Protein Corona Prevents TiO2 Phototoxicity
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{"title"=>"Protein corona prevents TiO<inf>2</inf> phototoxicitye", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Maja", "last_name"=>"Garvas", "scopus_author_id"=>"35483712800"}, {"first_name"=>"Anze", "last_name"=>"Testen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56419857300"}, {"first_name"=>"Polona", "last_name"=>"Umek", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603637144"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexandre", "last_name"=>"Gloter", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603889764"}, {"first_name"=>"Tilen", "last_name"=>"Koklic", "scopus_author_id"=>"9940077100"}, {"first_name"=>"Janez", "last_name"=>"Strancar", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602433094"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"605585743", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0129577", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84939236067", "sgr"=>"84939236067"}, "id"=>"a699674d-7921-3696-9d2e-659d645e513d", "abstract"=>"Background & Aim: TiO<inf>2</inf> nanoparticles have generally low toxicity in the in vitro systems although some toxicity is expected to originate in the TiO<inf>2</inf>-associated photo-generated radical production, which can however be modulated by the radical trapping ability of the serum proteins. To explore the role of serum proteins in the phototoxicity of the TiO<inf>2</inf> nanoparticles we measure viability of the exposed cells depending on the nanoparticle and serum protein concentrations. Methods & Results: Fluorescence and spin trapping EPR spectroscopy reveal that the ratio between the nanoparticle and protein concentrations determines the amount of the nanoparticles' surface which is not covered by the serum proteins and is proportional to the amount of photoinduced radicals. Phototoxicity thus becomes substantial only at the protein concentration being too low to completely coat the nanotubes' surface. Conclusion: These results imply that TiO<inf>2</inf> nanoparticles should be applied with ligands such as proteins when phototoxic effects are not desired - for example in cosmetics industry. On the other hand, the nanoparticles should be used in serum free medium or any other ligand free medium, when phototoxic effects are desired - as for efficient photodynamic cancer therapy. © 2015 Garvas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/protein-corona-prevents-tioinf2inf-phototoxicitye", "reader_count"=>2, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Materials Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119204", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119205", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119206", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119208", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119209"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background & Aim</p><p>TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles have generally low toxicity in the <i>in vitro</i> systems although some toxicity is expected to originate in the TiO<sub>2</sub>-associated photo-generated radical production, which can however be modulated by the radical trapping ability of the serum proteins. To explore the role of serum proteins in the phototoxicity of the TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles we measure viability of the exposed cells depending on the nanoparticle and serum protein concentrations.</p><p>Methods & Results</p><p>Fluorescence and spin trapping EPR spectroscopy reveal that the ratio between the nanoparticle and protein concentrations determines the amount of the nanoparticles’ surface which is not covered by the serum proteins and is proportional to the amount of photo-induced radicals. Phototoxicity thus becomes substantial only at the protein concentration being too low to completely coat the nanotubes’ surface.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>These results imply that TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles should be applied with ligands such as proteins when phototoxic effects are not desired - for example in cosmetics industry. On the other hand, the nanoparticles should be used in serum free medium or any other ligand free medium, when phototoxic effects are desired – as for efficient photodynamic cancer therapy.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epr", "phototoxic effects", "AimTiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 Phototoxicity Background", "serum protein concentrations.Methods", "photodynamic cancer therapy", "serum proteins"], "article_id"=>1451437, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maja Garvas", "Anze Testen", "Polona Umek", "Alexandre Gloter", "Tilen Koklic", "Janez Strancar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Protein_Corona_Prevents_TiO_2_Phototoxicity/1451437", "title"=>"Protein Corona Prevents TiO<sub>2</sub> Phototoxicity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:44:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119200"], "description"=>"<p>Intensity of fluorescence emission of Alexa labeled nanotubes excited at 250 nm was measured on spectrofluorimeter. Fluorescently labeled nanotubes (A-TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs) were dispersed in water (300 μg/mL) and sonicated on ultrasonic bath, then 100 μL of dispersion was titrated with FBS in 2 μL steps to final volume 150 μL. The analog experiment with 0.6 μM Alexa has been done for reference to prove that the free Alexa has a distinguishable titration curve from the bound Alexa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epr", "phototoxic effects", "AimTiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 Phototoxicity Background", "serum