Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation by Flavonoid-Induced Cells of the Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A
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{"title"=>"Optimizing polychlorinated biphenyl degradation by flavonoid-induced cells of the rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Thi Thanh My", "last_name"=>"Pham", "scopus_author_id"=>"54791518500"}, {"first_name"=>"Nancy Johanna Pino", "last_name"=>"Rodriguez", "scopus_author_id"=>"36603276000"}, {"first_name"=>"Mohamed", "last_name"=>"Hijri", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506337389"}, {"first_name"=>"Michel", "last_name"=>"Sylvestre", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005984229"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929346836", "sgr"=>"84929346836", "pui"=>"604377814", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"25970559", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0126033"}, "id"=>"2d89ed47-5a99-353d-9554-1fb944a9170f", "abstract"=>"There is evidence that many plant secondary metabolites may act as signal molecules to trigger the bacterial ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during the rhizoremediation process. However, the bases for the PCB rhizoremediation process are still largely unknown. The rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is unable to use flavanone as a growth substrate. However, on the basis of an assay that monitors the amount of 4-chlorobenzoate produced from 4-chlorobiphenyl by cells grown co-metabolically on flavanone plus sodium acetate, this flavonoid was previously found to be a potential inducer of the U23A biphenyl catabolic pathway. In this work, and using the same assay, we identified ten other flavonoids that did not support growth, but that acted as inducers of the U23A biphenyl pathway, and we confirmed flavonoid induction of the biphenyl catabolic pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on the bphA gene. We also examined the effect of the growth co-substrate on flavonoid induction. Sodium acetate was replaced by glucose, mannose, sucrose, or mannitol, which are sugars found in plant root exudates. The data showed that the level of induction of strain U23A biphenyl-degrading enzymes was significantly influenced by the nature and concentration of the flavonoid in the growth medium, as well as by the substrate used for growth. Sucrose allowed for an optimal induction response for most flavonoids. Some flavonoids, such as flavone and isoflavone, were better inducers of the biphenyl catabolic enzymes than biphenyl itself. We also found that all flavonoids tested in this work were metabolized by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth, but that the metabolite profiles, as well as the level of efficiency of degradation, differed for each flavonoid. To obtain insight into how flavonoids interact with strain U23A to promote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degradation, we determined the concentration of flavanone at which optimal PCB-degrading performance of strain U23A was achieved. We showed that it corresponded to the concentration required to fully induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of the strain. Together, our data demonstrate that optimal PCB degradation during the rhizoremediation process will require the adjustment of several parameters, including the presence of the appropriate flavonoids at the proper concentrations and the presence of proper growth substrates that positively influence the ability of flavonoids to induce the pathway.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/optimizing-polychlorinated-biphenyl-degradation-flavonoidinduced-cells-rhizobacterium-rhodococcus-er", "reader_count"=>19, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>2}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066459"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were previously grown in MM30 amended with 30 mM sodium acetate alone or 30 mM of the indicated sugars plus 3 mM biphenyl or each of the indicated flavonoids at the concentration that gave optimal induction response in the experimental setting of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033#pone.0126033.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a> (for example, chrysin and fisetin were added at 1 mM). Bars represent mean (n = 2) and SD are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U 23A", "U 23A biphenyl pathway", "Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation", "biphenyl catabolic enzymes", "PCB rhizoremediation process", "U 23A biphenyl catabolic pathway", "biphenyl catabolic pathway", "polymerase chain reaction", "plant root exudates", "rhizoremediation process", "flavonoid induction", "strain U 23A"], "article_id"=>1413677, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thi Thanh My Pham", "Nancy Johanna Pino Rodriguez", "Mohamed Hijri", "Michel Sylvestre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Amount_956_M_of_4_chlorobenzoic_acid_produced_when_standardized_resting_cell_suspensions_of_strain_U23A_were_incubated_with_1_25_mM_4_chlorobiphenyl_for_2_h_/1413677", "title"=>"Amount (μM) of 4-chlorobenzoic acid produced when standardized resting cell suspensions of strain U23A were incubated with 1.25 mM 4-chlorobiphenyl for 2 h.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 04:00:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066463"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Strain U23A was grown on sodium acetate plus anyone of the indicated flavonoids and the metabolites were extracted and analysed by GC-MS as described in the Materials and Methods section.</p><p><sup>b</sup> For position numbering of flavonoids and metabolites refer to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033#pone.0126033.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>.</p><p>Metabolites produced by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth on mono-hydroxyflavones.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U 23A", "U 23A biphenyl pathway", "Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation", "biphenyl catabolic enzymes", "PCB rhizoremediation process", "U 23A biphenyl catabolic pathway", "biphenyl catabolic pathway", "polymerase chain reaction", "plant root exudates", "rhizoremediation process", "flavonoid induction", "strain U 23A"], "article_id"=>1413681, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thi Thanh My Pham", "Nancy Johanna Pino Rodriguez", "Mohamed Hijri", "Michel Sylvestre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metabolites_produced_by_strain_U23A_during_co_metabolic_growth_on_mono_hydroxyflavones_/1413681", "title"=>"Metabolites produced by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth on mono-hydroxyflavones.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 04:00:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066461"], "description"=>"<p>Data is based on metabolites detected in 18 h-old culture of strain U23A co-metabolically grown on sucrose plus flavone plus metabolites detected in resting cell suspensions of biphenyl-induced U23A cells incubated for variable periods of time with flavone.