Type and Timing of Childhood Maltreatment and Severity of Shutdown Dissociation in Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2075069"], "description"=>"<div><p>Dissociation, particularly the shutting down of sensory, motor and speech systems, has been proposed to emerge in susceptible individuals as a defensive response to traumatic stress. In contrast, other individuals show signs of hyperarousal to acute threat. A key question is whether exposure to particular types of stressful events during specific stages of development can program an individual to have a strong dissociative response to subsequent stressors. Vulnerability to ongoing shutdown dissociation was assessed in 75 inpatients (46M/29F, <i>M</i> = 31±10 years old) with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and related to number of traumatic events experienced or witnessed during childhood or adulthood. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was used to collect retrospective recall of exposure to ten types of maltreatment during each year of childhood. Severity of shutdown dissociation was related to number of childhood but not adult traumatic events. Random forest regression with conditional trees indicated that type and timing of childhood maltreatment could predictably account for 31% of the variance (<i>p</i> < 0.003) in shutdown dissociation, with peak vulnerability occurring at 13-14 years of age and with exposure to emotional neglect followed by various forms of emotional abuse. These findings suggest that there may be windows of vulnerability to the development of shutdown dissociation. Results support the hypothesis that experienced events are more important than witnessed events, but challenge the hypothesis that “life-threatening” events are a critical determinant.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals show signs", "Random Forest Regression", "Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Dissociation", "type", "schizophrenia spectrum disorder", "mace", "exposure", "shutdown dissociation", "childhood"], "article_id"=>1420320, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inga Schalinski", "Martin H. Teicher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127151", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Type_and_Timing_of_Childhood_Maltreatment_and_Severity_of_Shutdown_Dissociation_in_Patients_with_Schizophrenia_Spectrum_Disorder_/1420320", "title"=>"Type and Timing of Childhood Maltreatment and Severity of Shutdown Dissociation in Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-19 03:34:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2075067"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. <i>M</i> = Mean, <i>SD</i> = Standard Deviation, <i>n</i> = number of patients</p><p>Means and Standard Deviations of the Demographic Data, Trauma-related Characteristics as well as Symptom Severity and Functioning.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals show signs", "Random Forest Regression", "Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Dissociation", "type", "schizophrenia spectrum disorder", "mace", "exposure", "shutdown dissociation", "childhood"], "article_id"=>1420318, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inga Schalinski", "Martin H. Teicher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127151.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_and_Standard_Deviations_of_the_Demographic_Data_Trauma_related_Characteristics_as_well_as_Symptom_Severity_and_Functioning_/1420318", "title"=>"Means and Standard Deviations of the Demographic Data, Trauma-related Characteristics as well as Symptom Severity and Functioning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-19 03:34:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2075064"], "description"=>"<p>Maximal importance of exposure during each year of childhood in predictive accuracy for severity of shutdown dissociation regardless of type of abuse.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals show signs", "Random Forest Regression", "Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Dissociation", "type", "schizophrenia spectrum disorder", "mace", "exposure", "shutdown dissociation", "childhood"], "article_id"=>1420315, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inga Schalinski", "Martin H. Teicher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127151.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Timing_of_Childhood_Adversities_in_Relation_to_Shutdown_Dissociation_/1420315", "title"=>"Timing of Childhood Adversities in Relation to Shutdown Dissociation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-19 03:34:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2075063"], "description"=>"<p>Severity of exposure to different forms of maltreatment across development in subjects with the lowest levels of shutdown dissociation and subjects with the highest levels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals show signs", "Random Forest Regression", "Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Dissociation", "type", "schizophrenia spectrum disorder", "mace", "exposure", "shutdown dissociation", "childhood"], "article_id"=>1420314, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inga Schalinski", "Martin H. Teicher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127151.