Social and Environmental Impacts of Forest Management Certification in Indonesia
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{"title"=>"Social and environmental impacts of forest management certification in Indonesia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniela A.", "last_name"=>"Miteva", "scopus_author_id"=>"56521533700"}, {"first_name"=>"Colby J.", "last_name"=>"Loucks", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701641843"}, {"first_name"=>"Subhrendu K.", "last_name"=>"Pattanayak", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006596566"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84938943782", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0129675", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"605565693", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"26132491", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84938943782"}, "id"=>"dac830ef-9bc9-3c92-bd45-41f599ffa0be", "abstract"=>"In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village-level data on environmental and socio-economic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia), we evaluate the performance of the FSC-certified timber concessions compared to non-certified logging concessions. Employing triple difference matching estimators, we find that between 2000 and 2008 FSC reduced aggregate deforestation by 5 percentage points and the incidence of air pollution by 31%. It had no statistically significant impacts on fire incidence or core areas, but increased forest perforation by 4 km2 on average. In addition, we find that FSC reduced firewood dependence (by 33%), respiratory infections (by 32%) and malnutrition (by 1 person) on average. By conducting a rigorous statistical evaluation of FSC certification in a biodiversity hotspot such as Indonesia, we provide a reference point and offer methodological and data lessons that could aid the design of ongoing and future evaluations of a potentially critical conservation policy.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/social-environmental-impacts-forest-management-certification-indonesia", "reader_count"=>54, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>17, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}}, "group_count"=>10}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158447"], "description"=>"<p>The FSC concessions established prior to 2008 appear in pink. The dark blue polygons are all logging (HPH) concessions established by 2008. A village is considered treated if it overlaps with a FSC forest concession; similarly, a control village is one intersected by an HPH concession.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["data lessons", "forest perforation", "Forest Management Certification", "Forest Stewardship Council", "4 km 2", "2008 FSC", "5 percentage points", "forest management certification programs", "future evaluations", "conservation policy", "Forest Certification", "biodiversity hotspot", "FSC certification", "firewood dependence", "fire incidence", "management practices", "reference point", "Environmental impacts", "forest concessions", "performance", "timber production", "1 person", "Core Areas", "air pollution"], "article_id"=>1470642, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daniela A. Miteva", "Colby J. Loucks", "Subhrendu K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_the_logging_concessions_in_Kalimantan_/1470642", "title"=>"Distribution of the logging concessions in Kalimantan.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:43:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158448"], "description"=>"<p>The heights of the columns represent the size of the impact; only statistically significant changes in the environmental (top) and socio-economic (bottom) outcomes are presented (if the error bars do not cross 0 (the x-axis), it suggests the impact was statistically significantly different from 0 (= no impact)). The impact of the program (ATT) is given in red above each bar. Significance levels: ***1%, **5%, *10%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["data lessons", "forest perforation", "Forest Management Certification", "Forest Stewardship Council", "4 km 2", "2008 FSC", "5 percentage points", "forest management certification programs", "future evaluations", "conservation policy", "Forest Certification", "biodiversity hotspot", "FSC certification", "firewood dependence", "fire incidence", "management practices", "reference point", "Environmental impacts", "forest concessions", "performance", "timber production", "1 person", "Core Areas", "air pollution"], "article_id"=>1470643, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daniela A. Miteva", "Colby J. Loucks", "Subhrendu K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Social_and_Ecological_Impacts_of_FSC_in_Kalimantan_/1470643", "title"=>"Social and Ecological Impacts of FSC in Kalimantan.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:43:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158449"], "description"=>"<p>The logging concessions (HPH) are allocated for 35–70 years. As of 2008, in Indonesia the forest management FSC certification spans about 4.1% of the forest area designated for logging.</p><p>List of the FSC certified plots in Kalimantan by 2008.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["data lessons", "forest perforation", "Forest Management Certification", "Forest Stewardship Council", "4 km 2", "2008 FSC", "5 percentage points", "forest management certification programs", "future evaluations", "conservation policy", "Forest Certification", "biodiversity hotspot", "FSC certification", "firewood dependence", "fire incidence", "management practices", "reference point", "Environmental impacts", "forest concessions", "performance", "timber production", "1 person", "Core Areas", "air pollution"], "article_id"=>1470644, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daniela A. Miteva", "Colby J. Loucks", "Subhrendu K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_the_FSC_certified_plots_in_Kalimantan_by_2008_/1470644", "title"=>"List of the FSC certified plots in Kalimantan by 2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:43:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158450"], "description"=>"<p>Definitions