protein concentrations.Methods", "photodynamic cancer therapy", "serum proteins"], "article_id"=>1451433, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maja Garvas", "Anze Testen", "Polona Umek", "Alexandre Gloter", "Tilen Koklic", "Janez Strancar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fluorescence_quenching_due_to_binding_of_the_bovine_serum_albumin_to_fluorescently_labelled_A_TiO_2_NTs_/1451433", "title"=>"Fluorescence quenching due to binding of the bovine serum albumin to fluorescently labelled A-TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:44:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119198"], "description"=>"<p>Absorbance of MTS was measured as described in Materials and methods section. (A) Each non-irradiated data set (red symbols) is compared to a sample irradiated with UV light (blue symbols) at given concentration of TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs. All Measurements are presented in a boxplot representing the distribution of the measured cell viability and described in Materials and methods. Differences in the cell viability between irradiated and non-irradiated cells are shown with the black arrows at each concentration of TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs. The differences in the median values between the two groups at 0 and 1000 μg/mL and the two groups at 1 and 50 μg/mL of nanotubes are considered to be significant at P = <0.001, and P = <0.05, respectively. (B) Differences of median values of MTS absorbance between irradiated and non-irradiated cells, shown with the black arrows within the frame A, are plotted with the open bars. Solid black line represents the prediction of the difference in cell viability, based on the effect of the UV irradiation and phototoxic effect due to irradiated nanotubes not covered by serum proteins. Both contributions are shown separately in the frame C. (C) Solid dark blue line shows the transmittance of UV light versus the concentration of the nanotubes obtained experimentally (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577#pone.0129577.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Information</a>. Optical properties of TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs dispersion.), while dashed red line represents the concentration of the free nanotubes calculated as described in the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577#pone.0129577.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Information</a>. Model of albumin binding to TiO2-NTs and best fit parameter values. (D) The relative amount of TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs covered by the serum proteins (red line) and the relative amount of serum proteins bound to TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs (yellow line) are shown as predicted by the model described in the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577#pone.0129577.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Information</a>. Model of albumin binding to TiO2-NTs and best fit parameter values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epr", "phototoxic effects", "AimTiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 Phototoxicity Background", "serum protein concentrations.Methods", "photodynamic cancer therapy", "serum proteins"], "article_id"=>1451431, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maja Garvas", "Anze Testen", "Polona Umek", "Alexandre Gloter", "Tilen Koklic", "Janez Strancar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_viability_versus_concentration_of_TiO_2_NTs_in_absence_or_presence_of_UV_radiation_/1451431", "title"=>"Cell viability versus concentration of TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs in absence or presence of UV radiation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:44:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119199"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Rate of sedimentation measured through the absorbance at 400 nm on a UV-VIS spectrometer up to one day. (B) Relative proportion of the remaining TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs in dispersion after centrifugation at 15000 rpm (r = 6.2 cm) for 20 min. (C) Average hydrodynamic diameter of the remaining small aggregates and coated single nanotubes in dispersion of the TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs after centrifugation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epr", "phototoxic effects", "AimTiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 Phototoxicity Background", "serum protein concentrations.Methods", "photodynamic cancer therapy", "serum proteins"], "article_id"=>1451432, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maja Garvas", "Anze Testen", "Polona Umek", "Alexandre Gloter", "Tilen Koklic", "Janez Strancar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stability_of_the_TiO_2_NTs_in_cell_medium_at_different_concentrations_of_FBS_/1451432", "title"=>"Stability of the TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs in cell medium at different concentrations of FBS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:44:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119197"], "description"=>"<p>MCF-7 cells were grown during the first day, exposed to 1000 μg/mL of nanotubes during the second day and incubated in dark or under UV irradiation (1.6 W/m<sup>2</sup>, wavelength 356 nm, every 3 h for 15 min in a period of 24 h) during the third day. Control experiment were performed without the appropriate stressor (nanotubes during the second day or UV irradiation during the third day). On the fourth day: (A) optical density of samples was measured by MTS assay, (B) cells were trypsinized and counted manually using Trypan Blue, (C) the same number of MCF-7 cell were seeded in pools to grow