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Severity_of_Childhood_Adversities_in_Subjects_with_High_versus_Low_Shutdown_Dissociation_/1420314", "title"=>"Severity of Childhood Adversities in Subjects with High versus Low Shutdown Dissociation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-19 03:34:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2075066"], "description"=>"<p>Maximal importance of exposure during each year of childhood in predictive accuracy for severity of positive and negative psychotic symptoms regardless of type of abuse.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals show signs", "Random Forest Regression", "Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Dissociation", "type", "schizophrenia spectrum disorder", "mace", "exposure", "shutdown dissociation", "childhood"], "article_id"=>1420317, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inga Schalinski", "Martin H. Teicher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127151.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Timing_of_Childhood_Adversities_in_Relation_to_Positive_and_Negative_Symptoms_/1420317", "title"=>"Timing of Childhood Adversities in Relation to Positive and Negative Symptoms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-19 03:34:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2075065"], "description"=>"<p>Maximal importance of exposure to each type of maltreatment in predictive accuracy for severity of shutdown dissociation regardless of timing of abuse.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals show signs", "Random Forest Regression", "Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Dissociation", "type", "schizophrenia spectrum disorder", "mace", "exposure", "shutdown dissociation", "childhood"], "article_id"=>1420316, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inga Schalinski", "Martin H. Teicher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127151.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Type_of_Childhood_Adversities_in_Relation_to_Shutdown_Dissociation_/1420316", "title"=>"Type of Childhood Adversities in Relation to Shutdown Dissociation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-19 03:34:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2075062"], "description"=>"<p>Severity of exposure to different forms of maltreatment across development in subjects with the lowest levels of shutdown dissociation and subjects with the highest levels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals show signs", "Random Forest Regression", "Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Dissociation", "type", "schizophrenia spectrum disorder", "mace", "exposure", "shutdown dissociation", "childhood"], "article_id"=>1420313, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inga Schalinski", "Martin H. Teicher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127151.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Severity_of_Childhood_Adversities_in_Subjects_with_High_versus_Low_Shutdown_Dissociation_/1420313", "title"=>"Severity of Childhood Adversities in Subjects with High versus Low Shutdown Dissociation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-19 03:34:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2075060"], "description"=>"<p>The dose-dependent effects of the number of different types of traumatic experiences in childhood and adulthood, as well as childhood adversities on shutdown dissociation are displayed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals show signs", "Random Forest Regression", "Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Dissociation", "type", "schizophrenia spectrum disorder", "mace", "exposure", "shutdown dissociation", "childhood"], "article_id"=>1420312, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inga Schalinski", "Martin H. Teicher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127151.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dose_dependent_Effects_of_Childhood_and_Adulthood_Traumatic_Experiences_and_Shutdown_Dissociation_/1420312", "title"=>"Dose-dependent Effects of Childhood and Adulthood Traumatic Experiences and Shutdown Dissociation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-19 03:34:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2075068"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup>p < 0.05,</p><p><sup>b</sup>p < 0.01,</p><p><sup>c</sup>p < 0.001,</p><p><sup>d</sup>p < 10<sup>–4</sup>,</p><p><sup>e</sup>p < 10<sup>–6</sup>,</p><p><sup>f</sup>p < 10<sup>–16</sup></p><p>Linear mixed effects models indicating main effects of recollected ages of exposure, low and high dissociation group and their interaction on severity of exposure scores.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals show signs", "Random Forest Regression", "Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Dissociation", "type", "schizophrenia spectrum disorder", "mace", "exposure", "shutdown dissociation", "childhood"], "article_id"=>1420319, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inga Schalinski", "Martin H. Teicher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127151.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_mixed_effects_models_indicating_main_effects_of_recollected_ages_of_exposure_low_and_high_dissociation_group_and_their_interaction_on_severity_of_exposure_scores_/1420319", "title"=>"Linear mixed effects models indicating main effects of recollected ages of exposure, low and high dissociation group and their interaction on severity of exposure scores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-19 03:34:04"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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