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U 23A", "U 23A biphenyl pathway", "Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation", "biphenyl catabolic enzymes", "PCB rhizoremediation process", "U 23A biphenyl catabolic pathway", "biphenyl catabolic pathway", "polymerase chain reaction", "plant root exudates", "rhizoremediation process", "flavonoid induction", "strain U 23A"], "article_id"=>1413679, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thi Thanh My Pham", "Nancy Johanna Pino Rodriguez", "Mohamed Hijri", "Michel Sylvestre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proposed_pathway_for_the_production_of_4_oxo_2_chromene_carboxylic_acid_from_flavone_by_strain_U23A_biphenyl_catabolic_enzymes_/1413679", "title"=>"Proposed pathway for the production of 4-oxo-2-chromene carboxylic acid from flavone by strain U23A biphenyl catabolic enzymes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 04:00:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066462"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Strain U23A was grown on sodium acetate plus anyone of the indicated flavonoids and the metabolites were extracted and analysed by GC-MS as described in the Materials and Methods section.</p><p><sup>b</sup> For position numbering of metabolites refer to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033#pone.0126033.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>.</p><p>Metabolites produced by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth on simple flavonoids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U 23A", "U 23A biphenyl pathway", "Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation", "biphenyl catabolic enzymes", "PCB rhizoremediation process", "U 23A biphenyl catabolic pathway", "biphenyl catabolic pathway", "polymerase chain reaction", "plant root exudates", "rhizoremediation process", "flavonoid induction", "strain U 23A"], "article_id"=>1413680, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thi Thanh My Pham", "Nancy Johanna Pino Rodriguez", "Mohamed Hijri", "Michel Sylvestre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metabolites_produced_by_strain_U23A_during_co_metabolic_growth_on_simple_flavonoids_/1413680", "title"=>"Metabolites produced by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth on simple flavonoids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 04:00:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066457"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Cells were previously grown in MM30 amended with 30 mM sodium acetate plus the indicated concentrations of biphenyl or each of the simple flavonoids (cells did not grow in culture containing 1 and 6 mM flavone). <b>(B)</b> Cells were previously grown in MM30 amended with 30 mM sodium acetate plus the indicated concentrations of biphenyl or each of the monohydroxy-flavone or-flavanone (0.5 mM 7-hydroxyflavone and 1 mM 3-hydroxyflavone were not tested). <b>(C)</b> Cells were previously grown in MM30 amended with 30 mM sodium acetate plus the indicated concentrations of biphenyl or each of the dihydroxyflavone (0.5 mM 3,7-dihydroxyflavone was not tested). Bars represent mean (n = 3) and SD are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U 23A", "U 23A biphenyl pathway", "Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation", "biphenyl catabolic enzymes", "PCB rhizoremediation process", "U 23A biphenyl catabolic pathway", "biphenyl catabolic pathway", "polymerase chain reaction", "plant root exudates", "rhizoremediation process", "flavonoid induction", "strain U 23A"], "article_id"=>1413675, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thi Thanh My Pham", "Nancy Johanna Pino Rodriguez", "Mohamed Hijri", "Michel Sylvestre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Amount_956_M_of_4_chlorobenzoic_acid_produced_when_standardized_resting_cell_suspensions_of_strain_U23A_were_incubated_with_1_25_mM_4_chlorobiphenyl_for_2_h_/1413675", "title"=>"Amount (μM) of 4-chlorobenzoic acid produced when standardized resting cell suspensions of strain U23A were incubated with 1.25 mM 4-chlorobiphenyl for 2 h.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 04:00:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066465"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Strain U23A was grown on sodium acetate plus anyone of the indicated flavonoids and the metabolites were extracted and analysed by GC-MS as described in the Materials and Methods section.</p><p><sup>b</sup> For position numbering of flavonoids and metabolites refer to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033#pone.0126033.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>.</p><p>Metabolites produced by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth on di- or tri-hydroxyflavones.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U 23A", "U 23A biphenyl pathway", "Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation", "biphenyl catabolic enzymes", "PCB rhizoremediation process", "U 23A biphenyl catabolic pathway", "biphenyl catabolic pathway", "polymerase chain reaction", "plant root exudates", "rhizoremediation process", "flavonoid induction", "strain U 23A"], "article_id"=>1413683, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thi Thanh My Pham", "Nancy Johanna Pino Rodriguez", "Mohamed Hijri", "Michel Sylvestre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metabolites_produced_by_strain_U23A_during_co_metabolic_growth_on_di_or_tri_hydroxyflavones_/1413683", "title"=>"Metabolites produced by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth on di- or tri-hydroxyflavones.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 04:00:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2066464"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Strain U23A was grown on sodium acetate plus anyone of the indicated flavonoids and the metabolites were extracted and analysed by GC-MS as described in the Materials and Methods section.</p><p><sup>b</sup> For position numbering of flavonoids and metabolites refer to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033#pone.0126033.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>.</p><p>Metabolites produced by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth on 7-hydroxyflavanone.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U 23A", "U 23A biphenyl pathway", "Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation", "biphenyl catabolic enzymes", "PCB rhizoremediation process", "U 23A biphenyl catabolic pathway", "biphenyl catabolic pathway", "polymerase chain reaction", "plant root exudates", "rhizoremediation process", "flavonoid induction", "strain U 23A"], "article_id"=>1413682, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Thi Thanh My Pham", "Nancy Johanna Pino Rodriguez", "Mohamed Hijri", "Michel Sylvestre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126033.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metabolites_produced_by_strain_U23A_during_co_metabolic_growth_on_7_hydroxyflavanone_/1413682", "title"=>"Metabolites produced by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth on 7-hydroxyflavanone.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-13 04:00:55"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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