cells. Section C shows the number of calls localized inside the analysis cells during 10-min time intervals with concurrent airgun pulse detections. These calls were used in the model fitting.</p><p>Numbers of localized whale calls.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435336, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Numbers_of_localized_whale_calls_/1435336", "title"=>"Numbers of localized whale calls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093977"], "description"=>"<p>The model uses a cumulative sound exposure level calculated over 10-min periods (<i>CSEL</i><sub><i>10-min</i></sub>). The threshold estimates are 94.5 and 127.4 dB re 1 μPa<sup>2</sup>-s, respectively. Hatched areas are the 95% confidence intervals. Different sites had different predicted call localization rates per 10-min interval. See text for more information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435334, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Threshold_estimates_from_Poisson_regression_model_for_all_sites_and_all_years_combined_/1435334", "title"=>"Threshold estimates from Poisson regression model, for all sites and all years combined.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093974"], "description"=>"<p>Mean number of localized bowhead calls per cell-time interval for 20 5-dB bins of received <i>CSEL</i><sub><i>10-min</i></sub>, as well as a <i>no-seismic</i> category (gray bar) containing all the cell-time intervals without any detected airgun pulses. Upper 95% confidence limits are shown on each bar. Data from all four years and all five sites are included. Sample sizes, i.e., the number of cell-time intervals in each bin, are shown inside or above the bars. Note that this plot excludes 888 cell-time intervals with received <i>CSEL</i><sub><i>10-min</i></sub> below 80 dB re 1 μPa<sup>2</sup>-s (see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435331, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Calls_per_cell_time_interval_as_a_function_of_received_level_of_sound_from_airgun_pulses_/1435331", "title"=>"Calls per cell-time interval as a function of received level of sound from airgun pulses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093973"], "description"=>"<p>The originators of these airgun pulses were two distant operations (see section <i>Airgun Activities during 2007–2010</i> above). The gray oval highlights examples of false detections (i.e., impulses of sound that are not airgun pulses). In deeper water (i.e., DASAR 4G) the number of detected pulses is higher and the percentage of false detections is lower. See text for more information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435330, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bearings_to_airgun_pulses_as_detected_at_DASARs_4A_and_4G_during_the_2010_season_/1435330", "title"=>"Bearings to airgun pulses as detected at DASARs 4A and 4G during the 2010 season.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093981", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093982", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093983", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093984", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093985", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093986", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093987", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093988"], "description"=>"<div><p>In proximity to seismic operations, bowhead whales (<i>Balaena mysticetus</i>) decrease their calling rates. Here, we investigate the transition from normal calling behavior to decreased calling and identify two threshold levels of received sound from airgun pulses at which calling behavior changes. Data were collected in August–October 2007–2010, during the westward autumn migration in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Up to 40 directional acoustic recorders (DASARs) were deployed at five sites offshore of the Alaskan North Slope. Using triangulation, whale calls localized within 2 km of each DASAR were identified and tallied every 10 minutes each season, so that the detected call rate could be interpreted as the actual call production rate. Moreover, airgun pulses were identified on each DASAR, analyzed, and a cumulative sound exposure level was computed for each 10-min period each season (<i>CSEL<sub>10-min</sub></i>). A Poisson regression model was used to examine the relationship between the received <i>CSEL<sub>10-min</sub></i> from airguns and the number of detected bowhead calls. Calling rates increased as soon as airgun pulses were detectable, compared to calling rates in the absence of airgun pulses. After the initial increase, calling rates leveled off at a received <i>CSEL<sub>10-min</sub></i> of ~94 dB re 1 μPa<sup>2</sup>-s (the lower threshold). In contrast, once <i>CSEL<sub>10-min</sub></i> exceeded ~127 dB re 1 μPa<sup>2</sup>-s (the upper threshold), whale calling rates began decreasing, and when <i>CSEL<sub>10-min</sub></i> values were above ~160 dB re 1 μPa<sup>2</sup>-s, the whales were virtually silent.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435338, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>36, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_Airgun_Sounds_on_Bowhead_Whale_Calling_Rates_Evidence_for_Two_Behavioral_Thresholds_/1435338", "title"=>"Effects of Airgun Sounds on Bowhead Whale Calling Rates: Evidence for Two Behavioral Thresholds", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093976"], "description"=>"<p>There are no data for site 2 in 2010 (*) as most of that site was not deployed due to ice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435333, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>45, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_10_min_cell_time_intervals_with_airgun_pulse_detections_as_a_function_of_site_and_year_/1435333", "title"=>"Percentage of 10-min cell-time intervals with airgun pulse detections, as a function of site and year.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093975"], "description"=>"<p>The black bars show the total number of cell-time intervals while the white bars show the number of cell-time intervals without any detected airgun pulses, as a function of date in all four years (2007–2010). The top, nearly flat part of the black bars corresponds to the dates during which all DASAR arrays were deployed in all years. The right edge of the plot is steeper than the left edge because the period of retrieval in October was less variable in timing than the period of deployment in August (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). The figure shows that cell-time intervals without detected seismic activity are not biased toward certain phases of the migration, and thus any differences between calling rates found between <i>no seismic</i> and <i>seismic</i> cell-time intervals are not contaminated by seasonal effects.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435332, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_distribution_of_samples_without_detected_airgun_pulses_as_a_function_of_date_/1435332", "title"=>"Frequency distribution of samples without detected airgun pulses, as a function of date.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093972"], "description"=>"<p>Only operations that occurred either within the DASAR arrays or less than 50 km from the nearest DASAR are shown. (In 2009 there were no seismic exploration activities involving airguns in the area shown.) See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for dates of operation and array sizes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435329, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Locations_of_airgun_use_near_the_DASAR_arrays_in_2007_2008_and_2010_/1435329", "title"=>"Locations of airgun use near the DASAR arrays in 2007, 2008, and 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2093970"], "description"=>"<p>Inset (a) shows the location of the arrays on the map of Alaska. The five main, seven-DASAR arrays (black triangles), labeled 1–5 from west to east, were deployed each year, conditions permitting (ice prevented some deployments in 2010, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720#pone.0125720.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). DASARs were labeled A–G from south to north, as shown in inset (b). Other locations were used only in some years. In 2008 five recorders were deployed south of site 1: DASAR locations 1H, 1I, 1J, 1K, and 1L (red triangles). In 2010 two recorders were deployed west of site 4: DASAR locations 4H and 4I (blue triangles). Inset (b) shows calibration locations with respect to the DASARs’ locations at a single array. The same relative calibration locations were used at each site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["DASAR", "threshold", "Alaskan North Slope", "db", "sound exposure level", "pa", "Alaskan Beaufort Sea", "CSEL", "Poisson regression model", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1435327, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Susanna B. Blackwell", "Christopher S. Nations", "Trent L. McDonald", "Aaron M. Thode", "Delphine Mathias", "Katherine H. Kim", "Charles R. Greene Jr", "A. Michael Macrander"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125720.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DASAR_deployment_locations_used_in_the_2007_8211_2010_field_seasons_/1435327", "title"=>"DASAR deployment locations used in the 2007–2010 field seasons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-03 03:53:58"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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