Giant Clams and Rising CO2: Light May Ameliorate Effects of Ocean Acidification on a Solar-Powered Animal
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{"title"=>"Giant clams and rising CO<inf>2</inf>: Light may ameliorate effects of ocean acidification on a solar-powered animal", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sue Ann", "last_name"=>"Watson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55712332600"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0128405", "sgr"=>"84939226998", "pui"=>"605585783", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84939226998", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26083404", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"629ab680-1a70-37c5-9ff3-a93fca62b28e", "abstract"=>"Global climate change and ocean acidification pose a serious threat to marine life. Marine invertebrates are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification, especially highly calcareous taxa such as molluscs, echinoderms and corals. The largest of all bivalve molluscs, giant clams, are already threatened by a variety of local pressures, including overharvesting, and are in decline worldwide. Several giant clam species are listed as 'Vulnerable' on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and now climate change and ocean acidification pose an additional threat to their conservation. Unlike most other molluscs, giant clams are 'solar-powered' animals containing photosynthetic algal symbionts suggesting that light could influence the effects of ocean acidification on these vulnerable animals. In this study, juvenile fluted giant clams Tridacna squamosa were exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) (control ~400, mid ~650 and high ~950 μatm) and light (photosynthetically active radiation 35, 65 and 304 μmol photons m-2 s-1). Elevated CO2 projected for the end of this century (~650 and ~950 μatm) reduced giant clam survival and growth at mid-light levels. However, effects of CO2 on survival were absent at high-light, with 100% survival across all CO2 levels. Effects of CO2 on growth of surviving clams were lessened, but not removed, at high-light levels. Shell growth and total animal mass gain were still reduced at high-CO2. This study demonstrates the potential for light to alleviate effects of ocean acidification on survival and growth in a threatened calcareous marine invertebrate. Managing water quality (e.g. turbidity and sedimentation) in coastal areas to maintain water clarity may help ameliorate some negative effects of ocean acidification on giant clams and potentially other solar-powered calcifiers, such as hard corals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/giant-clams-rising-coinf2inf-light-ameliorate-effects-ocean-acidification-solarpowered-animal", "reader_count"=>40, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119202"], "description"=>"<p>Fluted giant clam <i>Tridacna squamosa</i> juvenile a) with mantle out, and b) and c) showing shell dimensions measured: length (anterior-posterior measurement), height (dorso-ventral measurement), width including ornamentation and width excluding ornamentation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["giant clams", "Several giant clam species", "mollusc", "animal mass gain", "CO 2", "Managing water quality", "ocean acidification", "giant clams Tridacna squamosa", "IUCN Red List", "giant clam survival", "calcareous marine invertebrate", "photosynthetic algal symbionts", "CO 2 Levels"], "article_id"=>1451435, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sue-Ann Watson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Giant_clam_shell_measurements_/1451435", "title"=>"Giant clam shell measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:43:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119203"], "description"=>"<p>Effects of CO<sub><b>2</b></sub> on juvenile fluted giant clam survival shown by Kaplan-Meier survival trajectories at a) low-light (PAR 35 μmol photons m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>), b) mid-light (PAR 65 μmol photons m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>) and c) high-light (PAR 304 μmol photons m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>). At high-light, survival was 100% so survival trajectories are the same for all CO<sub><b>2</b></sub> levels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["giant clams", "Several giant clam species", "mollusc", "animal mass gain", "CO 2", "Managing water quality", "ocean acidification", "giant clams Tridacna squamosa", "IUCN Red List", "giant clam survival", "calcareous marine invertebrate", "photosynthetic algal symbionts", "CO 2 Levels"], "article_id"=>1451436, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sue-Ann Watson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_elevated_CO_2_on_giant_clam_survival_at_each_light_level_/1451436", "title"=>"Influence of elevated CO<sub>2</sub> on giant clam survival at each light level.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:43:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119207"], "description"=>"<p>Effects of CO<sub><b>2</b></sub> and PAR on juvenile fluted giant clam growth in a) total animal mass, b) principle component analysis (PCA) component 1 (i.e. all shell linear dimensions), and individually, c) shell length, d) shell height, e) shell ornamentation width, and f) shell width gains. Numbers of replicates are the same for each graph and are shown above the bars in a). *denotes a significant difference from the control at each light level (for a, c-f). <sup>+</sup>denotes a significant difference from the PAR 35 control-CO<sub><b>2</b></sub> level in PCA component 1 (for b). Error bars represent ±1 s.e.