Oldest Pathology in a Tetrapod Bone Illuminates the Origin of Terrestrial Vertebrates
Publication Date
May 04, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Peter J. Bishop, Christopher W. Walmsley, Matthew J. Phillips, Michelle R. Quayle, et al
Volume
10
Issue
5
Pages
e0125723
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0125723
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25938463
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4418741
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25938463
Web of Science
000353943000096
Scopus
84929377259
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/oldest-pathology-tetrapod-bone-illuminates-origin-terrestrial-vertebrates
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Oldest pathology in a tetrapod bone illuminates the origin of terrestrial vertebrates", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Peter J.", "last_name"=>"Bishop", "scopus_author_id"=>"36766752400"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher W.", "last_name"=>"Walmsley", "scopus_author_id"=>"55889820500"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew J.", "last_name"=>"Phillips", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402769978"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle R.", "last_name"=>"Quayle", "scopus_author_id"=>"55558895300"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine A.", "last_name"=>"Boisvert", "scopus_author_id"=>"10140596400"}, {"first_name"=>"Colin R.", "last_name"=>"McHenry", "scopus_author_id"=>"9237499200"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84929377259", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0125723", "pui"=>"604276173", "pmid"=>"25938463", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929377259", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"7709ab26-dca7-3dc5-a3ec-ca575c1b0ccc", "abstract"=>"The origin of terrestrial tetrapods was a key event in vertebrate evolution, yet how and when it occurred remains obscure, due to scarce fossil evidence. Here, we show that the study of palaeopathologies, such as broken and healed bones, can help elucidate poorly understood behavioural transitions such as this. Using high-resolution finite element analysis, we demonstrate that the oldest known broken tetrapod bone, a radius of the primitive stem tetrapod Ossinodus pueri from the mid-Viséan (333 million years ago) of Australia, fractured under a high-force, impact-type loading scenario. The nature of the fracture suggests that it most plausibly occurred during a fall on land. Augmenting this are new osteological observations, including a preferred directionality to the trabecular architecture of cancellous bone. Together, these results suggest that Ossinodus, one of the first large (>2m length) tetrapods, spent a significant proportion of its life on land. Our findings have important implications for understanding the temporal, biogeographical and physiological contexts under which terrestriality in vertebrates evolved. They push the date for the origin of terrestrial tetrapods further back into the Carboniferous by at least two million years. Moreover, they raise the possibility that terrestriality in vertebrates first evolved in large tetrapods in Gondwana rather than in small European forms, warranting a re-evaluation of this important evolutionary event.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/oldest-pathology-tetrapod-bone-illuminates-origin-terrestrial-vertebrates", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2050723"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Reconstructed life appearance of <i>Ossinodus</i>, based on numerous cranial and postcranial remains; the individual to which QMF 37451 belonged is estimated to have been about 1–1.5 m long. (b–e) External morphology of radius in lateral (b), anterior (c), medial (d) and posterior (e) views; proximal (elbow) articulation to top of page. The large callus on the proximolateral surface resulted from healing of the fracture. Abbreviations: dmr, dorsomesial ridge; pvr, proximoventral ridge; vmr, ventromesial ridge; vrc, ventral radial crest; nut. for., nutrient foramen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tetrapod bone", "tetrapod Ossinodus pueri", "trabecular architecture", "European forms", "cancellous bone", "behavioural transitions", "Oldest Pathology", "Tetrapod Bone Illuminates", "Element analysis", "Terrestrial Vertebrates", "osteological observations"], "article_id"=>1403022, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter J. Bishop", "Christopher W. Walmsley", "Matthew J. Phillips", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Catherine A. Boisvert", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_of_Ossinodus_and_its_fractured_right_radius_QMF_37451_/1403022", "title"=>"Morphology of <i>Ossinodus</i> and its fractured right radius, QMF 37451.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 03:32:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2050728"], "description"=>"<p>This process is shown with three (a–c) different sections through the fossil. (d) Location and orientation of sections (a)–(c) relative to the bone. <sup>1</sup>, The original scan images. <sup>2</sup>, Interpretation of the scan images. Red line is preserved cortical margin, dotted red line is reconstructed cortical margin, and purple line is the fracture. The axially concentric pattern of density change (brighter pixels indicating higher density) within the bone allowed estimation of the position of the original cortical margin, based on the amount of the concentric pattern missing. Note the finer, grainer microstructure of the callus. <sup>3</sup>, Scan image segmented into cortical bone (red) and four different densities of cancellous bone (orange, yellow, green, and blue, in decreasing order of density).