of the covariates used in the analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["data lessons", "forest perforation", "Forest Management Certification", "Forest Stewardship Council", "4 km 2", "2008 FSC", "5 percentage points", "forest management certification programs", "future evaluations", "conservation policy", "Forest Certification", "biodiversity hotspot", "FSC certification", "firewood dependence", "fire incidence", "management practices", "reference point", "Environmental impacts", "forest concessions", "performance", "timber production", "1 person", "Core Areas", "air pollution"], "article_id"=>1470645, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daniela A. Miteva", "Colby J. Loucks", "Subhrendu K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Definitions_of_the_covariates_used_in_the_analysis_/1470645", "title"=>"Definitions of the covariates used in the analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:43:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158451"], "description"=>"<p>Definitions of the main outcomes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["data lessons", "forest perforation", "Forest Management Certification", "Forest Stewardship Council", "4 km 2", "2008 FSC", "5 percentage points", "forest management certification programs", "future evaluations", "conservation policy", "Forest Certification", "biodiversity hotspot", "FSC certification", "firewood dependence", "fire incidence", "management practices", "reference point", "Environmental impacts", "forest concessions", "performance", "timber production", "1 person", "Core Areas", "air pollution"], "article_id"=>1470646, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daniela A. Miteva", "Colby J. Loucks", "Subhrendu K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Definitions_of_the_main_outcomes_/1470646", "title"=>"Definitions of the main outcomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:43:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158458", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158459", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158460", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158461", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158462", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158463", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158464", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158465", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158466"], "description"=>"<div><p>In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village-level data on environmental and socio-economic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia), we evaluate the performance of the FSC-certified timber concessions compared to non-certified logging concessions. Employing triple difference matching estimators, we find that between 2000 and 2008 FSC reduced aggregate deforestation by 5 percentage points and the incidence of air pollution by 31%. It had no statistically significant impacts on fire incidence or core areas, but increased forest perforation by 4 km<sup>2</sup> on average. In addition, we find that FSC reduced firewood dependence (by 33%), respiratory infections (by 32%) and malnutrition (by 1 person) on average. By conducting a rigorous statistical evaluation of FSC certification in a biodiversity hotspot such as Indonesia, we provide a reference point and offer methodological and data lessons that could aid the design of ongoing and future evaluations of a potentially critical conservation policy.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["data lessons", "forest perforation", "Forest Management Certification", "Forest Stewardship Council", "4 km 2", "2008 FSC", "5 percentage points", "forest management certification programs", "future evaluations", "conservation policy", "Forest Certification", "biodiversity hotspot", "FSC certification", "firewood dependence", "fire incidence", "management practices", "reference point", "Environmental impacts", "forest concessions", "performance", "timber production", "1 person", "Core Areas", "air pollution"], "article_id"=>1470653, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daniela A. Miteva", "Colby J. Loucks", "Subhrendu K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>25, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Social_and_Environmental_Impacts_of_Forest_Management_Certification_in_Indonesia_/1470653", "title"=>"Social and Environmental Impacts of Forest Management Certification in Indonesia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:43:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158443"], "description"=>"<p>The arrows indicate linkages between the three goals. For example, reduced ambient pollution can reduce the incidence of diseases and hence household expenditures, increasing household welfare. The figure is based on [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675#pone.0129675.ref009\" target=\"_blank\">9</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675#pone.0129675.ref018\" target=\"_blank\">18</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675#pone.0129675.ref020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["data lessons", "forest perforation", "Forest Management Certification", "Forest Stewardship Council", "4 km 2", "2008 FSC", "5 percentage points", "forest management certification programs", "future evaluations", "conservation policy", "Forest Certification", "biodiversity hotspot", "FSC certification", "firewood dependence", "fire incidence", "management practices", "reference point", "Environmental impacts", "forest concessions", "performance", "timber production", "1 person", "Core Areas", "air pollution"], "article_id"=>1470638, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daniela A. Miteva", "Colby J. Loucks", "Subhrendu K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_intended_FSC_impacts_/1470638", "title"=>"Summary of the intended FSC impacts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:43:21"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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