Multi-Year Impacts of Ecotourism on Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Visitation at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia
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{"title"=>"Multi-year impacts of ecotourism on whale shark (Rhincodon typus) visitation at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"R. L.", "last_name"=>"Sanzogni", "scopus_author_id"=>"56958586400"}, {"first_name"=>"M. G.", "last_name"=>"Meekan", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701849401"}, {"first_name"=>"J. J.", "last_name"=>"Meeuwig", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603379568"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84946899994", "sgr"=>"84946899994", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0127345", "pmid"=>"26398338", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0147988", "pui"=>"606828647"}, "id"=>"1d49de79-2450-36f1-8dfd-ee8b1c89912a", "abstract"=>"In-water viewing of sharks by tourists has become a popular and lucrative industry. There is some concern that interactions with tourists with ecotourism operations might harm sharks through disruption of behaviours. Here, we analysed five years of whale shark (Rhincodon typus) encounter data by an ecotourism industry at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to assess the impact of ecotourism interactions on shark visitation, within the context of the biological and physical oceanography of the region. Our data base consisted of 2823 encounter records for 951 individual whale sharks collected by ecotourism operators between 2007 and 2011. We found that total encounters per whale shark and encounters per boat trip increased through time. On average, whale sharks re-encountered in subsequent years were encountered earlier, stayed longer and tended to be encountered more often within a season than sharks that were only encountered in a single year. Sequential comparisons between years did not show any patterns consistent with disturbance and the rate of departure of whale sharks from the aggregation was negatively correlated to the number of operator trips. Overall, our analysis of this multi-year data base found no evidence that interactions with tourists affected the likelihood of whale shark re-encounters and that instead, physical and biological environmental factors had a far greater influence on whale shark visitation rates. Our approach provides a template for assessing the effects of ecotourism interactions and environmental factors on the visitation patterns of marine megafauna over multiple years.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/multiyear-impacts-ecotourism-whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-visitation-ningaloo-reef-western-australia", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>15, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>15}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Iceland"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285302"], "description"=>"<p>Correlation matrix between the environmental variables of Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), sea surface temperature (SST), sea level (SL), wind shear, and chlorophyll <i>a</i> concentration from 2007 to 2011 both monthly and annually.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2823 encounter records", "whale sharks", "whale shark visitation rates", "data base", "Rhincodon typus", "Whale shark", "Ningaloo Reef", "ecotourism interactions"], "article_id"=>1553708, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["R. L. Sanzogni", "M. G. Meekan", "J. J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127345.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_matrix_between_the_environmental_variables_of_Southern_Oscillation_Index_SOI_sea_surface_temperature_SST_sea_level_SL_wind_shear_and_chlorophyll_a_concentration_from_2007_to_2011_both_monthly_and_annually_/1553708", "title"=>"Correlation matrix between the environmental variables of Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), sea surface temperature (SST), sea level (SL), wind shear, and chlorophyll <i>a</i> concentration from 2007 to 2011 both monthly and annually.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:05:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285299"], "description"=>"<p>6a) Mean DBS = -1.3SST + 35.4, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.90, p = 0.018; 6b) TE = 10.20CHL<i>a</i> – 0.12, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.77, p = 3.34e<sup>-5</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2823 encounter records", "whale sharks", "whale shark visitation rates", "data base", "Rhincodon typus", "Whale shark", "Ningaloo Reef", "ecotourism interactions"], "article_id"=>1553705, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["R. L. Sanzogni", "M. G. Meekan", "J. J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127345.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_a_mean_DBE_days_between_encounters_and_the_mean_SST_sea_surface_temperature_per_year_standard_errors_and_b_total_encounters_TE_per_whale_shark_per_month_and_the_monthly_concentration_of_chlorophyll_a_/1553705", "title"=>"Relationships between a) mean DBE (days between encounters) and the mean SST (sea surface temperature) per year ± standard errors and b) total encounters (TE) per whale shark per month and the monthly concentration of chlorophyll <i>a</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:05:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285297"], "description"=>"<p>Rate of departure = -0.0022effort + 2.17, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.97, p = 0.002.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2823 encounter records", "whale sharks", "whale shark visitation rates", "data base", "Rhincodon typus", "Whale shark", "Ningaloo Reef", "ecotourism interactions"], "article_id"=>1553703, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["R. L. Sanzogni", "M. G. Meekan", "J. J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127345.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_rate_of_departure_as_a_function_of_total_effort_177_standard_errors_indicating_that_the_rate_of_departure_from_the_aggregation_slows_with_increasing_numbers_of_trips_/1553703", "title"=>"The rate of departure as a function of total effort ± standard errors indicating that the rate of departure from the aggregation slows with increasing numbers of trips.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:05:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285298"], "description"=>"<p>Slope = 0.05SST + 0.55, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.89, p = 0.015 and EPT = -0.02SOI +1.65, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.90, p = 0.014.