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tetrapod bone", "tetrapod Ossinodus pueri", "trabecular architecture", "European forms", "cancellous bone", "behavioural transitions", "Oldest Pathology", "Tetrapod Bone Illuminates", "Element analysis", "Terrestrial Vertebrates", "osteological observations"], "article_id"=>1403027, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter J. Bishop", "Christopher W. Walmsley", "Matthew J. Phillips", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Catherine A. Boisvert", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Digital_removal_of_the_callus_reconstruction_of_the_original_bone_morphology_and_CT_image_segmentation_/1403027", "title"=>"Digital removal of the callus, reconstruction of the original bone morphology, and CT image segmentation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 03:32:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2050731"], "description"=>"<p>(a)–(d) Three-dimensional geometry of the fossil, with abraded parts highlighted proximally and distally. (e)–(h) Reconstructed three-dimensional geometry of the original bone, as it is would have appeared prior to fracturing. Views correspond to those in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723#pone.0125723.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1b</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723#pone.0125723.g001\" target=\"_blank\">1e</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tetrapod bone", "tetrapod Ossinodus pueri", "trabecular architecture", "European forms", "cancellous bone", "behavioural transitions", "Oldest Pathology", "Tetrapod Bone Illuminates", "Element analysis", "Terrestrial Vertebrates", "osteological observations"], "article_id"=>1403030, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter J. Bishop", "Christopher W. Walmsley", "Matthew J. Phillips", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Catherine A. Boisvert", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>54, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Removal_of_the_callus_and_reconstruction_of_the_pre_fractured_morphology_of_the_radius_of_Ossinodus_/1403030", "title"=>"Removal of the callus and reconstruction of the pre-fractured morphology of the radius of <i>Ossinodus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 03:32:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2050732"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Complete homogenous model in oblique posterolateral view; extent of proximal articulation surface shown in grey. This was the model used to assess fracture mechanics in the radius. (b) Incomplete homogenous model in anteromedial view; red shows exposed (homogenous) cancellous bone. (c) Incomplete heterogenous model in posteromedial view. (d) Incomplete heterogenous model in posteromedial view, sectioned in the mediolateral plane to illustrate variation in material properties within the volume of cancellous bone.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tetrapod bone", "tetrapod Ossinodus pueri", "trabecular architecture", "European forms", "cancellous bone", "behavioural transitions", "Oldest Pathology", "Tetrapod Bone Illuminates", "Element analysis", "Terrestrial Vertebrates", "osteological observations"], "article_id"=>1403031, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter J. Bishop", "Christopher W. Walmsley", "Matthew J. Phillips", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Catherine A. Boisvert", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_dimensional_finite_element_models_of_the_radius_of_Ossinodus_/1403031", "title"=>"Three-dimensional finite element models of the radius of <i>Ossinodus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 03:32:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2050733"], "description"=>"<p>(a), (b) CT images showing fracture geometry in mediolateral (a) and anteroposterior (b) views; the arrows delimit the shape and extent of the fracture, and are on the callus side of the fracture. (c)–(h) Three dimensional geometry of the fracture (red) superimposed on the original (c–e) and reconstructed (f–h) morphology of the radius; (c), (f) are in lateral view; (d), (g) are in posterior view; (e), (h) are in oblique posterolateral view. (i)–(l) Lesions and subsurface canals in the callus as they appear in CT scans, shown in both mediolateral (i, j) and anteroposterior (k, l) views; arrows delimit extent of the canals. (m), (n) Cancellous bone architecture in the proximal end of the bone, shown as smoothed renderings of volumes automatically segmented from CT scans; (m) Bone in a volume measuring 7.4 × 6.5 × 0.18 mm, with proximal to top of page, anterior to right; (n), bone in a volume measuring 7.4 × 6.5 × 0.23 mm, with proximal to top of page, anterior to left; these regions correspond to that which was quantitatively analyzed for architectural alignment. (o) Fabric ellipsoid (and principal axes) for cancellous bone in the proximal end of the radius; note the almost perfect alignment of the primary fabric axis (red vector) with the proximodistal axis of the bone (thin black line). (p), (q) Morphology of a single nutrient foramen piercing the distal medial end of the bone; (p) shows CT image in anteroposterior view, through the middle of the foramen; (q) shows the same image, with the extent of the foramen (diameter 0.7 mm) outlined in yellow; note the low angle of entry into the bone surface.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tetrapod bone", "tetrapod Ossinodus pueri", "trabecular architecture", "European forms", "cancellous bone", "behavioural transitions", "Oldest Pathology", "Tetrapod Bone Illuminates", "Element analysis", "Terrestrial Vertebrates", "osteological observations"], "article_id"=>1403032, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter J. Bishop", "Christopher W. Walmsley", "Matthew J. Phillips", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Catherine A. Boisvert", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Internal_microstructural_features_in_the_radius_of_Ossinodus_QMF_37451_/1403032", "title"=>"Internal microstructural features in the radius of <i>Ossinodus</i>, QMF 37451.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 03:32:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2050734"], "description"=>"<p>Five different loading regimes were applied to both models (left) with resulting von Mises strain patterns compared via cross sectional plots (right). 