Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents
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{"title"=>"Risk-taking behavior in a computerized driving task: Brain activation correlates of decision-making, outcome, and peer influence in male adolescents", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Victor", "last_name"=>"Vorobyev", "scopus_author_id"=>"8739725600"}, {"first_name"=>"Myoung Soo", "last_name"=>"Kwon", "scopus_author_id"=>"22634789800"}, {"first_name"=>"Dagfinn", "last_name"=>"Moe", "scopus_author_id"=>"56423457300"}, {"first_name"=>"Riitta", "last_name"=>"Parkkola", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603818797"}, {"first_name"=>"Heikki", "last_name"=>"Hämäläinen", "scopus_author_id"=>"35264221600"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"605092435", "sgr"=>"84935508248", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26052943", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84935508248", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0129516", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"a9ba57aa-2a10-37f2-8d9e-49421389ed46", "abstract"=>"Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/risktaking-behavior-computerized-driving-task-brain-activation-correlates-decisionmaking-outcome-pee", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>28, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>28}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Tanzania"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2}, "group_count"=>6}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101105"], "description"=>"<p>Timeline (from left to right) of events in a single round (trial) of the Stoplight game.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["right caudate head", "activation", "Brain Activation Correlates", "peer competition", "peer influence", "adolescent", "medial prefrontal cortex", "reward processing", "pfc"], "article_id"=>1441052, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Victor Vorobyev", "Myoung Soo Kwon", "Dagfinn Moe", "Riitta Parkkola", "Heikki Hämäläinen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Timeline_from_left_to_right_of_events_in_a_single_round_trial_of_the_Stoplight_game_/1441052", "title"=>"Timeline (from left to right) of events in a single round (trial) of the Stoplight game.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-08 04:21:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101108"], "description"=>"<p>The areas are shown overlaid onto a series of sample coronal slices of the MNI152 template specified with y coordinates above the slice images and in the lower right sagittal image. The right hemisphere corresponds to the right half of the coronal images. Statistical and location details of the activation peaks are provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516#pone.0129516.t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>. CC: cingulate cortex; GP(v): ventral globus pallidus; Hth: hypothalamus; MargS: marginal sulcus; MidB: midbrain; NAcc: nucleus accumbens; NC(h): head of caudate nucleus; POS: parietooccipital sulcus; PreC: precuneus; PreMC: premotor cortex; SPL: superior parietal lobule; Th: thalamus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["right caudate head", "activation", "Brain Activation Correlates", "peer competition", "peer influence", "adolescent", "medial prefrontal cortex", "reward processing", "pfc"], "article_id"=>1441055, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Victor Vorobyev", "Myoung Soo Kwon", "Dagfinn Moe", "Riitta Parkkola", "Heikki Hämäläinen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Areas_of_stronger_activation_for_Go_than_Stop_decision_p_lt_0_05_FWE_corrected_/1441055", "title"=>"Areas of stronger activation for Go than Stop decision (p < 0.05, FWE corrected).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-08 04:21:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101114"], "description"=>"<p>Corresponding plots show estimates of average effect size (ordinate, in an arbitrary unit) and SE within 6 mm spherical volumes centered at voxels with the highest values (indicated by crosshairs). The areas are shown overlaid onto three orthogonal slices of the MNI (ICBM152) template at the p < 0.0001 uncorrected threshold for better illustration.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["right caudate head", "activation", "Brain Activation Correlates", "peer competition", "peer influence", "adolescent", "medial prefrontal cortex", "reward processing", "pfc"], "article_id"=>1441061, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Victor Vorobyev", "Myoung Soo Kwon", "Dagfinn Moe", "Riitta Parkkola", "Heikki Hämäläinen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Areas_of_decision_related_activation_in_BA_9_A_and_10_B_of_the_left_MPFC_in_task_performance_based_groups_/1441061", "title"=>"Areas of decision-related activation in BA 9 (A) and 10 (B) of the left MPFC in task performance-based groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-08 04:21:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101119"], "description"=>"<p>The areas are shown overlaid onto sagittal slices of the MNI152 template specified with x coordinates above the slice images and in the lower right coronal image. Statistical and location details of the activation peaks are provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516#pone.0129516.t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>. ACC: anterior cingulate cortex, LH: left hemisphere; MOC: medial occipital cortex; NC: body of caudate nucleus; Put(v): ventral putamen; RH: right hemisphere; STG: superior temporal gyrus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["right caudate head", "activation", "Brain Activation Correlates", "peer competition", "peer influence", "adolescent", "medial prefrontal cortex", "reward processing", "pfc"], "article_id"=>1441064, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Victor Vorobyev", "Myoung Soo Kwon", "Dagfinn Moe", "Riitta Parkkola", "Heikki Hämäläinen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Areas_of_stronger_red_or_weaker_green_activation_for_Pass_than_Crash_outcome_p_lt_0_05_FWE_corrected_/1441064", "title"=>"Areas of stronger (red) or weaker (green) activation for Pass than Crash outcome (p < 0.05, FWE corrected).