for additional 14 days and colonies were counted. Survival factor (SF) was calculated as percentage of plating efficiency (PE) of the treated cells over PE of the untreated cells. Since normality test (Shapiro-Wilk) failed, we used Mann-Whitney U statistics instead. ** denotes the significant difference in the median values at P = <0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epr", "phototoxic effects", "AimTiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 Phototoxicity Background", "serum protein concentrations.Methods", "photodynamic cancer therapy", "serum proteins"], "article_id"=>1451430, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maja Garvas", "Anze Testen", "Polona Umek", "Alexandre Gloter", "Tilen Koklic", "Janez Strancar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Toxicity_and_phototoxicity_of_TiO_2_NTs_/1451430", "title"=>"Toxicity and phototoxicity of TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:44:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119201"], "description"=>"<p>Spin trap DMPO was used to detect production of the hydroxyl radicals generated by UV irradiated TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs. TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs were mixed with DMPO spin traps and cell medium with 10% FBS or without FBS. The sample was irradiated for 5 min with UV light (wavelength of 356 nm) or left in dark (control), followed by EPR measurements immediately after the addition of the cell medium. In parallel experiments the dispersion of the TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs in the cell medium without or with the serum proteins (FBS) was put in the dark for one hour, than the spin trap DMPO was added and samples were irradiated with the UV light. (A) Representative EPR spectrum of a trapped hydroxyl radical in the presence of the FBS or (B) absence of the FBS. (C) The experimental EPR spectrum was simulated with hyperfine splitting constants: A<sub>N</sub> = 1.49 G and A<sub>H</sub> = 1.49 mT typical for OH radical. Simulation was done with EPRSim Wizard [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577#pone.0129577.ref029\" target=\"_blank\">29</a>]. EPR spectrum intensity peak normalized to the experiment with highest intensity peak, of nanomaterial in the cell medium without the FBS and with the FBS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epr", "phototoxic effects", "AimTiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 Phototoxicity Background", "serum protein concentrations.Methods", "photodynamic cancer therapy", "serum proteins"], "article_id"=>1451434, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maja Garvas", "Anze Testen", "Polona Umek", "Alexandre Gloter", "Tilen Koklic", "Janez Strancar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_hydroxyl_radical_formations_by_UV_irradiation_of_the_TiO_2_NTs_/1451434", "title"=>"Measurements of hydroxyl radical formations by UV irradiation of the TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:44:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119196"], "description"=>"<p>(A) TEM image of the TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs. Inset in Fig 2A shows interlayer spacing of about 0.35 nm that agree well with [100] diffraction peak of anatase TiO<sub>2</sub>. (B) X-ray powder diffraction of TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs, anatase peaks are marked with A. (C) OH• radical production of TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs (closed black circles) as a function of wavelength compared to the radical production by P25 from Degussa (open circles). At 365 nm production of radicals decreases to half of their maximal activity at lower wavelengths.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epr", "phototoxic effects", "AimTiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 Phototoxicity Background", "serum protein concentrations.Methods", "photodynamic cancer therapy", "serum proteins"], "article_id"=>1451429, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maja Garvas", "Anze Testen", "Polona Umek", "Alexandre Gloter", "Tilen Koklic", "Janez Strancar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterization_of_the_TiO_2_NTs_and_their_photo_catalytic_activity_/1451429", "title"=>"Characterization of the TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs and their photo-catalytic activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:44:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2119195"], "description"=>"<p>Firstly, 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (AEAPMS) is attached to free–OH groups of the nanotubes’ surface (fTiO<sub>2</sub>-NT). Secondly, the Alexa 488 SDP ester is covalently linked to the free amino groups of silane molecules (A-TiO<sub>2</sub>-NT).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epr", "phototoxic effects", "AimTiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "TiO 2 Phototoxicity Background", "serum protein concentrations.Methods", "photodynamic cancer therapy", "serum proteins"], "article_id"=>1451428, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maja Garvas", "Anze Testen", "Polona Umek", "Alexandre Gloter", "Tilen Koklic", "Janez Strancar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129577.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Labelling_of_TiO_2_NTs_with_fluorophore_Alexa_via_the_two_steps_reaction_of_the_TiO_2_NTs_surface_modification_/1451428", "title"=>"Labelling of TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs with fluorophore Alexa via the two steps-reaction of the TiO<sub>2</sub>-NTs surface modification.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-17 02:44:36"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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