1 = uniaxial compression, 2 = uniaxial tension, 3 = uniaxial torsion, 4 = anteroposterior midshaft bending, 5 = mediolateral midshaft bending. All plots are mediolateral cross sections through the middle of the bone, except for loading regime 4, which is shown as an anteroposterior cross section through the middle of the bone; values reported as microstrain (με = 1 ×10<sup>-6</sup>); light pink indicates regions of strain higher than 100 με. Note the great similarity between the heterogenous and homogenous model results under each loading regime.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tetrapod bone", "tetrapod Ossinodus pueri", "trabecular architecture", "European forms", "cancellous bone", "behavioural transitions", "Oldest Pathology", "Tetrapod Bone Illuminates", "Element analysis", "Terrestrial Vertebrates", "osteological observations"], "article_id"=>1403033, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter J. Bishop", "Christopher W. Walmsley", "Matthew J. Phillips", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Catherine A. Boisvert", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>61, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_FEA_of_incomplete_heterogenous_and_incomplete_homogenous_finite_element_models_/1403033", "title"=>"Comparative FEA of incomplete heterogenous and incomplete homogenous finite element models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 03:32:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2050735"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Fracture via distal displacement of an external fragment (or fragments). (b)–(d) Relative orientation and approximate area of application of the fracturing force, shown in lateral (b), anterior (c) and oblique posterolateral (d) views. (e)–(h) Cross sections of the radius on four different planes through 90° with von Mises strain patterns resulting from the loading of (b)–(d); fracture geometry shown as dashed line, distal restraint used in the FEA shown as a cross; inset shows orientation of each cross sectional plane. Strain values reported as microstrain; light pink indicates strains higher than 250 με. High strains in the distal end are artifacts resulting from the necessity to properly restrain the model; placing restraints as far away as possible from the region of interest (the proximal end) ensured that minimal effect was made to the proximal radius, including the fracture zone. (i)–(k) Cross sections of the radius with maximum (i), intermediate (j) and minimum (k) principal stress field patterns resulting from the loading of (b)–(d); fracture geometry shown as red line; plane of cross-section corresponds approximately to that in (f).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tetrapod bone", "tetrapod Ossinodus pueri", "trabecular architecture", "European forms", "cancellous bone", "behavioural transitions", "Oldest Pathology", "Tetrapod Bone Illuminates", "Element analysis", "Terrestrial Vertebrates", "osteological observations"], "article_id"=>1403034, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter J. Bishop", "Christopher W. Walmsley", "Matthew J. Phillips", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Catherine A. Boisvert", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fracture_mechanics_and_comparison_of_FEA_results_with_fracture_geometry_/1403034", "title"=>"Fracture mechanics and comparison of FEA results with fracture geometry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 03:32:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2050736"], "description"=>"<p>All elements were low-order tetrahedral bricks except for the network of tessellated beams representing the articular surfaces. Values for cortical bone from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723#pone.0125723.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723#pone.0125723.ref027\" target=\"_blank\">27</a>].</p><p>* Values rounded to the nearest 0.5 GPa, to allow for uncertainty</p><p><sup>†</sup> Only present in the incomplete heterogenous model</p><p><sup>‡</sup> Only present in the incomplete and complete homogenous models</p><p>Material properties assigned to the elements in the three finite element models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tetrapod bone", "tetrapod Ossinodus pueri", "trabecular architecture", "European forms", "cancellous bone", "behavioural transitions", "Oldest Pathology", "Tetrapod Bone Illuminates", "Element analysis", "Terrestrial Vertebrates", "osteological observations"], "article_id"=>1403035, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter J. Bishop", "Christopher W. Walmsley", "Matthew J. Phillips", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Catherine A. Boisvert", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Material_properties_assigned_to_the_elements_in_the_three_finite_element_models_/1403035", "title"=>"Material properties assigned to the elements in the three finite element models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 03:32:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2050737"], "description"=>"<p>Outlines comparison between von Mises brick strain results (reported as mean [standard deviation]) for both the incomplete heterogenous and incomplete homogenous models under each of the five test loading regimes.</p><p>Results of comparative FEA between heterogenous and homogenous models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tetrapod bone", "tetrapod Ossinodus pueri", "trabecular architecture", "European forms", "cancellous bone", "behavioural transitions", "Oldest Pathology", "Tetrapod Bone Illuminates", "Element analysis", "Terrestrial Vertebrates", "osteological observations"], "article_id"=>1403036, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter J. Bishop", "Christopher W. Walmsley", "Matthew J. Phillips", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Catherine A. Boisvert", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125723.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_comparative_FEA_between_heterogenous_and_homogenous_models_/1403036", "title"=>"Results of comparative FEA between heterogenous and homogenous models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-04 03:32:44"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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