Shading and Watering as a Tool to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change in Sea Turtle Nests
Publication Date
June 01, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jacob E. Hill, Frank V. Paladino, James R. Spotila & Pilar Santidrián Tomillo
Volume
10
Issue
6
Pages
e0129528
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129528
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0129528
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26030883
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4452221
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26030883
Web of Science
000356630900222
Scopus
84934950159
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/shading-watering-tool-mitigate-impacts-climate-change-sea-turtle-nests
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Shading and watering as a tool to mitigate the impacts of climate change in sea turtle nests", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jacob E.", "last_name"=>"Hill", "scopus_author_id"=>"56707914800"}, {"first_name"=>"Frank V.", "last_name"=>"Paladino", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602776274"}, {"first_name"=>"James R.", "last_name"=>"Spotila", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006458939"}, {"first_name"=>"Pilar Santidrián", "last_name"=>"Tomillo", "scopus_author_id"=>"15063273800"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84934950159", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84934950159", "pmid"=>"26030883", "pui"=>"604922932", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0129528"}, "id"=>"32053776-da05-3720-9798-b4fb1eafcc90", "abstract"=>"Increasing sand temperatures resulting from climate change may negatively impact sea turtle nests by altering sex ratios and decreasing reproductive output. We analyzed the effect of nest shading and watering on sand temperatures as climate mitigation strategies in a beach hatchery at Playa Grande, Costa Rica. We set up plots and placed thermocouples at depths of 45 cm and 75 cm. Half of the plots were shaded and half were exposed to the sun. Within these exposure treatments, we applied three watering treatments over one month, replicating local climatic conditions experienced in this area. We also examined gravimetric water content of sand by collecting sand samples the day before watering began, the day after watering was complete, and one month after completion. Shading had the largest impact on sand temperature, followed by watering and depth. All watering treatments lowered sand temperature, but the effect varied with depth. Temperatures in plots that received water returned to control levels within 10 days after watering stopped. Water content increased at both depths in the two highest water treatments, and 30 days after the end of water application remained higher than plots with low water. While the impacts of watering on sand temperature dissipate rapidly after the end of application, the impacts on water content are much more lasting. Although less effective at lowering sand temperatures than shading, watering may benefit sea turtle clutches by offsetting negative impacts of low levels of rain in particularly dry areas. Prior to implementing such strategies, the natural conditions at the location of interest (e.g. clutch depth, environmental conditions, and beach characteristics) and natural hatchling sex ratios should be taken into consideration. These results provide insight into the effectiveness of nest shading and watering as climate mitigation techniques and illustrate important points of consideration in the crafting of such strategies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/shading-watering-tool-mitigate-impacts-climate-change-sea-turtle-nests", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2090666"], "description"=>"<p>Treatments marked with (-) could not be sampled because sand was too dry and collapsed before the target depth could be reached. Differences in number of samples per treatment also reflect difficulties in sampling from some plots because of dry sand. Water treatments were: high (721 mm), average (323 mm) and low (100 mm), corresponding to La Niña, neutral and El Niño conditions in Northwest Costa Rica.</p><p>Mean gravimetric water content (g g<sup>-1</sup>) in experimental plots at 45 cm depth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sea turtle nests", "sea turtle clutches", "gravimetric water content", "water content", "sand temperatures", "sand temperature", "nest shading", "impact", "hatchling sex ratios", "climate mitigation techniques", "strategy", "climate mitigation strategies", "depth"], "article_id"=>1432679, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob E. Hill", "Frank V. Paladino", "James R. Spotila", "Pilar Santidrián Tomillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129528.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_gravimetric_water_content_g_g_1_in_experimental_plots_at_45_cm_depth_/1432679", "title"=>"Mean gravimetric water content (g g<sup>-1</sup>) in experimental plots at 45 cm depth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-01 03:52:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2090667"], "description"=>"<p>Treatments marked with (-) could not be sampled because sand was too dry and collapsed before the target depth could be reached. Differences in number of samples per treatment also reflect difficulties in sampling from some plots because of dry sand. Water treatments were: high (721 mm), average (323 mm) and low (100 mm), corresponding to La Niña, neutral and El Niño conditions in Northwest Costa Rica.