Males Resemble Females: Re-Evaluating Sexual Dimorphism in Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae)
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{"title"=>"Males resemble females: Re-evaluating sexual dimorphism in Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Leonardo", "last_name"=>"Maiorino", "scopus_author_id"=>"53663834900"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew A.", "last_name"=>"Farke", "scopus_author_id"=>"8352882000"}, {"first_name"=>"Tassos", "last_name"=>"Kotsakis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601977576"}, {"first_name"=>"Paolo", "last_name"=>"Piras", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003408993"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"604276139", "sgr"=>"84929120304", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25951329", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929120304", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0126464", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0126464"}, "id"=>"f5829c94-3524-384a-9477-30069b2138bd", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae) is a well-known dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Some previous workers hypothesized sexual dimorphism in the cranial shape of this taxon, using qualitative and quantitative observations. In particular, width and height of the frill as well as the development of a nasal horn have been hypothesized as potentially sexually dimorphic.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we reassess potential sexual dimorphism in skulls of Protoceratops andrewsi by applying two-dimensional geometric morphometrics to 29 skulls in lateral and dorsal views. Principal Component Analyses and nonparametric MANOVAs recover no clear separation between hypothetical \"males\" and \"females\" within the overall morphospace. Males and females thus possess similar overall cranial morphologies. No differences in size between \"males\" and \"females\" are recovered using nonparametric ANOVAs.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sexual dimorphism within Protoceratops andrewsi is not strongly supported by our results, as previously proposed by several authors. Anatomical traits such as height and width of the frill, and skull size thus may not be sexually dimorphic. Based on PCA for a data set focusing on the rostrum and associated ANOVA results, nasal horn height is the only feature with potential dimorphism. As a whole, most purported dimorphic variation is probably primarily the result of ontogenetic cranial shape changes as well as intraspecific cranial variation independent of sex.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/males-resemble-females-reevaluating-sexual-dimorphism-protoceratops-andrewsi-neoceratopsia-protocera", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058518"], "description"=>"<p>The continuous line represents “juvenile” morphospace. The dotted line represents “male” morphospace and the dashed line represents “female” morphospace. Asterisks indicate specimens shared with Dodson [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407488, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_Component_Analysis_performed_on_the_skulls_in_lateral_view_/1407488", "title"=>"Principal Component Analysis performed on the skulls in lateral view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058519"], "description"=>"<p>The continuous line represents “juvenile” morphospace. The dotted line represents “male” morphospace and the dashed line represents “female” morphospace. Asterisks indicate specimens shared with Dodson [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407489, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_Component_Analysis_performed_on_skulls_with_the_frill_excluded_/1407489", "title"=>"Principal Component Analysis performed on skulls with the frill excluded.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058520"], "description"=>"<p>The continuous line represents “juvenile” morphospace. The dotted line represents “male” morphospace and the dashed line represents “female” morphospace. Asterisks indicate specimens shared with Dodson [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407490, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_Component_Analysis_performed_on_the_frills_/1407490", "title"=>"Principal Component Analysis performed on the frills.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058522"], "description"=>"<p>The continuous line represents “juvenile” morphospace. The dotted line represents “male” morphospace and the dashed line represents “female” morphospace. Asterisks indicate specimens shared with Dodson [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407492, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_Component_Analysis_performed_on_skulls_in_dorsal_view_/1407492", "title"=>"Principal Component Analysis performed on skulls in dorsal view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058524"], "description"=>"<p>A, UPGMA cluster analysis of skulls in lateral view. B, UPGMA cluster analysis performed on skulls in dorsal view. C, UPGMA cluster analysis of skulls without frill. D, UPGMA cluster analysis performed on the frills. Asterisks indicate specimens shared with Dodson [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>]. Light blue indicates a “male”, pink indicates a “female”, grey indicates a juvenile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407494, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_UPGMA_cluster_analysis_performed_on_the_four_samples_/1407494", "title"=>"UPGMA cluster analysis performed on the four samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058525"], "description"=>"<p>Asterisks indicate specimens shared with Dodson [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407495, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visualization_of_shape_size_relationship_via_CCA_analysis_for_cranial_shape_in_lateral_view_and_cranial_shape_changes_associated_with_the_increase_of_size_/1407495", "title"=>"Visualization of shape-size relationship via CCA analysis for cranial shape in lateral view and cranial shape changes associated with the increase of size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058527"], "description"=>"<p>Asterisks indicate specimens shared with Dodson [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407497, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visualization_of_shape_size_relationship_via_CCA_analysis_for_cranial_shape_in_dorsal_view_and_relative_cranial_shape_changes_associated_with_the_increase_of_size_/1407497", "title"=>"Visualization of shape-size relationship via CCA analysis for cranial shape in dorsal view and relative cranial shape changes associated with the increase of size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058528"], "description"=>"<p>List of neoceratopsian taxa for which sexual dimorphism has been previously proposed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407498, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_neoceratopsian_taxa_for_which_sexual_dimorphism_has_been_previously_proposed_/1407498", "title"=>"List of neoceratopsian taxa for which sexual dimorphism has been previously proposed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058529"], "description"=>"<p>NA = not available. DMNH 58743 represents a juvenile.</p><p>Sexual scores for specimens of <i>P</i>. <i>andrewsi</i> unshared with Dodson’s work [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407499, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sexual_scores_for_specimens_of_P_andrewsi_unshared_with_Dodson_s_work_25_/1407499", "title"=>"Sexual scores for specimens of <i>P</i>. <i>andrewsi</i> unshared with Dodson’s work [25].