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-08 04:21:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101120"], "description"=>"<p>Corresponding plots show estimates of average effect size (ordinate, in an arbitrary unit) and SE within 6 mm spherical volumes centered at voxels with the highest values (indicated by crosshairs). The areas are shown overlaid onto three orthogonal slices of the MNI (ICBM152) template at the p < 0.0001 uncorrected threshold for better illustration.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["right caudate head", "activation", "Brain Activation Correlates", "peer competition", "peer influence", "adolescent", "medial prefrontal cortex", "reward processing", "pfc"], "article_id"=>1441065, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Victor Vorobyev", "Myoung Soo Kwon", "Dagfinn Moe", "Riitta Parkkola", "Heikki Hämäläinen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Areas_of_outcome_related_activation_manipulated_by_the_social_factor_peer_competition_in_the_ventral_part_of_the_caudate_head_A_and_cerebellar_vermis_B_obtained_from_the_analysis_of_the_entire_sample_both_high_and_low_risk_takers_together_/1441065", "title"=>"Areas of outcome-related activation manipulated by the social factor (peer competition) in the ventral part of the caudate head (A) and cerebellar vermis (B) obtained from the analysis of the entire sample (both high and low risk-takers together).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-08 04:21:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101121"], "description"=>"<p>Go and Stop response time is also provided under the row for Go responses.</p><p>The mean (SD) number of Go responses, Pass and Crash outcomes, and Go and Stop decisions after either outcome for performance-based groups and social conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["right caudate head", "activation", "Brain Activation Correlates", "peer competition", "peer influence", "adolescent", "medial prefrontal cortex", "reward processing", "pfc"], "article_id"=>1441066, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Victor Vorobyev", "Myoung Soo Kwon", "Dagfinn Moe", "Riitta Parkkola", "Heikki Hämäläinen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_mean_SD_number_of_Go_responses_Pass_and_Crash_outcomes_and_Go_and_Stop_decisions_after_either_outcome_for_performance_based_groups_and_social_conditions_/1441066", "title"=>"The mean (SD) number of Go responses, Pass and Crash outcomes, and Go and Stop decisions after either outcome for performance-based groups and social conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-08 04:21:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101122"], "description"=>"<p>The analysis included the entire pool of subjects. BA: Brodmann area; Inf: inferior; L: left hemisphere; Mid: middle; Post: posterior; R: right hemisphere; Sup: superior.</p><p>Peak activation differences between conditions in the decision phase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["right caudate head", "activation", "Brain Activation Correlates", "peer competition", "peer influence", "adolescent", "medial prefrontal cortex", "reward processing", "pfc"], "article_id"=>1441067, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Victor Vorobyev", "Myoung Soo Kwon", "Dagfinn Moe", "Riitta Parkkola", "Heikki Hämäläinen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Peak_activation_differences_between_conditions_in_the_decision_phase_/1441067", "title"=>"Peak activation differences between conditions in the decision phase.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-08 04:21:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101123"], "description"=>"<p>The analysis included the entire pool of subjects.</p><p>*Non-significant trend.</p><p>Peak activation differences between conditions in the outcome phase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["right caudate head", "activation", "Brain Activation Correlates", "peer competition", "peer influence", "adolescent", "medial prefrontal cortex", "reward processing", "pfc"], "article_id"=>1441068, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Victor Vorobyev", "Myoung Soo Kwon", "Dagfinn Moe", "Riitta Parkkola", "Heikki Hämäläinen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Peak_activation_differences_between_conditions_in_the_outcome_phase_/1441068", "title"=>"Peak activation differences between conditions in the outcome phase.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-08 04:21:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101130", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101131", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101132", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101133", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101134", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101135", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2101136"], "description"=>"<div><p>Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18–19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["right caudate head", "activation", "Brain Activation Correlates", "peer competition", "peer influence", "adolescent", "medial prefrontal cortex", "reward processing", "pfc"], "article_id"=>1441075, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Victor Vorobyev", "Myoung Soo Kwon", "Dagfinn Moe", "Riitta Parkkola", "Heikki Hämäläinen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129516.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Risk_Taking_Behavior_in_a_Computerized_Driving_Task_Brain_Activation_Correlates_of_Decision_Making_Outcome_and_Peer_Influence_in_Male_Adolescents_/1441075", "title"=>"Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-06-08 04:21:04"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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