</p><p>Mean gravimetric water content (g g<sup>-1</sup>) in experimental plots at 75 cm depth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sea turtle nests", "sea turtle clutches", "gravimetric water content", "water content", "sand temperatures", "sand temperature", "nest shading", "impact", "hatchling sex ratios", "climate mitigation techniques", "strategy", "climate mitigation strategies", "depth"], "article_id"=>1432680, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob E. Hill", "Frank V. Paladino", "James R. Spotila", "Pilar Santidrián Tomillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129528.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_gravimetric_water_content_g_g_1_in_experimental_plots_at_75_cm_depth_/1432680", "title"=>"Mean gravimetric water content (g g<sup>-1</sup>) in experimental plots at 75 cm depth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-01 03:52:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2090662"], "description"=>"<p>Temperatures are shown over a five day period during watering from (A) exposed and (B) shaded plots that received high water treatments (721 mm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sea turtle nests", "sea turtle clutches", "gravimetric water content", "water content", "sand temperatures", "sand temperature", "nest shading", "impact", "hatchling sex ratios", "climate mitigation techniques", "strategy", "climate mitigation strategies", "depth"], "article_id"=>1432675, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob E. Hill", "Frank V. Paladino", "James R. Spotila", "Pilar Santidrián Tomillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129528.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Air_and_sand_temperatures_176_C_at_45_and_75_cm_depth_from_data_loggers_/1432675", "title"=>"Air and sand temperatures (°C) at 45 and 75 cm depth from data loggers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-01 03:52:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2090664"], "description"=>"<p>Temperatures were recorded during the 31 days of water application and for 30 days after water treatments stopped. Water treatments were: high (721 mm), average (323 mm) and low (100 mm), corresponding to La Niña, neutral and El Niño conditions in Northwest Costa Rica.</p><p>Mean sand temperatures (°C) (±SD) at 75cm depth for each experimental treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sea turtle nests", "sea turtle clutches", "gravimetric water content", "water content", "sand temperatures", "sand temperature", "nest shading", "impact", "hatchling sex ratios", "climate mitigation techniques", "strategy", "climate mitigation strategies", "depth"], "article_id"=>1432677, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob E. Hill", "Frank V. Paladino", "James R. Spotila", "Pilar Santidrián Tomillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129528.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_sand_temperatures_176_C_177_SD_at_75cm_depth_for_each_experimental_treatment_/1432677", "title"=>"Mean sand temperatures (°C) (±SD) at 75cm depth for each experimental treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-01 03:52:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2090663"], "description"=>"<p>Temperatures were recorded during the 31 days of water application and for 30 days after water treatments stopped. Water treatments were: high (721 mm), average (323 mm) and low (100 mm), corresponding to La Niña, neutral and El Niño conditions in Northwest Costa Rica.</p><p>Mean sand temperatures (°C) (±SD) at 45cm depth for each experimental treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sea turtle nests", "sea turtle clutches", "gravimetric water content", "water content", "sand temperatures", "sand temperature", "nest shading", "impact", "hatchling sex ratios", "climate mitigation techniques", "strategy", "climate mitigation strategies", "depth"], "article_id"=>1432676, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob E. Hill", "Frank V. Paladino", "James R. Spotila", "Pilar Santidrián Tomillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129528.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_sand_temperatures_176_C_177_SD_at_45cm_depth_for_each_experimental_treatment_/1432676", "title"=>"Mean sand temperatures (°C) (±SD) at 45cm depth for each experimental treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-01 03:52:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2090645"], "description"=>"<p>(A) 45cm exposed. (B) 75cm exposed. (C) 45cm shaded. (D) 75cm shaded. Water treatments were: high (721 mm), average (323 mm) and low (100 mm), corresponding to La Niña, neutral and El Niño conditions in Northwest Costa Rica. Vertical lines mark the beginning and end of watering treatments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sea turtle nests", "sea turtle clutches", "gravimetric water content", "water content", "sand temperatures", "sand temperature", "nest shading", "impact", "hatchling sex ratios", "climate mitigation techniques", "strategy", "climate mitigation strategies", "depth"], "article_id"=>1432671, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob E. Hill", "Frank V. Paladino", "James R. Spotila", "Pilar Santidrián Tomillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129528.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sand_temperature_176_C_through_time_at_olive_ridley_A_C_and_leatherback_B_D_turtle_nest_depths_/1432671", "title"=>"Sand temperature (°C) through time at olive ridley (A,C) and leatherback (B,D) turtle nest depths.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-01 03:52:14"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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