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058530"], "description"=>"<p>Statistically significant results (<i>p</i><0.05) are indicated in bold. Statistically significant results (<i>p</i><0.05) after a Holm correction are shown in the lower left triangle.</p><p>Pair-wise npMANOVA performed on the shape variables per-group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407500, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pair_wise_npMANOVA_performed_on_the_shape_variables_per_group_/1407500", "title"=>"Pair-wise npMANOVA performed on the shape variables per-group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058531"], "description"=>"<p>Statistically significant results (<i>p</i><0.05) are indicated in bold. Statistically significant results (<i>p</i><0.05) after a Holm correction are shown in the lower left triangle.</p><p>Pair-wise npANOVA performed on the size variables (CS) per-group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407501, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pair_wise_npANOVA_performed_on_the_size_variables_CS_per_group_/1407501", "title"=>"Pair-wise npANOVA performed on the size variables (CS) per-group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058532"], "description"=>"<p>Statistically significant results (<i>p</i><0.05) are indicated in bold. Statistically significant results (<i>p</i><0.05) after a Holm correction are shown in the lower left triangle.</p><p>Pair-wise npANOVA performed on each PCscore variable per-group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407502, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pair_wise_npANOVA_performed_on_each_PCscore_variable_per_group_/1407502", "title"=>"Pair-wise npANOVA performed on each PCscore variable per-group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058533", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058534", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058535", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058536"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p><i>Protoceratops andrewsi </i>(Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae) is a well-known dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Some previous workers hypothesized sexual dimorphism in the cranial shape of this taxon, using qualitative and quantitative observations. In particular, width and height of the frill as well as the development of a nasal horn have been hypothesized as potentially sexually dimorphic.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>Here, we reassess potential sexual dimorphism in skulls of <i>Protoceratops andrewsi </i>by applying two-dimensional geometric morphometrics to 29 skulls in lateral and dorsal views. Principal Component Analyses and nonparametric MANOVAs recover no clear separation between hypothetical “males” and “females” within the overall morphospace. Males and females thus possess similar overall cranial morphologies. No differences in size between “males” and “females” are recovered using nonparametric ANOVAs.</p><p>Conclusions/Significance</p><p>Sexual dimorphism within <i>Protoceratops andrewsi </i>is not strongly supported by our results, as previously proposed by several authors. Anatomical traits such as height and width of the frill, and skull size thus may not be sexually dimorphic. Based on PCA for a data set focusing on the rostrum and associated ANOVA results, nasal horn height is the only feature with potential dimorphism. As a whole, most purported dimorphic variation is probably primarily the result of ontogenetic cranial shape changes as well as intraspecific cranial variation independent of sex.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407503, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Males_Resemble_Females_Re_Evaluating_Sexual_Dimorphism_in_Protoceratops_andrewsi_Neoceratopsia_Protoceratopsidae_/1407503", "title"=>"Males Resemble Females: Re-Evaluating Sexual Dimorphism in <i>Protoceratops andrewsi</i> (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058512"], "description"=>"<p>Redrawn and modified after Brown and Schlaikjer [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref023\" target=\"_blank\">23</a>]. Scale equals to 10 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407481, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothetical_large_8220_male_8221_at_left_AMNH_6438_and_hypothetical_large_8220_female_8221_at_right_AMNH_6466_/1407481", "title"=>"Hypothetical large “male” at left (AMNH 6438) and hypothetical large “female” at right (AMNH 6466).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058513"], "description"=>"<p>Redrawn following the measurement standards originally in Dodson [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>]. The numbers of measurements corresponds to those reported in Table B in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S1 File</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407483, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_measurements_measured_on_skull_/1407483", "title"=>"Linear measurements measured on skull.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058514"], "description"=>"<p>Black dot represents “male”, white dot represents “female”, gray dot represents juvenile, and red dot represents a sex-undetermined specimen. Scale of axes is logarithmic.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407484, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_regressions_of_basal_skull_length_BSL_against_the_four_sex_discriminant_variables_of_the_Protoceratops_sample_see_Table_B_in_S1_File_/1407484", "title"=>"Linear regressions of basal skull length (BSL) against the four sex-discriminant variables of the <i>Protoceratops</i> sample (see Table B in S1 File).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058516"], "description"=>"<p>A, landmark configuration for skull in lateral view. B, landmark configuration for skull in dorsal view. C and D are subunits of the skull configuration. Landmarks have identical definitions. See Table C in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S1 File</a> for landmark definitions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407486, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Landmark_and_semi_landmark_configurations_/1407486", "title"=>"Landmark and semi-landmark configurations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2058517"], "description"=>"<p>The continuous line represents “juvenile” morphospace. The dotted line represents “male” morphospace and the dashed line represents “female” morphospace. Asterisks indicate specimens shared with Dodson [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464#pone.0126464.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphism", "nonparametric", "males Resemble Females", "anova", "skull", "dimorphic", "ontogenetic cranial shape changes", "Protoceratops andrewsi", "Principal component analyses", "frill", "width", "Neoceratopsia", "manova", "intraspecific cranial variation", "pca", "Protoceratopsidae"], "article_id"=>1407487, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leonardo Maiorino", "Andrew A. Farke", "Tassos Kotsakis", "Paolo Piras"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126464.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_Component_Analysis_performed_on_the_linear_measurements_of_skulls_/1407487", "title"=>"Principal Component Analysis performed on the linear measurements of skulls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-07 02:44:35"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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