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2823 encounter records", "whale sharks", "whale shark visitation rates", "data base", "Rhincodon typus", "Whale shark", "Ningaloo Reef", "ecotourism interactions"], "article_id"=>1553704, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["R. L. Sanzogni", "M. G. Meekan", "J. J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127345.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_yearly_rate_of_departure_from_the_aggregation_and_encounters_per_trip_EPT_and_the_seasonal_mean_Southern_Oscillation_Index_days_between_encounters_/1553704", "title"=>"Relationships between yearly rate of departure from the aggregation and encounters per trip (EPT), and the seasonal mean Southern Oscillation Index (days between encounters).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:05:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285296"], "description"=>"<p>TE year<sup>-1</sup> = 1476EPT year<sup>-1</sup>–1999, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.86, p = 0.046.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2823 encounter records", "whale sharks", "whale shark visitation rates", "data base", "Rhincodon typus", "Whale shark", "Ningaloo Reef", "ecotourism interactions"], "article_id"=>1553702, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["R. L. Sanzogni", "M. G. Meekan", "J. J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127345.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_TE_total_encounters_per_year_and_mean_EPT_encounters_per_trip_/1553702", "title"=>"Relationships between TE (total encounters) per year and mean EPT (encounters per trip).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:05:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285301"], "description"=>"<p>All mean values are reported ± standard error (SE).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2823 encounter records", "whale sharks", "whale shark visitation rates", "data base", "Rhincodon typus", "Whale shark", "Ningaloo Reef", "ecotourism interactions"], "article_id"=>1553707, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["R. L. Sanzogni", "M. G. Meekan", "J. J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127345.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptive_statistics_for_the_Ningaloo_whale_shark_aggregation_where_DFE_the_calendar_day_of_first_encounter_per_whale_shark_DBE_days_between_encounters_EPT_encounters_per_boat_trip_and_SST_sea_surface_temperature_/1553707", "title"=>"Descriptive statistics for the Ningaloo whale shark aggregation where DFE = the calendar day of first encounter per whale shark, DBE = days between encounters, EPT = encounters per boat trip and SST = sea surface temperature.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:05:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285300"], "description"=>"<p>WS = 17.65SST – 400.69, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.54, p = 0.0002 and WS/BT = 0.11SST – 2.05, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.57, p = 0.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2823 encounter records", "whale sharks", "whale shark visitation rates", "data base", "Rhincodon typus", "Whale shark", "Ningaloo Reef", "ecotourism interactions"], "article_id"=>1553706, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["R. L. Sanzogni", "M. G. Meekan", "J. J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127345.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_whale_sharks_per_month_WS_whale_sharks_per_boat_trip_per_month_WS_BT_and_the_monthly_SST_176_C_/1553706", "title"=>"Relationships between whale sharks per month (WS), whale sharks per boat trip per month (WS/BT) and the monthly SST (°C).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:05:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285295"], "description"=>"<p>Variation in DFE (day of first encounter) per whale shark per year by year with standard errors calculated from individual whale sharks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2823 encounter records", "whale sharks", "whale shark visitation rates", "data base", "Rhincodon typus", "Whale shark", "Ningaloo Reef", "ecotourism interactions"], "article_id"=>1553701, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["R. L. Sanzogni", "M. G. Meekan", "J. J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127345.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variation_in_DFE_day_of_first_encounter_per_whale_shark_per_year_by_year_with_standard_errors_calculated_from_individual_whale_sharks_/1553701", "title"=>"Variation in DFE (day of first encounter) per whale shark per year by year with standard errors calculated from individual whale sharks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:05:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285294"], "description"=>"<p>Standard errors (SE) calculated from individual sharks. 1a) Mean encounters = 0.77years + 0.77, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.92, p = 0.009; 1b) Mean day of first encounter = -2.4years + 136.3, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.91, p = 0.012; 1c) Mean days between encounters = 75.38years + 418.24, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.95, p = 0.012; 1d) Mean residency time = 5.82years + 0.56, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.94, p = 0.006.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2823 encounter records", "whale sharks", "whale shark visitation rates", "data base", "Rhincodon typus", "Whale shark", "Ningaloo Reef", "ecotourism interactions"], "article_id"=>1553700, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["R. L. Sanzogni", "M. G. Meekan", "J. J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127345.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_encounters_and_the_number_of_years_an_individual_whale_shark_was_observed_for_a_mean_encounters_per_year_per_whale_shark_b_mean_day_of_first_encounter_per_whale_shark_and_c_mean_days_between_encounters_DBE_per_whale_shark_and_d_mean/1553700", "title"=>"Relationships between encounters and the number of years an individual whale shark was observed for a) mean encounters per year per whale shark, b) mean day of first encounter per whale shark and c) mean days between encounters (DBE) per whale shark and d) mean residency time per whale shark.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:05:44"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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