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["giant clams", "Several giant clam species", "mollusc", "animal mass gain", "CO 2", "Managing water quality", "ocean acidification", "giant clams Tridacna squamosa", "IUCN Red List", "giant clam survival", "calcareous marine invertebrate", "photosynthetic algal symbionts", "CO 2 Levels"], "article_id"=>1451438, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sue-Ann Watson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_elevated_CO_2_and_light_on_giant_clam_growth_/1451438", "title"=>"Influence of elevated CO<sub>2</sub> and light on giant clam growth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:43:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119210"], "description"=>"<p>Seawater CO<sub><b>2</b></sub> level (ocean acidification) and light availability influence the likelihood of sub-lethal and lethal effects on juvenile giant clams. This diagram is based on experimental data and is therefore for the range of light levels investigated this study only (PAR 35–304 μmol photons m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["giant clams", "Several giant clam species", "mollusc", "animal mass gain", "CO 2", "Managing water quality", "ocean acidification", "giant clams Tridacna squamosa", "IUCN Red List", "giant clam survival", "calcareous marine invertebrate", "photosynthetic algal symbionts", "CO 2 Levels"], "article_id"=>1451439, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sue-Ann Watson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_diagram_showing_the_relationship_between_CO_2_and_light_availability_/1451439", "title"=>"Conceptual diagram showing the relationship between CO<sub>2</sub> and light availability.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:43:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119211"], "description"=>"<p>For seawater carbonate chemistry data, temperature, salinity, pH<sub>NBS</sub> and total alkalinity (TA) were measured directly. <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub>, Ω<sub>Ca</sub>, Ω<sub>Ar</sub> were estimated from these parameters using CO2SYS. Opportunistic use of aquarium space on CO<sub>2</sub> systems determined tank availability at each light level.</p><p>Seawater carbonate chemistry data (mean ± s.e.) and experimental conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["giant clams", "Several giant clam species", "mollusc", "animal mass gain", "CO 2", "Managing water quality", "ocean acidification", "giant clams Tridacna squamosa", "IUCN Red List", "giant clam survival", "calcareous marine invertebrate", "photosynthetic algal symbionts", "CO 2 Levels"], "article_id"=>1451440, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sue-Ann Watson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Seawater_carbonate_chemistry_data_mean_177_s_e_and_experimental_conditions_/1451440", "title"=>"Seawater carbonate chemistry data (mean ± s.e.) and experimental conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:43:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119214", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119215", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119216", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119217", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119218", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119219", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119220"], "description"=>"<div><p>Global climate change and ocean acidification pose a serious threat to marine life. Marine invertebrates are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification, especially highly calcareous taxa such as molluscs, echinoderms and corals. The largest of all bivalve molluscs, giant clams, are already threatened by a variety of local pressures, including overharvesting, and are in decline worldwide. Several giant clam species are listed as ‘Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and now climate change and ocean acidification pose an additional threat to their conservation. Unlike most other molluscs, giant clams are ‘solar-powered’ animals containing photosynthetic algal symbionts suggesting that light could influence the effects of ocean acidification on these vulnerable animals. In this study, juvenile fluted giant clams <i>Tridacna squamosa</i> were exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) (control ~400, mid ~650 and high ~950 μatm) and light (photosynthetically active radiation 35, 65 and 304 μmol photons m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>). Elevated CO<sub>2</sub> projected for the end of this century (~650 and ~950 μatm) reduced giant clam survival and growth at mid-light levels. However, effects of CO<sub>2</sub> on survival were absent at high-light, with 100% survival across all CO<sub>2</sub> levels. Effects of CO<sub>2</sub> on growth of surviving clams were lessened, but not removed, at high-light levels. Shell growth and total animal mass gain were still reduced at high-CO<sub>2</sub>. This study demonstrates the potential for light to alleviate effects of ocean acidification on survival and growth in a threatened calcareous marine invertebrate. Managing water quality (e.g. turbidity and sedimentation) in coastal areas to maintain water clarity may help ameliorate some negative effects of ocean acidification on giant clams and potentially other solar-powered calcifiers, such as hard corals.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["giant clams", "Several giant clam species", "mollusc", "animal mass gain", "CO 2", "Managing water quality", "ocean acidification", "giant clams Tridacna squamosa", "IUCN Red List", "giant clam survival", "calcareous marine invertebrate", "photosynthetic algal symbionts", "CO 2 Levels"], "article_id"=>1451443, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sue-Ann Watson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128405.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Giant_Clams_and_Rising_CO_2_Light_May_Ameliorate_Effects_of_Ocean_Acidification_on_a_Solar_Powered_Animal/1451443", "title"=>"Giant Clams and Rising CO<sub>2</sub>: Light May Ameliorate Effects of Ocean Acidification on a Solar-Powered Animal", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:43:30"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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